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Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking publication information

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  • Internet indirection infrastructure

    Page(s): 205 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Attempts to generalize the Internet's point-to-point communication abstraction to provide services like multicast, anycast, and mobility have faced challenging technical problems and deployment barriers. To ease the deployment of such services, this paper proposes a general, overlay-based Internet Indirection Infrastructure (i3) that offers a rendezvous-based communication abstraction. Instead of explicitly sending a packet to a destination, each packet is associated with an identifier; this identifier is then used by the receiver to obtain delivery of the packet. This level of indirection decouples the act of sending from the act of receiving, and allows i3 to efficiently support a wide variety of fundamental communication services. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we have designed and built a prototype based on the Chord lookup protocol. View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing peer-to-peer traffic across large networks

    Page(s): 219 - 232
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications is growing dramatically, particularly for sharing large video/audio files and software. In this paper, we analyze P2P traffic by measuring flow-level information collected at multiple border routers across a large ISP network, and report our investigation of three popular P2P systems-FastTrack, Gnutella, and Direct-Connect. We characterize the P2P traffic observed at a single ISP and its impact on the underlying network. We observe very skewed distribution in the traffic across the network at different levels of spatial aggregation (IP, prefix, AS). All three P2P systems exhibit significant dynamics at short time scale and particularly at the IP address level. Still, the fraction of P2P traffic contributed by each prefix is more stable than the corresponding distribution of either Web traffic or overall traffic. The high volume and good stability properties of P2P traffic suggests that the P2P workload is a good candidate for being managed via application-specific layer-3 traffic engineering in an ISP's network. View full abstract»

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  • Efficiently serving dynamic data at highly accessed web sites

    Page(s): 233 - 246
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present architectures and algorithms for efficiently serving dynamic data at highly accessed Web sites together with the results of an analysis motivating our design and quantifying its performance benefits. This includes algorithms for keeping cached data consistent so that dynamic pages can be cached at the Web server and dynamic content can be served at the performance level of static content. We show that our system design is able to achieve cache hit ratios close to 100% for cached data which is almost never obsolete by more than a few seconds, if at all. Our architectures and algorithms provide more than an order of magnitude improvement in performance using an order of magnitude fewer servers over that obtained under conventional methods. View full abstract»

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  • SCORE: a scalable communication protocol for large-scale virtual environments

    Page(s): 247 - 260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes and analyzes SCORE, a scalable multicast-based communication protocol for large-scale virtual environments (LSVE) on the Internet. Today, many of these applications have to handle an increasing number of participants and deal with the difficult problem of scalability. We propose an approach at the transport layer, using multiple multicast groups and multiple agents. This approach involves the dynamic partitioning of the virtual environment into spatial areas and the association of these areas with multicast groups. It uses a method based on the theory of planar point processes to determine an appropriate cell size, so that the incoming traffic at the receiver side remains with a given probability below a sufficiently low threshold. We evaluate the performance of our scheme and show that it allows to significantly improve the participants' satisfaction while adding very low overhead. View full abstract»

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  • Protocol scrubbing: network security through transparent flow modification

    Page(s): 261 - 273
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design and implementation of protocol scrubbers. Protocol scrubbers are transparent, interposed mechanisms for explicitly removing network scans and attacks at various protocol layers. The transport scrubber supports downstream passive network-based intrusion detection systems by converting ambiguous network flows into well-behaved flows that are unequivocally interpreted by all downstream endpoints. The fingerprint scrubber restricts an attacker's ability to determine the operating system of a protected host. As an example, this paper presents the implementation of a TCP scrubber that eliminates insertion and evasion attacks-attacks that use ambiguities to subvert detection-on passive network-based intrusion detection systems, while preserving high performance. The TCP scrubber is based on a novel, simplified state machine that performs in a fast and scalable manner. The fingerprint scrubber is built upon the TCP scrubber and removes additional ambiguities from flows that can reveal implementation-specific details about a host's operating system. View full abstract»

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  • Congestion control for fair resource allocation in networks with multicast flows

    Page(s): 274 - 285
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of congestion control in networks which support both multirate multicast sessions and unicast sessions. We present a decentralized algorithm which enables the different rate-adaptive receivers in different multicast sessions to adjust their rates to satisfy some fairness criterion. A one-bit ECN marking strategy to be used at the nodes is also proposed. The congestion-control mechanism does not require any per-flow state information for unicast flows at the nodes. At junctions nodes of each multicast tree, some state information about the rates along the branches at the node may be required. The congestion-control mechanism takes into account the diverse user requirements when different receivers within a multicast session have different utility functions, but does not require the network to have any knowledge about the receiver utility functions. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive virtual queue (AVQ) algorithm for active queue management

    Page(s): 286 - 299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virtual queue-based marking schemes have been recently proposed for Active Queue Management (AQM) in Internet routers. We consider a particular scheme, which we call the Adaptive Virtual Queue (AVQ), and study its following properties: its stability in the presence of feedback delays, its ability to maintain small queue lengths, and its robustness in the presence of extremely short flows (the so-called web mice). Using a linearized model of the system dynamics, we present a simple rule to design the parameters of the AVQ algorithm. We then compare its performance through simulation with several well-known AQM schemes such as RED, REM, Proportional Integral (PI) controller, and a nonadaptive virtual queue algorithm. With a view toward implementation, we show that AVQ can be implemented as a simple token bucket using only a few lines of code. View full abstract»

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  • Closed queueing network models of interacting long-lived TCP flows

    Page(s): 300 - 311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new analytical model for the estimation of the performance of TCP connections. The model is based on the description of the behavior of TCP in terms of a closed queueing network. The model is very accurate, deriving directly from the finite state machine description of the protocol. The assessment of the accuracy of the analytical model is based on comparisons against detailed simulation experiments developed with the ns-2 package. The protocol model interacts with an IP network model that can take into account meshed topologies with several bottlenecks. Numerical results indicate that the proposed closed queueing network model provides accurate performance estimates in all situations. A novel and interesting property of the model is the possibility of deriving ensemble distributions of relevant parameters, such as, for instance, the transmission window size or the timeout probability, which provide useful insight into the protocol behavior and properties. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a static pricing scheme for priority services

    Page(s): 312 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze a static pricing scheme for priority services. Users are free to choose the priority of their traffic but are charged accordingly. Using a game theoretic framework, we study the case where users choose priorities to maximize their net benefit. For the single link case, we show that there always exists an equilibrium for the corresponding game; however, the equilibrium is not necessarily unique. Furthermore, we show that packet loss in equilibrium can be expressed as a function of the prices associated with the different priority classes. We provide a numerical case study to illustrate our results. View full abstract»

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  • Providing absolute differentiated services for real-time applications in static-priority scheduling networks

    Page(s): 326 - 339
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose and analyze a methodology for providing absolute differentiated services for real-time applications. We develop a method that can be used to derive delay bounds without specific information on flow population. With this new method, we are able to successfully employ a utilization-based admission control approach for flow admission. This approach does not require explicit delay computation at admission time and, hence, is scalable to large systems. We assume the underlying network to use static-priority schedulers. We design and analyze several priority assignment algorithms and investigate their ability to achieve higher utilization bounds. Traditionally, schedulers in differentiated services networks assign priorities on a class-by-class basis, with the same priority for each class on each router. In this paper, we show that relaxing this requirement, that is, allowing different routers to assign different priorities to classes, achieves significantly higher utilization bounds. View full abstract»

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  • Resource optimization in QoS multicast routing of real-time multimedia

    Page(s): 340 - 348
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a network design problem, where applications require various levels of Quality-of-Service (QoS) while connections have limited performance. Suppose that a source needs to send a message to a heterogeneous set of receivers. The objective is to design a low-cost multicast tree from the source that would provide the QoS levels (e.g., bandwidth) requested by the receivers. We assume that the QoS level required on a link is the maximum among the QoS levels of the receivers that are connected to the source through the link. In accordance, we define the cost of a link to be a function of the QoS level that it provides. This definition of cost makes this optimization problem more general than the classical Steiner tree problem. We consider several variants of this problem all of which are proved to be NP-Hard. For the variant where QoS levels of a link can vary arbitrarily and the cost function is linear in its QoS level, we give a heuristic that achieves a multicast tree with cost at most a constant times the cost of an optimal multicast tree. The constant depends on the best constant approximation ratio of the classical Steiner tree problem. For the more general variant, where each link has a given QoS level and cost we present a heuristic that generates a multicast tree with cost O(min{logr,k}) times the cost of an optimal tree, where r denotes the number of receivers, and k denotes the number of different levels of QoS required. We generalize this result to hold for the case of many multicast groups. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing both network and user performance for networks supporting best effort traffic

    Page(s): 349 - 360
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With a view on improving user-perceived performance on networks supporting best effort flows, e.g., multimedia/data file transfers, we propose a family of bandwidth allocation criteria that depends on the residual work of on-going transfers. Analysis and simulations show that allocating bandwidth in this fashion can significantly improve the user-perceived delay, bit transmission delay, and throughput over traditional approaches, e.g., by 58% on an 80% loaded linear network. A simple implementation based on TCP Reno, exemplifies how one might approach practically realizing such gains. We discuss several other advantages of incorporating such differentiation at the transport level. In particular we make the case that favoring small transfers combined with user impatience or peak rate constraints, both of which are natural mechanisms for users to express the utility of completing transfers, offers a lightweight approach to achieving good overall network goodput and/or utility for best effort networks. View full abstract»

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  • Fixed point approximation for multirate multihop loss networks with state-dependent routing

    Page(s): 361 - 374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we consider a class of loss networks that have arbitrary topologies and routes of arbitrary length. Multiple traffic classes are present, each with different bandwidth requirement, and each routed according to a state-dependent routing scheme. In particular, we consider the least loaded routing method generalized to routes of arbitrary number of hops. The connection level performance metric of interest is the end-to-end blocking probability. We are interested in developing fast evaluation methods to provide reasonably accurate estimates of the blocking probability, especially under heavy traffic load. Our algorithms are based on the fixed-point method framework, also known as the reduced load approximation. In addition to what commonly examined by previous work, two more factors contribute to the complexity of the computation in the scenario under consideration in this paper. One is the state-dependent nature of the routing mechanism, the other is the possible overlapping between routes due to the general multihop topology of the network. We present two fast approximation algorithms to evaluate the blocking probability with state-dependent routing by simplifying the route overlapping computation. We discuss the computational complexity of our algorithms as well as sources of approximation error. We then compare the numerical results with that of simulation and show that our algorithms provide fairly accurate blocking probability estimates especially under heavy traffic load. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal virtual topologies for one-to-many communication in WDM paths and rings

    Page(s): 375 - 383
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we examine the problem of constructing optimal virtual topologies for one-to-many communication in optical networks employing wavelength-division multiplexing. A virtual topology is a collection of optical lightpaths embedded in a physical topology. A packet sent from the source node travels over one or more lightpaths en route to its destination. Within a lightpath, transmission is entirely optical. At the terminus of a lightpath the data is converted into the electronic domain where it may be retransmitted on another lightpath toward its destination. Since the conversion of the packet from the optical to the electronic domain introduces delays and uses limited physical resources, one important objective is to find virtual topologies which minimize either the maximum or average number of lightpaths used from the source to all destination nodes. Although this problem is NP-complete in general, we show that minimizing the maximum or average number of lightpaths in path and ring topologies can be solved optimally by efficient algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Blocking in all-optical networks

    Page(s): 384 - 397
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an analytical technique of very low complexity, using the inclusion-exclusion principle of combinatorics, for the performance evaluation of all-optical, wavelength-division multiplexed networks with no wavelength conversion. The technique is a generalized reduced-load approximation scheme which is applicable to arbitrary topologies and traffic patterns. One of the main issues in computing blocking probabilities in all-optical networks is the significant link load correlation introduced by the wavelength continuity constraint. One of the models we propose takes this into account and gives good results even under conditions with high link load correlation. Through numerous experiments we show that our models can be used to obtain fast and accurate estimates of blocking probabilities in all-optical networks and scale well with the path length and capacity of the network. We also extend one of our models to take into account alternate routing, in the form of Fixed Alternate Routing and Least Loaded Routing. View full abstract»

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    Page(s): 398
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 399 - 400
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking society information

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Information for authors

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking’s high-level objective is to publish high-quality, original research results derived from theoretical or experimental exploration of the area of communication/computer networking.

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Editor-in-Chief
R. Srikant
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign