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Computing in Science & Engineering

Issue 3 • Date May-Jun 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • More models of infection: it's epidemic

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 70 - 72
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Computational science and pathological science

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2 - 3
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  • IEEE Computer Society Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 97
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  • Visualization equivalence for multisensory perception: learning from the visual

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 61 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In our information-rich world, computers generate so much data that it comprehending and understanding it in its raw form is difficult. Visual representations are imperative if we are to understand even a small part of it. In addition - or as an alternative to visual mappings - we could map information into nonvisual forms, any form that stimulates any of our senses: from auditory, haptic, olfactory, and gustatory to vestibular. View full abstract»

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  • Data sharing in scientific simulations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 87 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several physics processes modify the state of a scientific simulation over time. In fact, researchers often divide a simulation's development into areas - called packages - according to physics specialization. In this article, we use the word "package" primarily to mean a portion of scientific software whose components communicate internally much more than they do with outside routines, but packages can take the form of third-party libraries for common mathematical or computer science functions. Most parts of a simulation refer to the "infrastructure" portion of the state, so we can think of this portion as a package with lots of customers. How we share data within and between these packages is crucial to developer productivity. In this installment of Scientific Programming, we explore some of the pros and cons of the different ways to share data in C++ code. View full abstract»

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  • Simulated bite marks [digital simulation]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 4 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (713 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Though real Sabertooth cats are long extinct, anatomist Frank Mendel and his team plan to build a scale model of the head and jaws of a 700-pound Smilodon fatalis to reproduce the predator's deadly bite. They want to measure the forces necessary for the teeth to penetrate the skin, muscle, and other tissues of a recently dead herbivore, and use the data in a new computer-aided design (CAD) program they're developing. The CAD program, the Vertebrate Analyzer (VA), could do for muscle and bone what similar programs have done for bridges, buildings, and automobiles - let scientists probe the form and function of a complex object on the computer. Ultimately, it could shed light on human bone and muscle ailments, as well as the lives of long-gone exotic creatures. View full abstract»

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  • Fitting exponentials: an interest in rates

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 66 - 69
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    We study efficient algorithms for solving problems with exponentials. In this paper, we investigate the problem of fitting a sum of exponential functions to data. This problem occurs in many real-world situations, but we'll see that for many data sets, the solution is not well determined. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual watersheds: simulating the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 18 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Managers of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions must allocate increasingly variable surface water supplies and limited groundwater resources. This challenge is leading to a new generation of detailed computational models that can link multiple sources to a wide range of demands. Detailed computational models of complex natural-human systems can help decision makers allocate scarce natural resources such as water. This article describes a virtual watershed model, the Los Alamos Distributed Hydrologic System (LADHS), which contains the essential physics of all elements of a regional hydrosphere and allows feedback between them. Unlike real watersheds, researchers can perform experiments on virtual watersheds, produce them relatively cheaply (once a modeling framework is established), and run them faster than real time. Furthermore, physics-based virtual watersheds do not require extensive tuning and are flexible enough to accommodate novel boundary conditions such as land-use change or increased climate variability. Essentially, virtual watersheds help resource managers evaluate the risks of alternatives once uncertainties have been quantified. View full abstract»

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  • Large-scale fluid-structure interaction simulations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 27 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Combining computational-science disciplines, such as in fluid-structure interaction simulations, introduces a number of problems. The authors offer a convenient and cost-effective approach for coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) codes without rewriting them. With the advancement of numerical techniques and the advent, first, of affordable 3D graphics workstations and scalable compute servers, and, more recently, PCs with sufficiently large memory and 3D graphics cards, public-domain and commercial software for each of the computational core disciplines has matured rapidly and received wide acceptance in the design and analysis process. Most of these packages are now at the threshold mesh generation pre-processor. This has prompted the development of the next logical step: multidisciplinary links of codes, a trend that is clearly documented by the growing number of publications and software releases in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on fluid-structure and fluid-structure-thermal interaction, in which changes of geometry due to fluid pressure, shear, and heat loads considerably affect the flowfield, changing die loads in turn. Problems in this category include: steady-state aerodynamics of wings under cruise conditions; aeroelasticity of vibrating - that is, elastic - structures such as flutter and buzz (aeroplanes and turbines), galloping (cables and bridges), and maneuvering and control (missiles and drones); weak and nonlinear structures, such as wetted membranes (parachutes and tents) and biological tissues (hearts and blood vessels); and strong and nonlinear structures, such as shock-structure interaction (command and control centers, military vehicles) and hypersonic flight vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Frontiers of simulation, part II

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 16 - 17
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Some applications of Grobner bases

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 56 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previously (see ibid., vol.6, no.2, 2004), we discussed the geometry of linear and algebraic systems. We also defined ideals and bases so that we could introduce the concept of Grobner bases for algebraic system solving. In this article, we give more details about Grobner bases and describe their main application (algebraic system solving) along with some surprising derived ones: inclusion of varieties, automatic theorem-proving in geometry, expert systems, and railway interlocking systems. View full abstract»

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  • String, ring, sphere: visualizing wavefunctions on different topologies

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 82 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A quantum system's state is described by a complex wave function, which can be supported on different topologies - for example, one-dimensional open space, a closed one-dimensional ring, or a two-dimensional surface of a sphere. Interactive tools represent the quantum state of a single particle constrained to different topologies, while stressing the underlying superposition principle, which is independent of topology. The insight gained by visualizing the same phenomena in different geometrical contexts contributes to the students' ability to abstract, which is the key to understanding quantum phenomena in more complex systems. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of swimming organisms: coupling internal mechanics with external fluid dynamics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 38 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Problems in biological fluid dynamics typically involve the interaction of an elastic structure with its surrounding fluid. A unified computational approach, based on an immersed boundary framework, couples the internal force-generating mechanisms of organisms and cells with an external, viscous, incompressible fluid. Computational simulation, in conjunction with laboratory experiment, can provide valuable insight into complex biological systems that involve the interaction of an elastic structure with a viscous, incompressible fluid. This biological fluid-dynamics setting presents several more challenges than those traditionally faced in computational fluid dynamics - specifically, dynamic flow situations dominate, and capturing time-dependent geometries with large structural deformations is necessary. In addition, the shape of the elastic structures is not preset: fluid dynamics determines it. This article presents our recent progress on coupling the internal molecular motor mechanisms of beating cilia and flagella with an external fluid, as well as the three-dimensional (3D) undulatory swimming of nematodes and leeches. We expect these computational models to provide a testbed for examining different theories of internal force-generation mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • Two- and three-dimensional asteroid impact simulations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 46 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Performing a series of simulations of asteroid impacts using the SAGE code, the authors attempt to estimate the effect of tsunamis and other important environmental events. The code they developed treats multiple fluids with different equations of state and different constitutive models for material strength. The adaptive mesh can refine based on a number of criteria including gradients in physical conditions or material properties. The code uses MPI for portability among many parallel-processing platforms, but hides much of this interface in a library that gives the programmer maximum flexibility. The authors' ocean impact simulations have as a goal the estimation of impact-generated tsunami events as a function of the size and energy of the projectile, partly to aid further studies of potential threats from modest-sized Earth-crossing asteroids. The authors also present a preliminary report on a simulation of the impact that created the Chicxulub crater in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula, widely believed to be responsible for the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period. They also report on progress in developing better constitutive models for the geological materials involved in this impact and in cratering processes in general. View full abstract»

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  • New cloud animation software on the horizon

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 6 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Swell and Prime - two new programs that render animated, three-dimensional (3D) clouds - are the Purdue University Rendering and Perceptualization Lab's latest innovations. At the lab, directed by David Ebert, researchers are developing software that brings scientific and medical data sets to life as 3D models, computer-generated illustrations, and photorealistic images. Crude as they might appear, simulators are invaluable to weather forecasters. But they haven't replaced storm spotters: meteorologists trained in field observation still make predictions based on how clouds look in the sky. Prime's developers hope that the software will enhance forecasting's speed and accuracy by giving simulation data the look and feel of real-world weather conditions that meteorologists could instantly recognize. View full abstract»

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  • Stella: growing upward, downward, and outward [software review]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 8 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The author reviews Stella's modeling capabilities for both research and instruction. He describes the basic modeling tools using his student's quest as a simple, illustrative case study, exploring how these tools contribute to speed and efficiency in creating models for concept testing. He also examines some of Stella's broader research capabilities in the context of how they support and connect with more specific and scalable modeling systems implemented in high-end systems. Finally, he comments on Stella's range of educational applications. Stella (www.hps-inc.com) is a modeling application that can serve such needs, although it makes a relatively expensive scratch pad. Fortunately, it also provides other capabilities that add to its value as a productivity tool, just as a spreadsheet application lets you both build certain kinds of models and formulate a budget. Stella has several component toolsets, and its user interface is organized in layers. As such, the test of the application's total value is not just in its range of functionality but also in how well its toolsets and layers are integrated. The premise underlying Stella's design is that "systems thinking" is important for solving a wide class of problems and that there is a need for tools that support and cultivate this methodology. View full abstract»

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  • The Penna model for biological aging and speciation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 74 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Results obtained by the application of the Penna model to problems of evolutionary theory are reviewed. The genesis of diploid organisms is studied and compared to other forms of polyploidity. The addition of phenotype-dependent selection and its consequences, considering ecological and/or sexual selection traits, are discussed. This addition made possible the analysis of the mechanism through which sympatric speciation may be driven by changes in the ecology, and the microscopic validation of the handicap principle. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Computing in Science & Engineering

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computing in Science & Engineering - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_2 - 0_4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2004 Editorial calendar

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 73
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

Computing in Science & Engineering presents scientific and computational contributions in a clear and accessible format.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
George K. Thiruvathukal
Loyola University