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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 1089
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  • Envelope transient analysis of self-oscillating mixers

    Page(s): 1090 - 1100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the envelope-transient method is applied to the analysis of intermodulation distortion in self-oscillating mixers (SOM). A two-tone Fourier-series expansion of the circuit variables with time-varying harmonic components is used with a new initialization technique of the oscillation to avoid convergence toward unstable forced solutions. The two cases of an autonomous oscillation and a sub-synchronized oscillation are studied and compared. In the sub-synchronized SOM, the ranges of sub-synchronized operation in terms of the sub-synchronization generator power and frequency are determined through harmonic balance. The techniques are applied to a SOM with 5.5-GHz input frequency and 0.5-GHz IF. In the case of an autonomous oscillation, two different values of the quality factor of the load circuit are considered. For sub-synchronized operation, a generator is introduced at approximately one-third the self-oscillation frequency. In order to validate the analysis techniques, the circuit has been experimentally characterized in both autonomous and sub-synchronized operation, obtaining very good agreement with the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic distributed amplifier with active control schemes for optimum gain and group-delay flatness, bandwidth, and stability

    Page(s): 1101 - 1110
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    In this paper, active control schemes are presented to optimize the performance of the distributed amplifier (DA) subject to the process variation. A detailed analysis of the DA with mismatched termination loads has been performed, which reveals that pronounced gain and group-delay ripple arises at the low-frequency end from the reflected waves in the artificial transmission line. To solve this problem, an active variable resistor is proposed as the gate-line termination load. The gain and stability of the cascode DA has also been analyzed, which identifies the most critical component determining the tradeoff between the gain-bandwidth product (GBP) and the stability to be the gate feedback resistor of common-gate field-effect transistor. It is also replaced with the active resistor to maximize GBP, while avoiding oscillations. A nine-section cascode DA with active control features is designed and fabricated using commercial GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistor foundry. The measurement shows that the gain and group-delay ripple can be minimized, and GBP can be maximized without oscillations by the active bias controls. Active control schemes allow the monolithic DAs to be fine tuned after the fabrication and, thus, can be a robust DA design methodology against process variation and inaccurate device models. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-band bandpass filters using equal-length coupled-serial-shunted lines and Z-transform technique

    Page(s): 1111 - 1117
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    A synthesizing method is presented to design and implement digital dual-band filters in the microwave frequency range. A dual-band filter consists of a bandstop filter and a wide-band bandpass filter in a cascade connection, wherein the transfer functions of both the bandpass filter and bandstop filter are expressed in the Z domain. The bandstop filter is implemented by using a coupled-serial-shunted line structure, while the wide-band bandpass filter is constructed by using a serial-shunted line configuration. In particular, the bandwidth of each passband of the dual-band filter is controllable by adjusting the characteristics of both the bandpass filter and bandstop filter. By neglecting the dispersion effect between microstrip lines of different widths over a wide bandwidth, a dual-band filter is realized in the form of microstrip lines and its frequency responses are measured to validate this method. View full abstract»

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  • Multiharmonic source-pull/load-pull active setup based on six-port reflectometers: influence of the second harmonic source impedance on RF performances of power transistors

    Page(s): 1118 - 1124
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    An original measurement system for nonlinear RF power-transistor characterization is presented. This new setup enables the measurement and optimization of output power and/or power-added efficiency (PAE) using active harmonic tuning and six-port reflectometers as vector network analyzers. Two active loops are inserted at both ports of transistors in order to independently control the source and load impedances at the fundamental and at the second harmonic frequency. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only active technique that allows a complete automated multiharmonic load-pull/source-pull measurement system. Experimental results are shown for a commercial GaAs MESFET power transistor at 2 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient integration of GPS and WCDMA radio front-ends

    Page(s): 1125 - 1131
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    An efficient integration of global positioning system (GPS) and universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) radio front-end units is presented. The combined front-end unit includes the transmitter and receiver filters, duplex filter, power amplifier, buck regulator, and power detector for the UMTS wireless code-division multiple-access system. The GPS building blocks of the radio front-end unit consist of the low-noise amplifier and RF filter. The inter-system isolation was experimentally quantified and the compared against the minimum inter-system isolation requirements, defined according to desensitization and intermodulation tests in the GPS receiver. The characterized isolation of the antenna array provided 6 dB of margin over the minimum inter-system isolation requirements for 3-dB degradation of the carrier-to-noise ratio in GPS receivers. The UMTS portion of the radio front-end unit was verified against the Third-Generation Partnership Project standard. View full abstract»

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  • Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method

    Page(s): 1132 - 1141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for the optimization of the power-added efficiency (PAE), as well as the error-vector measurement (EVM) of a 20-GHz power amplifier (PA) applied in this case to the M quadrature and amplitude modulations. A first key point lies in that both input and output biasing voltages of the solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) are dynamically controlled according to the RF power level associated with the symbol to be transmitted. The leading idea is that the dynamic biasing control is designed and implemented to keep fixed amplitude (AM/AM) and phase (AM/PM) conversion values, while the RF input power level changes. The power gain of the PAs can then be dynamically tuned to a fixed power gain corresponding to the compression gain behavior for which the PAE is optimum at low-, medium-, and high-input RF power levels. As a main consequence, PAE performances can be drastically improved as compared to classical backoff solutions and optimized while keeping a very good EVM. A Ka-band hybrid amplifier has been realized using an 8×75 μm power pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistor. The proposed linearization technique is validated by comparisons between measured PAE and EVM on the SSPA when a fixed and controlled bias are used. View full abstract»

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  • Arbitrary dual-band components using composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    Page(s): 1142 - 1149
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    Arbitrary dual-band microstrip components using composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines (TLs) are presented. Theory, synthesis procedure, and implementation of the dual-band quarter-wave (λ/4) CRLH TL are presented. Arbitrary dual-band operation is achieved by the frequency offset and the phase slope of the CRLH TL. The frequency ratio of the two operating frequencies can be a noninteger. The dual-band λ/4 open/short-circuit stub, dual-band branch-line coupler (BLC), and dual-band rat-race coupler (RRC) are also demonstrated. The performances of these dual-band components are demonstrated by both simulated and measured results. Insertion loss is larger than 23 dB for the shunt λ/4 CRLH TL open-circuit stub and less than 0.25 dB for the shunt λ/4 CRLH TL short-circuit stub at each passband. The dual-band BLC exhibits S21 and S31 larger than -4.034 dB, return losses larger than 17 dB, isolations larger than 13 dB, phase differences 90°±1.5°, and gain imbalance less than 0.5 dB at each passband. The dual-band RRC exhibits S21 and S31 larger than -4.126 dB, return losses larger than 12 dB, isolations larger than 30 dB, phase difference 180°±4°, and gain imbalance less than 0.2 dB at each passband. View full abstract»

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  • Coplanar quarter-wavelength quasi-elliptic filters without bond-wire bridges

    Page(s): 1150 - 1156
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    This paper presents the design and experimental results of two coplanar quarter-wavelength microwave filters operating at a frequency of approximately 3 GHz. Coplanar designs are of particular interest because they are less sensitive to the thickness of the dielectric substrate than other transmission-line types such as a microstrip. One of the designs has a quasi-elliptic frequency response. In addition, the design also eliminates problems with unbalancing of the ground planes normally present in coplanar structures. Bond wires between the ground planes are not required. This paper describes in detail the structure of the resonators and how they are coupled together to form a filter. View full abstract»

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  • Lumped-element impedance-transforming uniplanar transitions and their antenna applications

    Page(s): 1157 - 1165
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    Novel impedance-transforming coplanar waveguide (CPW)-to-coplanar stripline transitions and CPW-to-slotline transitions are proposed, using planar lumped elements to realize the L-section impedance-matching network in the transition structures. Simple equivalent-circuit models based on closed-form expressions are also established, from which various lumped-element impedance-transforming transitions are investigated. Examples for using the proposed transitions in the design of antenna feeding structures are also demonstrated, and successful size reduction has been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced PML performance using higher order approximation

    Page(s): 1166 - 1174
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    In this paper, the perfectly matched layer (PML) based on transformation of space into the complex domain is assessed in the method-of-lines framework. The method used in the assessment is based on field symmetry and has the advantage of eliminating numerical error due to discretization of space. The remaining error, which is due only to reflection from the PML, is used to quantify the PML performance. This assessment method is used to demonstrate that higher order approximation to the transverse second derivative operator results in substantial reduction in the unwanted numerical reflection from the PML, leading to enhanced PML efficiency. By using higher order approximation in tandem with a suitably graded PML loss profile, it is possible to obtain a very efficient PML implementation, making it possible to effectively absorb a beam with a large angular spread using only a few number of sample points in the PML. View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-wave tune-all bandpass filters

    Page(s): 1175 - 1181
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    Distributed microelectromechanical varactors on a coplanar waveguide have been used to design a two- and four-pole bandpass tune-all filters. The two-pole initial bandwidth is 6.4% at 44.05 GHz with a mid-band insertion loss of 3.2 dB and with matching better than 15 dB. The four-pole initial bandwidth is 6.1% at 43.25 GHz with a mid-band insertion loss of 6.5 dB and with matching better than 10 dB. The use of microelectromechanical system bridges allows a continuous tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth. The varactors biasing network has been designed so that the center frequency and bandwidth can be tuned separately. The two-pole filter center frequency can be changed from 44.05 to 41.55 GHz (5.6% tuning range), while the bandwidth can be independently changed from 2.8 to 2.05 GHz. The four-pole filter center frequency can be changed from 43.25 to 40.95 GHz (5.3% tuning range) and the bandwidth can be changed from 2.65 to 1.9 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Split-step TLM (SS TLM)-a new scheme for accelerating electromagnetic-field simulation

    Page(s): 1182 - 1190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new unconditionally stable three-dimensional (3-D) transmisson-line (TLM) algorithm is presented. It is stable regardless of the selected time-step. This new algorithm is based on a split-step theory, whose numerical implementation is given in detail. In addition, the theoretical proof of its unconditional stability is provided. This feature provides some potential advantage for time-domain electromagnetic-field computation as the number of iterations can be arbitrarily reduced for a given space sampling. Unfortunately, it is shown that the numerical dispersion of the new scheme increases when the time-step is different from the maximum value of the standard TLM. However, it is shown that some substantial computer cost reduction can be achieved when irregular meshing is used, as compared to classical 3-D TLM schemes. Thus, a new meshing strategy to improve the scheme accuracy is presented and validated through several examples. View full abstract»

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  • A mode transformer using fin-line array for spatial power-combiner applications

    Page(s): 1191 - 1198
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    A new TE10-to-TE20-mode transformer has been developed on the basis of a fin-line array for waveguide spatial power-combiner applications. The fin-line array is designed such that the input TE10 mode is split in space into multiple segments, then subject to different signal paths, which effectively converts the TE10 mode into a TE20 mode, while eliminating the TE10 mode at the output. Our Ku-band (14-15 GHz) design indicates that the proposed mode converter makes it possible to obtain the TE20 mode with greater than 22-dB suppression of the TE10 mode over the band of interest. This converter was used in the design of a waveguide spatial power amplifier involving four monolithic microwave integrated circuit power chips and an output power of 31 dBm has been obtained with a combining efficiency of 80%. A measurement technique has been also developed to measure the electric-field profile inside the rectangular waveguide. A good agreement between measured and simulated results has been observed, showing an effective suppression of the TE10 mode, as well as a good TE20-mode formation judging from its amplitude and phase. View full abstract»

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  • A fast converging series expansion for the 2-D periodic Green's function based on perfectly matched layers

    Page(s): 1199 - 1206
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    A new formalism based on perfectly matched layers (PMLs) is proposed to derive a fast converging series expansion for the two-dimensional periodic Green's function of layered media. The series combines a modal expansion for the waveguide formed by the layered medium terminated by PMLs with a truncated periodic Green's function series in the spatial domain. The efficiency of the new approach is illustrated by studying the scattering by a grid of metallic wires, both in free space and embedded in a dielectric slab. It is shown that the new technique results in a significant speed up compared to existing approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity analysis with the FDTD method on structured grids

    Page(s): 1207 - 1216
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    We propose an adjoint-variable approach to design-sensitivity analysis with time-domain methods based on structured grids. Unlike conventional adjoint-based methods, it does not require analytical derivatives of the system matrices. It is simple to implement with existing computational algorithms such as the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The resulting FDTD algorithm produces the response and its gradient in the design parameter space with two simulations regardless of the number of design parameters. The proposed method is validated by the adjoint-based FDTD analysis of waveguide structures with metallic boundaries. View full abstract»

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  • Detection, location, and imaging of multiple scatterers by means of the iterative multiscaling method

    Page(s): 1217 - 1228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new version of the iterative multiscaling method (IMM) is proposed for reconstructing multiple scatterers in two-dimensional microwave imaging problems. This paper describes the new procedure evaluating the effectiveness of the IMM previously assessed for single object detection. Starting from inverse scattering integral equations, the problem is recast in a minimization one by defining iteratively (at each level of the scaling procedure) a suitable cost function, firstly allowing a detection of the unknown objects, successively a location of the scatterers, and finally, a quantitative reconstruction of the scenario under test. Thanks to its properties, the approach allows an effective use of the information achievable from inverse scattering data. Moreover, the adopted kind of expansion is able to deal with all possible multiresolution combinations in an easy and computationally inexpensive way. Selected numerical examples concerning dielectric, as well as dissipative objects in noisy environments or starting from experimentally acquired data are reported in order to confirm the usefulness of the introduced tool and of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Self-heating and trapping effects on the RF performance of GaN MESFETs

    Page(s): 1229 - 1236
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    RF power performances of GaN MESFETs incorporating self-heating and trapping effects are reported. A physics-based large-signal model is used, which includes temperature dependences of transport and trapping parameters. Current collapse and dc-to-RF dispersion of output resistance and transconductance due to traps have been accounted for in the formulation. Calculated dc and pulsed I-V characteristics are in excellent agreement with the measured data. At 2 GHz, calculated maximum output power of a 0.3 μm×100 μm GaN MESFET is 22.8 dBm at the power gain of 6.1 dB and power-added efficiency of 28.5% are in excellent agreement with the corresponding measured values of 23 dBm, 5.8 dB, and 27.5%, respectively. Better thermal stability is observed for longer gate-length devices due to lower dissipation power density. At 2 GHz, gain compressions due to self-heating are 2.2, 1.9, and 0.75 dB for 0.30 μm×100 μm, 0.50 μm×100 μm, and 0.75 μm×100 μm GaN MESFETs, respectively. Significant increase in gain compression due to thermal effects is reported at elevated frequencies. At 2-GHz and 10-dBm output power, calculated third-order intermodulations (IM3s) of 0.30 μm×100 μm, 0.50 μm×100 μm, and 0.75 μm×100 μm GaN MESFETs are -61, -54, and - 45 dBc, respectively. For the same devices, the IM3 increases by 9, 6, and 3 dBc due to self-heating effects, respectively. Due to self-heating effects, the output referred third-order intercept point decreases by 4 dBm in a 0.30 μm×100 μm device. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and experiment of dual-mode microstrip triangular patch resonators and filters

    Page(s): 1237 - 1243
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    In this paper, we report on the results of an investigation into dual-mode operation of microstrip triangular patch resonators and their applications for designing dual-mode bandpass filters. It has been found theoretically that the dual modes can result from the rotation and superposition of a fundamental mode. The characteristics of the dual modes and their mode splitting are described. The applications of this new type of dual-mode microstrip patch resonator in the design of microwave planar filter are presented. A circuit model for operation of this type of filter is proposed. Two- and four-pole filters of this type are demonstrated for the first time. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Wafer-level packaging technology for high-Q on-chip inductors and transmission lines

    Page(s): 1244 - 1251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the current trend toward portable applications, high-Q integrated inductors have gained considerable importance. Hence, much effort has been spent to increase the performance of on-chip Si inductors. In this paper, wafer-level packaging (WLP) techniques have been used to integrate state-of-the-art high-Q on-chip inductors on top of a five-levels-of-metal Cu damascene back-end of line (BEOL) silicon process using 20-Ω·cm Si wafers. The inductors are realized above passivation using thick post-processed low-K dielectric benzocyclobutene (BCB) and Cu layers. For a BCB-Cu thickness of 16 μm/10 μm, a peak single-ended Q factor of 38 at 4.7 GHz has been measured for a 1-nH inductor with a resonance frequency of 28 GHz. Removing substrate contacts slightly increases the performance, though a more significant improvement has been obtained by combining post-processed passives with patterned ground shields: for a 2.3-nH above integrated-circuit (above-IC) inductor, a 115% increase in QBWmax (37.5 versus 17.5) and a 192% increase in resonance frequency (Fres: 12 GHz versus 5 GHz) have been obtained as compared to the equivalent BEOL realization with a patterned ground shield. Next to inductors, high-quality on-chip transmission lines may be realized in the WLP layers. Losses below -0.2 dB/mm at 25 GHz have been measured for 50-Ω post-processed coplanar-waveguide lines, above-IC thin-film microstrip lines have measured losses below -0.12 dB/mm at 25 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Planar distributed structures with negative refractive index

    Page(s): 1252 - 1263
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    Planar distributed periodic structures of microstrip-line and stripline types, which support left-handed (LH) waves are presented and their negative refractive index (NRI) properties are shown theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. The supported LH wave is fully characterized based on the composite right/left-handed transmission-line theory and the dispersion characteristics, refractive indexes, and Bloch impedance are derived theoretically. In addition, formulas to extract equivalent-circuit parameters from full-wave simulation are given. Open (microstrip) and closed (stripline) structures with a 5×5 mm2 unit cell operating at approximately 4 GHz are designed and characterized by full-wave finite-element-method simulations. A 20 × 6 unit-cell NRI lens structure interfaced with two parallel-plate waveguides is designed. The focusing/refocusing effect of the lens is observed by both circuit theory and full-wave simulations. Focusing in the NRI lens is also observed experimentally in excellent agreement with circuit theory and numerical predictions. This result represents the first experimental demonstration of NRI property using a purely distributed planar structure. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave noise modeling for InP-InGaAs HBTs

    Page(s): 1264 - 1272
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    Analytical expressions for the noise parameters of microwave InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) are presented in this paper. These expressions are derived from an accurate small-signal and noise equivalent-circuit model, which takes into account the influences of the base-collector capacitance and the base resistance distributed nature. Pad capacitances and series inductances are also included. Further simplified expressions for noise parameters in the low-frequency range are given. Good agreement is obtained between measured and calculated results up to 20 GHz for InP-InGaAs DHBTs with a 5×5 μm2 emitter area over a wide range of bias points. View full abstract»

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  • 9.3-10.4-GHz-band cross-coupled complementary oscillator with low phase-noise performance

    Page(s): 1273 - 1278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fully integrated 10-GHz-band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) has been designed and fabricated using commercial 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The complementary cross-coupled differential topology is adopted in the design. The measured phase-noise is around -89 dBc/Hz at the offset frequency of 100 kHz from the center frequency of 9.83 GHz, the output frequency tuning range of the fabricated VCO is 1.1 GHz ranging from 9.3 to 10.4 GHz, and the power consumption of the core VCO circuit is 5.8 mW. The design is the first one that adopts the complementary cross-coupled circuit structure for 10-GHz-band oscillators, and whose performances of the VCO are the best ones for 10-GHz-band oscillators, compared with the 10-GHz-band CMOS oscillators reported earlier. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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