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Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • From the Editor

    Page(s): 109 - 110
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  • Modeling team member characteristics for the formation of a multifunctional team in concurrent engineering

    Page(s): 111 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In concurrent engineering, project tasks generally involve the establishment of multifunctional design teams in order to simultaneously consider various activities throughout the entire product life cycle. Team members from different functional departments of the company interact in every phase of development tasks to design the products and processes concurrently. To ensure a successful multifunctional team, it is important to understand the characteristics of team members. Three fundamental descriptors of team members are developed in this research. The first is to represent the multifunctional knowledge of team members due to the need of concurrent engineering. Second, to build a successful project team, teamwork capability of team members is needed by taking their experience, communication skills, and flexibility in job assignment into account. Multifunctional knowledge and teamwork capability ratings are captured from each member using analytic hierarchy process. Third, since the team members work closely, their collegiality directly affects team performance, regardless of their knowledge. Thus, the working relationship model is developed to provide such a metric. Personality profiling using Myers-Briggs type indicator serves as the basis of assessing each team member's abilities to work with others. Finally, we complete this paper by providing a step-by-step procedure with an example for selecting the best multifunctional team using the three ratings. This research helps establish an efficient multifunctional team because every team member will be capable of communicating to each other within the team due to their multifunctional knowledge, teamwork skills, as well as an established good working relationship. View full abstract»

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  • The impact of just-in-time implementation and ISO 9000 certification on total quality management

    Page(s): 125 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we examine the impact of just-in-time (JIT) implementation and International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 certification (as specified by the original standards of the early 1990s) on quality management efforts of manufacturing firms. Responding firms in the study were grouped into four categories based on their ISO 9000 and JIT orientation: 1) firms that are ISO 9000 certified but have not implemented JIT (ISO firms ); 2) firms that are ISO 9000 certified and have implemented JIT (ISO-JIT firms); 3) firms that have implemented JIT but are not ISO 9000 certified (JIT firms); and 4) firms that have not implemented JIT and are not ISO 9000 certified ( traditional firms). These groups were compared along 13 plant-level total quality management (TQM) implementation elements and five TQM outcome measures using MANCOVA procedure. Analyses resulted in distinct sets of firms reflecting the impact of the ISO-JIT orientation on its TQM implementation and TQM outcomes. Results support the contingency view that a firm's ability to implement effective TQM practices is enhanced: 1) marginally by ISO 9000 efforts; 2) significantly by JIT implementation; and 3) most by conjoint ISO-JIT efforts (though not much more significantly than JIT implementation alone). These insights have significant practical implications for firms investing in JIT implementation, ISO 9000 certification, and TQM implementation. Interestingly, our study conducted in mid-1990s and its empirical findings lend a strong support for the recent transformation of the original ISO 9000 requirements into the current ISO 9001:2000 framework. View full abstract»

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  • The product life cycle theory and product line management: the case of mobile phones

    Page(s): 142 - 152
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper applies the product life cycle theory to the issue of product line management with two goals in mind: 1) to understand how product line management evolves over the life of an industry and 2) to compare Klepper's model (1986), which emphasizes economies of scale, with the traditional model of the product life cycle, which emphasizes dominant designs. We find that Klepper's model of the product life cycle theory in combination with the concept of product line management provides a better explanation for the evolution of competition in the mobile phone industry than the traditional product life cycle model. We use Uzumeri and Sanderson's classifications of product variety and change (Uzumeri, 1995) to generalize from the industry case. View full abstract»

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  • An exploration of the adoption of E-auctions in supply management

    Page(s): 153 - 161
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    Increasingly, reverse e-auctions are replacing traditional competitive bidding for sourcing decisions. Using the Internet, reverse e-auctions allow suppliers to compete dynamically, in real-time, for a buyer's business. During a reverse e-auction, suppliers submit multiple electronic bids over a fixed time period, often 30 min or less. Typically, the price of the item or service being purchased drops, often dramatically, during the bidding process. E-auctions offer a range of benefits to buying organizations including lower transaction costs, shorter order-cycle times, a large pool of potential suppliers, and competitive purchase prices. Some buyers are concerned that the emphasis on price will overshadow other important performance characteristics. The differences between buying organizations that have adopted reverse e-auctions and those that have not used e-auctions for sourcing decisions are explored in this paper. Data for the study were gathered using a survey of vice presidents and directors of purchasing. Chi-squared analysis shows that there are no differences between reverse e-auction adopters and nonadopters on the level of importance placed on the purchasing objectives of cost management and on supplier collaboration. There is a significant difference considering organization size, where reverse e-auction adopters have higher annual sales than nonadopters. The findings suggest that contrary to expectations, e-auction use and supplier collaboration are not mutually exclusive. Opportunities for future research are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A composite model of product development effectiveness: application to services

    Page(s): 162 - 172
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the extent to which an enlarged, generic version of a "composite" model of concurrent product development previously tested for goods industries also applies to services. The model is comprised of four types of building blocks commonly used in theories of organization design. The operating core of the model includes a troika of practice sets dealing with the organization of cross-functional teams, discipline by structured development processes, and the use of enabling tools/technologies. Concurrent strategy focuses core operations on fast, reiterative cycles of product development. The model postulates that synergy among its constructs have an impact on product development effectiveness. This postulate is tested by multiple regression analysis of 62 large service enterprises in the New York area. All four components of the model had main effects on performance measured as time compression and cost reduction in product development, signature indicators of the effectiveness of concurrent methods of product development. Interaction effects were observed among the constructs of strategy, organization, and process, which suggest synergies. However, tools/technologies lacked significant interactions. With this exception, the results for services parallel those of other studies of goods industries. These findings suggest that concurrent methods of product development are robust, as well as reliable. A generic model of product development is important for managing innovation because goods and services are increasingly commingled in many enterprises and sold as a bundle. Thus, the four building blocks of the model are important for managers to consider deploying in synergistic ways to speed time to market and achieve cost efficiencies. View full abstract»

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  • The underlying event model for approximating probabilistic dependence among binary events

    Page(s): 173 - 182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model for approximating positive probabilistic dependence among binary (success/failure) events in decision, economic evaluation, and risk analysis problems. It is not always feasible to obtain the probabilities needed to completely specify the joint probability structure among the binary events in real-world problems, so simplifying assumptions such as independence that require only the marginal probabilities are frequently employed. The proposed model requires the assessment of only one conditional probability in addition to the marginal probabilities. Extensive numerical studies show that it produces more accurate joint outcome probabilities, expected values, and certainty equivalents than commonly used approximations. Binary events are important in a variety of practical problems, such as exploring geologically related petroleum exploration prospects, conducting related R&D projects, or pursuing related lawsuits. The proposed model addresses a practical need for better modeling of dependence in such problems, and it is operational. View full abstract»

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  • Organizational warning systems: a probabilistic approach to optimal design

    Page(s): 183 - 196
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    The optimization of warning systems includes the choice of signals to be monitored, the sensitivity of the alert level and the response to these signals. In organizations that design or manage complex, risk-critical systems, the problem is not only the observation of a signal, but also its accurate communication to the appropriate decision maker, and the actions that he or she can take upon receiving the signals given the state of deterioration of the physical system at that time. In this paper, we describe an analytical framework focused on organization performance, based on decision analysis and probability, to design and optimize such a warning system from a management perspective. The probability of failure during the time it takes to observe a signal, decide of its importance, and communicate a warning, and the time elapsed between the occurrence of an accident initiator and the events that follow, including the action taken in response, are computed in parallel, using a dynamic probabilistic risk analysis, assuming a Markov (or semi-Markov) evolution process when appropriate. The analysis then allows optimization of the choice of signals to be observed, the design of the communication chain, the filtering of the information, and the response at the appropriate management level. The questions are thus: What is the value (in terms of risk reduction) of a warning system of given structure and procedures? And what is its optimal configuration? The optimization model presented here reflects the nature of the engineering system to be monitored, the communication structure within the organization that designs or manages it, errors that can occur in the communication phase, the best action(s) of the decision maker once he or she receives a warning signal, and the expected value of the costs, including those of system failure. The schematic example of inspection and maintenance of an airplane is used throughout the paper to illustrate, at a very simplified level, the creation and evaluation of this model. View full abstract»

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  • New product go/no-go evaluation at the front end: a fuzzy linguistic approach

    Page(s): 197 - 207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The screening of a new product concept is perhaps the most critical activity in new product development (NPD), yet such screening is often not adequately performed. Limited by both the nature and the timing of NPD, new product screening is associated with uncertainty and complexity. This paper presents and discusses an actual illustration of a new product screening analysis performed in the development of a new machining center. Since subjective considerations such as competitive advantage in the market, product superiority, technological appropriateness, and product risk were relevant to the go/no-go decision, a fuzzy logic approach was adopted. In this approach, measurements are described subjectively by linguistic terms, while success attributes are weighted by their corresponding importance using fuzzy values. The fuzzy logic-based screening model can efficiently aid managers in dealing with both ambiguity and complexity in product screening decisions. View full abstract»

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  • Testing the relationship between team and partner characteristics and cooperative benchmarking outcomes

    Page(s): 208 - 225
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    Successful benchmarking can improve a company's return on investment (ROI) ratio, facilitate cost reductions, identify new business opportunities, and help develop market competitiveness. However, there is limited evidence to understand factors that contribute to successful outcomes during benchmarking. This paper tests a sequential framework that identifies the key constituents of successful benchmarking projects. We focus on cooperative benchmarking projects where the expected outcome is identifying best practices with a partner organization. We characterize the benchmarking project in terms of its context, process, and outcomes. Our framework first relates the context variables such as characteristics of the benchmarking team and the partner organization to such process variables as effective project management and teamwork. We then relate process variables to the task and group related outcome variables measuring the effectiveness of the benchmarking project. The hypotheses derived from the framework are tested through a survey instrument administered to participants in benchmarking projects. The data suggests that satisfaction with the benchmarking process and findings (outcome variables) is strongly related to the following: internal context variables such as training and experience of team members, clarity of project objectives and support from top management, and the process owner; external context variables, such as appropriateness of the benchmarking partners, and anticipation of constraints in data collection during the project; project process effectiveness including commitment of the team members and the synergy between the process owner, the team members, and the partner organization. This paper contributes to research in cooperative benchmarking by identifying the critical success factors associated with such projects. It also contributes to the project management literature by identifying the context and process variables in projects involving multiple stakeholders. Project managers of cooperative benchmarking projects must simultaneously pay attention to the needs of benchmarking team members, top management, the owner of the process being benchmarked, as well as the partner organization. View full abstract»

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  • Strategy, structure, and performance issues of precompetitive R&D consortia: insights and lessons learned from SEMATECH

    Page(s): 226 - 232
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the evolution of the role, structure, and orientation of SEMATECH in supporting the competitiveness of U.S. semiconductor industry between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. SEMATECH overcame its early challenges and succeeded by shifting its emphasis from horizontal (competitive) to vertical (precompetitive) collaboration, and then to a combined horizontal/vertical form (competitive). This evolutionary path in structure and strategy has broad implications for future relations between SEMATECH and the semiconductor industry as a whole, as well as industry R&D consortia in general. These implications are explored by detailing recent strategic developments at SEMATECH and their relationship to the market environment and structure in the global semiconductor manufacturing industry. This analysis is then extended to explore the implications for strategic research partnerships in other industries, which share particular salient characteristics with the semiconductor industry. View full abstract»

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  • A note on "An empirical comparison of forgetting models"

    Page(s): 233 - 234
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    In the above paper, Nembhard and Osothsilp (2001) empirically compared several forgetting models against empirical data on production breaks. Among the models compared was the learn-forget curve model (LFCM) developed by Jaber and Bonney(1996). In previous research, several studies have shown that the LFCM is advantageous to some of the models being investigated, however, Nembhard and Osothsilp (2001) found that the LFCM showed the largest deviation from empirical data. In this commentary, we demonstrate that the poor performance of the LFCM in the study of Nembhard and Osothsilp (2001) might be attributed to an error on their part when fitting the LFCM to their empirical data. View full abstract»

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  • Authors' reply to "A note on 'An empirical comparison of forgetting models'"

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    The modeling of human learning and forgetting has justifiably received increased attention in recent years. The ability to bridge the gap between the findings of experimentalists and empiricists in this area should allow for the research community to develop ever-improving models. In their research note Jaber and Sikstrom (see ibid., vol.51, no.2, p.233-4, 2004) raise an important issue, namely the question of how well the learn-forget curve model (LFCM) can be expected to perform in practical situations. Past studies have shown a range of expectations regarding this model. From a definitive standpoint, while the present discussion may not fully resolve the question, there are significant and interesting differences between these studies, which are described below. The goal of this note is to clarify and quantify these differences in order to set a framework for continued work on the LFCM model and potentially other models in this area. View full abstract»

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  • Forthcoming Engineering Management Conferences

    Page(s): 236
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  • Special interest groups for the IEEE Engineering Management Society

    Page(s): 237
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  • Papers to be published in future issues of IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management

    Page(s): 238
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  • IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management May 2004 readership survey

    Page(s): 239 - 240
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  • 2004 IEEE Membership Application

    Page(s): 241 - 242
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  • Special issue on information systems leadership

    Page(s): 243
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  • Special issue on mass customization manufacturing systems

    Page(s): 244
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  • IEEE Engineering Management Society Information

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management information for authors

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas