By Topic

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date March 2004

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • The accuracy of the global positioning systems

    Page(s): 56 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1099 KB)  

    In certain cases, due to such high precision of geographical position estimation, there problems connected with the accuracy of systems for the projection of the globe convex surface to the two-dimensional surface of a chart emerge. When using DGPS, one should pay closer attention if the chart datum is compliant with GPS. Although DGPS can increase the precision of the SPS several times, the accuracy improvement of the PPS is very limited. Satellite navigation systems used for non-military purposes found their application mainly in maritime and aerial navigation; however, recently they started to invade inland applications. Expensive cars are being equipped with such systems, which transmit signals from remotely controlled transmitters hidden in vehicles in case of theft. Today, one can buy an inexpensive GPS or DGPS receiver capable of displaying position and travelled distance on a map of any selected region, in selected scale and with a variety of useful information such as location of hotels, restaurants, museums, or gas stations. Many developed countries are beginning to implement GPS receivers equipped with an interactive vehicle communication system that connects them with traffic control centres. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fieldbus: more than a communication link

    Page(s): 17 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1162 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A virtual instrument alone is nonsensical. Measuring a voltage or a current with a multi-meter is much simpler, faster, and cheaper than using a virtual measurement environment. A dedicated instrument can perform more accurate and reliable measures than any virtual instrument. On the other hand, if a measurement is a combination of different data, if it has to be mathematically manipulated, or transmitted, or recorded, or displayed...for these situations, virtual instruments prove their worth. The concept can extend to virtual controllers. A hardware controller can easily implement a single PID control loop, but virtual devices are much more flexible in implementing multiple control strategies. Virtual devices give the best results when solving complex measurement and control tasks. Let's define the meaning of the two words that comprise virtual system. A system has specific characteristics: 1) integration of multiple actuators and sensors; 2) flexibility in defining the measurement or control target; 3) integration of different subsystems; 4) capacity of performing multiple tasks; and 5) interface with other systems. To summarize, when we speak of a virtual instrument, what we actually mean is "an instrument based on digital technology" that is a hardware platform, an operating system, and a development environment. In a sense, it may be preferable to speak of "intelligent systems" rather than of virtual systems. In the I&M world, the terms "intelligent" and "virtual" can roughly be considered synonyms. An instrument is intelligent if its human designer is intelligent. Innovation rests with the capacity of transforming physical principles into reliable field devices. The virtual instrument defined in the fieldbus profile is a representation that is necessary for interfacing the instrument with the data acquisition or control system, but it has nothing to do with the instrument itself. Through fieldbus it is possible to create a really distributed virtual measurement system. The instrument interface is virtual (digital and programmable), but the instrument itself is all but virtual. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Details, tactics, and strategy

    Page(s): 14 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB)  

    As you may have observed, various people in any group bring diverse gifts to a project. Some folks tend to be very strategic in their thinking while others get into the smallest of details. Some engineers are focused necessarily on "making it work," while a manager will be watching the cost through perhaps a more tactical or even strategic perspective. A lot of conflict can occur when one considers the fact that upper management is charged to maximize shareholder value and an engineering team is trying to make it work. Of course, issues can become complicated because the engineering team can well argue that it will most certainly maximize shareholder value if the product works. Therefore, in any company or market-driven project the various points of view coupled with corporate goals need to be recognized, appreciated, and managed. Hence, the need for a chart. A lot of the systems and procedures that companies put in place are designed to manage the various levels and issues even if it is not recognized that this is what is being done. This is why companies end up with very bureaucratic systems where it becomes cumbersome and annoying to everyone at all levels. This paper has introduced the idea that people within the same company see things at different levels: detail, tactics, and strategy. Also introduced are some ideas that will circumvent problems and help people to function together in all three levels. In the next columns, some examples are given on how to implement these ideas and pave the way to synergistic relationships. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interface management

    Page(s): 32 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1179 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Technology has grown so complex and specialized that no one person possesses the necessary knowledge and experience to know all that is needed. Those professionals that are tasked with managing the design and life-cycle development of today's complex systems and products can only achieve their goal by managing at the interface of both people and technology. These interface experts are known as systems engineers. Systems engineering is the interdisciplinary practice used to design and build complex systems. One of the most powerful tools of this discipline is the management of interfaces. Managing the design of complex technical systems at the interface requires an understanding of many topics, including interface-related issues, resource margin allocation, and technical performance measurement (TPM) techniques. Each of these topics is discussed in the article. The challenges in managing complex hardware-software systems can best be met by paying attention to what happens at the system and subsystem interface. Using the tools and techniques presented here, both project engineers and program managers can readily gauge the health of their development system or product. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A look back - How IMTC began

    Page(s): 61 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Gauging your opinion

    Page(s): 8 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A fieldbus prototype for educational purposes

    Page(s): 24 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the problems with instrumentation systems is the interconnection between the multiple devices with different communication protocols. Exacerbating this problem are two typical requirements of interconnection: minimize cabling cost and avoid degradation of the signal during transmission. Cabling cost can be reduced through several multidrop communication systems: industrial local area networks or wireless communication. Reduction of signal to noise can restrict system performance and the quality of manufactured products, even if high-accuracy devices are used. Another problem in the field of manufacturing instrumentation networks is that industry uses multiple solutions to interconnect instrumentation with different communication protocols. This article presents the development of a prototype for an instrumentation network with the goal to study and analyze the characteristics of the different communication solutions. The overall system contains a large number of instrumentation devices, which is a great advantage for educational purposes and laboratory experiments. The students can configure, calibrate, and operate a large number of instruments connected to different segments of the DCS. We also connected some current-loop devices to the FF system to evaluate their performance when connected to a fully digital network. Results from the prototype DCS show that networking between different instrumentation devices and protocols can be successful and that a hybrid solution using conventional 4-20 mA current loop and fully digital instrumentation can work to leverage existing analogue systems. Future work will include the development of a fieldbus network analyzer to trace messages in the network and study the quality of FF service parameters, such as packet loss and delay measurement, as a function of network load. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Advertising Index

    Page(s): 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Perpetual motion discovered at last? A reader challenge

    Page(s): 53 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (689 KB)  

    This paper reviews an experiment conducted by Dr. Wistrom and Dr. A.V.M. Khachatourian who were searching for a workable general solution to three-body particle interactions. The theory they put forth is that an asymmetric electrostatic charge distribution among three or more spherical conductive objects will cause a constant torque to be expressed as a direct consequence of the Coulomb force and Gauss' law of electric potential. Three-body interactions are not simply an extension of proven two-body interactions. This includes both molecular and everyday macroscopic objects. Their theory states that, for a fixed voltage, a value for the observed electrostatic torque is proportional to the inverse of the fourth power of the separation distance. The key to this theory is that charge distribution is not necessarily equal over the entire surface of a conducting sphere under all circumstances. The experiments that were conducted all involved three conducting spheres. Dr. Wistrom's initial experiments were quite simple yet showed measurable results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Division news

    Page(s): 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New products

    Page(s): 66 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Solutions to sample problems in real-time systems

    Page(s): 49 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB)  

    In the last column, the author posed several sample problems that might be encountered in real-time systems. In this issue, the author provides solutions and thoughts on them. Problems discussed include: sliding rocks of Racetrack Playa, setting the fuses on explosive projectiles, image classification, engine control, and parking garage system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Why do we care about measurement?

    Page(s): 38 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement (I&M) Society surveyed its membership during the summer of 2003 to clarify IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine's role and purpose. One prominent result was the need for tutorials on I&M. The response to our survey heavily favoured a regular feature in the magazine. Each article focuses on a different concern. Its purpose is to help folks at all levels. Some might be just getting into the discipline and wanting to learn the basics of I&M, general definitions, and common concerns. Moreover, these general areas of knowledge need to be made useful by tying together various I&M elements. Others already working in the field may want introductions to, and possibly more depth in, new and emerging areas. All of the articles are written at a level of a basic undergraduate textbook. To make them as useful as possible, we need your input. That is, we need to know how well the articles meet your needs. These tutorials aim to overcome this myopic view of development and to provide you with a bigger picture - or the systems perspective. Our hope is that understanding the system will thereby help you build more useful instruments. This first tutorial is introductory and provides a basic systems overview. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • TC news - Endings and beginnings

    Page(s): 10 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine - Front cover

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (2007 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE I&M society technical committee listing

    Page(s): 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (169 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Magazine survey - Survey for name change

    Page(s): 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Calendar

    Page(s): 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Call for Papers on Innovative use of Technology in Automatic Test

    Page(s): 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (431 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The latest titles from the leaders in technology publishing [advertisement]

    Page(s): 69
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 21st IEEE Instrumentation and Measeurement Technology Conference

    Page(s): 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (150 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine contains applications-oriented and tutorial articles on topics in the broadly based areas of instrumentation system design and measurement techniques.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Wendy Van Moer

wendy.w.vanmoer@ieee.org
IandMMagazineEIC@ieee.org