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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - 237
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Illumination source identification using a CMOS optical microsystem

    Page(s): 238 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An integrated silicon color sensor system has been designed and fabricated in CMOS without extra masks for color filtering. The application is in low-cost measurement of ambient light conditions, e.g., for display control in portable instruments, or for testing the intensity and spectral distribution of light sources. Signals proportional to the intensity and the spectral distribution of the incident light are available at the output in the form of two bit-streams. It is demonstrated that daylight can be distinguished from other light sources, such as incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency domain analysis of nonlinear systems driven by multiharmonic signals

    Page(s): 243 - 250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the output properties of static power-series nonlinearities driven by periodic multiharmonic signals with emphasis given to their effect on linear frequency response function (FRF) measurements. The analysis is based on the classification of nonlinear distortions into harmonic and interharmonic contributions. The properties of harmonic contributions are examined in detail and explicit formulae are derived, by which the number of harmonic contributions generated at the test frequencies can be calculated for odd-order nonlinearities up to, and including, the ninth order. Although an analytic solution for any odd-order nonlinearity is still under investigation, a heuristic methodology is developed that solves this problem. It is shown that the derived formulae provide a useful tool in the examination of the behavior of FRF measurements in the presence of nonlinear distortions. Based on these formulae, different approaches in classifying nonlinear distortions are then compared with respect to their suitability in assessing the influence of system nonlinearities on linear FRF measurements. View full abstract»

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  • PD recurrence in cavities at different energizing methods

    Page(s): 251 - 258
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    The measurement of partial discharge (PD) activity has become an invaluable tool for monitoring the insulation condition of high-voltage components in service. In particular, it is important for factories and for the utilities to get an indication of the time to breakdown. In this paper, the authors describe a study on the use of a damped ac voltage (DAC) method and a very low frequency (VLF) method to stress insulation and to detect partial discharge activity. The main goal of this study was to find out whether the PD patterns obtained at 50 (60)-Hz voltage correspond to those obtained at either lower frequency voltage (VLF) or higher frequency voltage (DAC). For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental approach for dielectric bounded cavities was used. The effect of the frequency and the shape of the voltage (DAC) on the PD phase-resolved pattern were studied in the laboratory. Tests were performed on dielectric bounded cavities in polyester with the DAC method, the VLF method (0.1 Hz), and the 50 (60)-Hz method. Moreover, the PD phenomenon was theoretically analyzed at different stress frequencies, and a comparison was made between theory and measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber-optic interferometric polarization analyzer: new approach to polarization analysis

    Page(s): 259 - 265
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    This paper presents a new approach to description of the partial polarization in a fiber-optic system. The introduced model is treating depolarization as a distribution of different states of polarization (SOP). The parameters of such SOP distribution function are connected with the spectral character of a light source, which may give a depolarization process different from a linear one in an optical fiber system. Such description of light propagation in an optical fiber can be useful for investigation of the polarization mode dispersion. This paper also presents results of the degree of polarization measurement by application of the introduced approach in the fiber-optic interferometric polarization analyzer. This is the fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer which uses a measurement technique based on the fourth Fresnel-Arago's condition of polarized beam interference. View full abstract»

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  • A fourth-order single-bit switched-capacitor Σ-Δ modulator for distributed sensor applications

    Page(s): 266 - 270
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    In this paper, we present a switched-capacitor sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) modulator for high resolution applications. In particular, this Σ-Δ modulator is well suited for distributed sensor networks. The circuit, implemented in a double-poly, double-metal 0.6 μm CMOS technology, is based on a fourth-order single-loop architecture with a sampling frequency of 256 kHz. The chip consumes 50 mW from a single 5-V supply and achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 104.9 dB over a bandwidth of 400 Hz, corresponding to a resolution of 17.1 bits. View full abstract»

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  • Empirical modeling methods using partial data

    Page(s): 271 - 276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Methods were developed to calculate empirical models for device error behavior from data sets with missing data. These models can be used to develop reduced test point testing procedures for the devices. Normally, models are built from only full data measurement sets, and partial data sets are discarded. For models built from noisy data, the accuracy of the models improves as more data is used. This paper explores methods to use partial data sets. Both real and simulated data results are described. Simulations show that the proposed partial data methods improve the accuracy of the models for some test points. When these methods are applied to real data where the underlying model has changed, the improvement is less than the simulations predict. View full abstract»

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  • Self-localizing sensor network architectures

    Page(s): 277 - 283
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    This paper faces the problem of configuration and communication in a distributed radio sensor network, composed of identical sensors randomly placed in a two- or three-dimensional space. The reference is provided by objects with known positions called masters. Two architectures are shown; the first uses one master, the second three masters. The one master architecture makes it possible to identify and locate all the sensors in space and to calculate for each of them the lowest energy transmission path to reach the master. The three-master architecture locates, by triangulation, each sensor when a transmission of information occurs and cannot optimize energy consumption during sensor communication. On the other hand, it is also able to localize moving sensors or to handle dynamically changing sensor topologies. The results show that the three-master architecture is faster, but it implies an energy waste of about 30 times greater than the one-master architecture for a constellation of 50 sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of a mechanics-based system for estimating the strength of timber

    Page(s): 284 - 292
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    The most accurate way of determining the strength of lumber requires destructive testing. An intelligent mechanics-based lumber-grading system was developed to provide a better estimation of the strength of a board nondestructively. This system processed X-ray-extracted geometric features (of 1080 boards that eventually underwent destructive strength testing) by using finite element methods to generate associated stress fields. The stress fields were then fed to a feature-extracting-processor, which produced 26 strength predicting features. The best strength predicting features were determined from the coefficient of determination (correlation r2) between the features and actual strengths of the boards. The coefficients of determination of each feature (or combination of features), with the actual strength of the board, were calculated and compared. A coefficient of determination of 0.4158 was achieved by using a longitudinal (along the local grain angle) maximum stress concentration (MSC) feature to predict the estimated strength of lumber. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency deviation measurement based on two-arm Δ-Σ modulated bridge

    Page(s): 293 - 299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method of frequency deviation measurement is presented. The use of a two-arm bridge is based on the use of delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulation and arithmetic operations on two synchronous Δ-Σ modulated pulse streams. The simulation results indicate a good linear relationship between frequency deviation and pulse count over the operating range. Stability of the clock and components mismatch of the Δ-Σ modulator are not critical for operation. Performance comparisons with existing solutions are given. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and measurement of fault coverage in a combined ATE and BIST environment

    Page(s): 300 - 307
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes an environment which utilizes built-in self-test (BIST) and automatic test equipment (ATE), and presents closed-form expressions for fault coverage as a function of the number of BIST and ATE test vectors. This requires incorporating the time to switch from BIST to ATE (referred to as switchover time), and utilizing ATE generated vectors to finally achieve the desired level of fault coverage. For this environment, we model fault coverage as a function of the testability of the circuit under test and the numbers of vectors which are supplied by the BIST circuitry and the ATE. A novel approach is proposed; this approach is initially based on fault simulation using a small set of random vectors; an estimate of the so-called detection profile of the circuit under test is established as the basis of the test model. This analytical model effectively relates the testable features of the circuit under test to detection using both BIST and ATE as related testing processes. View full abstract»

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  • Using data compression in automatic test equipment for system-on-chip testing

    Page(s): 308 - 317
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    Compression has been used in automatic test equipment (ATE) to reduce storage and application time for high volume data by exploiting the repetitive nature of test vectors. The application of a binary compression method to an ATE environment for manufacturing is studied using a technique, referred to as reuse. In reuse, compression is achieved by partitioning the vector set and removing repeating segments. This process has O(n2) time complexity for compression (where n is the number of vectors) with a simple hardware decoding circuitry. It is shown that for industrial system-on-chip (SoC) designs, the efficiency of the reuse compression technique is comparable to sophisticated software techniques with the advantage of easy and fast decoding. Two shift register-based decompression schemes are presented; they can be either incorporated into internal scan chains or built in the tester's head. The proposed compression method has been applied to industrial test and data and an average compression rate of 84% has been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A generic resource distribution and test scheduling scheme for embedded core-based SoCs

    Page(s): 318 - 329
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel test scheduling algorithm for embedded core-based system-on-chips based on a graph-theoretic formulation. Given a system integrated with a set of cores and a set of test resources, we select a test for each core from a set of alternative test sets, and schedule it in a way to evenly balance the resource usage and to ultimately reduce the test application time. Improvements to the basic algorithm are sought by grouping the cores and assigning higher priorities to those with smaller number of alternate test sets. The algorithm is also extended for solving the general test scheduling problem where multiple test sets are selected for each core from a set of alternatives to facilitate the testing for various fault models. A simulation study is performed to quantify the performance of the proposed scheduling approach. View full abstract»

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  • Quality estimation of resistance spot welding by using pattern recognition with neural networks

    Page(s): 330 - 334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A quality estimation system of resistance spot welding has been developed using a dynamic resistance pattern. Dynamic resistance is monitored in the primary circuit of the welding machine and is mapped into a bipolarized vector for pattern recognition. The Hopfield neural network classifies the pattern vectors and utilizes them to estimate weld quality. Weld strength measurements have been made to examine the performance of the estimation system. Good agreement is obtained between the classified results and tensile-shear strengths. For a better understanding of the estimation process of the network, an example in which the dynamic resistance is classified into the stored pattern is also illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • A simple recursive algorithm for frequency estimation

    Page(s): 335 - 340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach to the design of a digital algorithm for local system frequency estimation is presented. The algorithm is derived using the maximum likelihood method. One sinusoidal voltage model was assumed. FIR digital filters used in papers, are used to minimize the noise effect and to eliminate the presence of the harmonics effect. The algorithm showed a very high level of robustness as well as high measurement accuracy over a wide range of frequency changes. The algorithm convergence provided fast response and adaptability. This technique provides accurate estimates with error in the range of 0.005 Hz in about 25 ms and requires modest computations. The theoretical basis and practical implementation of the technique are described. To demonstrate the performance of the developed algorithm, computer simulated data records are processed. View full abstract»

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  • A nonlinear dynamic model for performance analysis of large-signal amplifiers in communication systems

    Page(s): 341 - 350
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    A new nonlinear dynamic model of large-signal amplifiers based on a Volterra-like integral series expansion is described. The new Volterra-like series is specially oriented to the modeling of nonlinear communication circuits, since it is expressed in terms of dynamic deviations of the complex modulation envelope of the input signal. The proposed model represents a generalization, to nonlinear systems with memory, of the widely-used amplitude/amplitude (AM/AM) and amplitude/phase (AM/PM) conversion characteristics, which are based on the assumption of a practically memoryless behavior. A measurement procedure for the experimental characterization of the proposed model is also outlined. View full abstract»

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  • Classifier-augmented median filters for image restoration

    Page(s): 351 - 356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developed in this paper is a new approach that augments a fuzzy classifier to determine whether or not the operating pixel, centered in the sliding window, should be involved with the impulse noise filtering process. Owing to the inclusion of the fuzzy K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) scheme, any central operating pixel that is not noise corrupted can be effectively detected and then left unchanged. Thus, the unnecessary pixel replacement can be avoided and the details and signal structure of the image will be best retained. If the center point is found to be noise corrupted, the proposed classifier-augmented median filter facilitates the filtering action only on a subset of pixels, which are not noise contaminated in the window. Due to this impulse pixel exclusion, the biased estimation caused from impulses can be eliminated and, thus, obtains a better estimation of the center pixel. Experimental results showed that this new approach largely outperformed several existing schemes for image noise removal. View full abstract»

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  • A self-reconfigurable hardware architecture for mesh arrays using single/double vertical track switches

    Page(s): 357 - 367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the issue of reconfiguring mesh-connected processor arrays (mesh arrays) in the presence of faulty processors. For massively parallel systems, it has become necessary to develop built-in self-reconfigurable systems that can automatically reconfigure partially faulty systems. Many reconfiguration methods have been proposed to date; however, most of them are not suitable for self-reconfiguration. In this paper, we propose a self-reconfiguration method based on simple column bypass and south directional rerouting schemes. This proposal offers the combined advantages of high probability of successful reconfiguration, low hardware overhead, and simplicity of implementation. A switching mechanism, which can determine the desired switch functions automatically using the states of neighboring processors, makes the implementation of our method easier. Simulated results show that the proposed method achieves a higher system yield than that of previous methods with half the number of redundant switches and interconnections. The prototype system of self-reconfigurable mesh arrays is implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and the hardware overhead is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A unified global and local interconnect test scheme for Xilinx XC4000 FPGAs

    Page(s): 368 - 377
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    This paper presents a unified global and local interconnect testing scheme for field programmable gate arrays. Adjacency graphs are used to model interconnect resources and their test requirements, and an efficient computer algorithm for automatic derivation of test configurations is given. A device configuration generation tool was developed to reduce the test development cost. View full abstract»

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  • A fast multichannel analyzer for radiation detection applications

    Page(s): 378 - 383
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work reports on the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) circuit for use in radiation detection. The MCA is based on a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) plus a digital circuitry programmed on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The ADC digitizes the input signals with high accuracy and low nonlinearity while the CPLD performs the histogramming process of the acquired voltage amplitudes. The MCA basic operations are carried on by a logic state machine implemented in the CPLD, triggered by a 20-MHz clock. This approach has allowed us to reduce the circuit dead time to 200 ns. Other performance parameters are related to the used ADC chips. Results are shown that illustrate competitive results as compared to commercially available MCAs. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance of the eddy-current displacement probe: the transformer model

    Page(s): 384 - 391
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    A new approach to calculation of the impedance of the eddy-current displacement probe is presented. It is based on the transformer model of the probe-to-target coupling. The usual method of calculating the impedance by solving for the electromagnetic field distribution in the probe and the conductive target involves solution of integral equations. Instead, a simpler approach is possible by modeling the probe-to-target coupling as a loaded transformer, involving only linear ac circuit analysis and elliptic integrals (readily available in MATHCAD, MATLAB, etc.). The model transformer has single primary and multiple secondary windings. The primary winding models the probe coil, while the distributed Eddy current's circulation paths are modeled by multiple secondary windings. The target active area (the eddy current's carrying area) is divided into concentric rings. Each ring is modeled as a single-turn secondary loaded with the ring impedance. Simulation shows that division of the target active area into a moderate number of rings (16) is sufficient for very good accuracy of the model. Accuracy was checked by comparison of the simulated transfer curve of the displacement transducer to the measured transfer curve of the actual transducer. The agreement between the model and the measurement is very good. The model can be used to investigate the influence of various coil shapes and target materials on linearity and sensitivity of the eddy-current displacement transducer. View full abstract»

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  • On the calculation of the electrical properties of precision coaxial lines

    Page(s): 392 - 397
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    Practical examples of air lines are slightly inhomogeneous. We give an approach for the calculation of such an air line being exclusively based on a) geometrical parameters and b) material parameters. We show that-within the limits of actual deviations of high-precision air lines-the impact of the diameter variation is by far stronger than an excentrically placed inner conductor or a deformed cross section. We find that, from a practical point of view, the conductivity of the air line conductors is the most sensitive parameter. The resulting electrical behavior of the real air line is slightly reflective, i.e., it may no longer be described by a scalar transmission factor. A simple formula for its equivalent electrical length and some test relations for the validity of this formula are given. View full abstract»

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  • Traceable correction method for complex reflection coefficient using calculable air line impedance standards

    Page(s): 398 - 405
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    A correction method for the measurement of complex reflection coefficients using vector network analyzers is presented. The method is based on the invariance property of the cross ratio of the bilinear transformation and is traceable to calculable air line impedance standards. The application of an accurate diameter measurement system (laser micrometer and air gauge system) allows the treatment of air lines as inhomogeneous transmission lines consisting of a cascade connection of a number of equally spaced line sections. Each line section is assumed to be homogeneous and characterized by the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant, which are traceable to the measured diameter values. The presented procedure is an extension and improvement of prior work using the same principle of correction, whereas the air lines were specified by nominal diameter and length values. The aim of this work is to enhance the accuracy of the correction or to reduce the requirements of the manufacturing tolerances of air lines. The derived theory is accompanied by a brief uncertainty consideration and by measurement results obtained by PC-7 air lines at frequencies up to 18 GHz and by numerical simulation results for a hypothetical air line. View full abstract»

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  • An electromagnetic model for evaluating temporal water content distribution and movement in cyclically soaked mortar

    Page(s): 406 - 415
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Evaluation of water distribution and its temporal movement in cement-based materials is important for assessing cement hydration, curing, and long-term performance. From a practical standpoint, it is also important to obtain this information nondestructively. Near-field microwave nondestructive evaluation methods have proven effective for evaluation of cement-based materials for their various mixture properties, including the detection of salt added to the mixing water and chloride ions entering these materials through exposure to salt water solutions. Electromagnetic modeling of the interaction of microwave signals with moist cement-based materials can provide the necessary insight to evaluate water content distribution and movement in these materials. To this end, the temporal microwave reflection properties of a mortar cube, subjected to cycles of wetting and drying, were measured at 3 and 10 GHz using open-ended rectangular waveguides for several cycles, each lasting about 35 days. A semiempirical electromagnetic model, based on modeling the cube as a layered structure with each layer having a different dielectric constant, was then developed to simulate the measured reflection properties. The simulated and measured results were obtained for both frequencies and, for all cycles, were in good agreement. The most important outcome of the model is the temporal behavior of water content distribution and, hence, its movement in the mortar cube. This paper presents a brief description of the measurement approach and a detailed description of the model. A detailed discussion of the results and its sensitivity to various parameters is also provided. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703