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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Transmit-preprocessing techniques with simplified receivers for the downlink of MISO TDD-CDMA systems

    Page(s): 285 - 295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time-division-duplex code-division multiple-access (TDD-CDMA) systems have recently gained attention with their inclusion in third-generation mobile systems. In this paper, we introduce two optimized transmit preprocessing techniques to reduce multiple access interference in the downlink of TDD-CDMA systems with multiple transmit antennas that are employed at the base station (BS). In these systems, signal preprocessing is performed at the BS, so that a simplified receiver structure that consists of a one-finger correlator can be utilized at the mobile station. Analytic solutions for both of the optimized transmit preprocessing techniques are derived by minimizing the transmit mean square error. Numerical results are also provided, which demonstrate significant performance improvement when compared to the conventional RAKE system and the pre-RAKE maximum ratio combining transmit diversity system. In particular, transmit antennas can be used to increase the system capacity. View full abstract»

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  • SVD pre/post-RAKE with adaptive trellis-coded modulation for TDD DSSS applications

    Page(s): 296 - 306
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    Since reciprocal channels can be found in time-division duplex (TDD) systems, TDD direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems are capable of implementing a pre-RAKE structure as a predistortion technique. In this paper, we propose a singular value decomposition (SVD) pre/post-RAKE in which the RAKE combiner is utilized at both the transmitter and the receiver. If the combining weights of the pre- and post-RAKE are determined by the singular value decomposition, then parallel subchannels can be established in the eigenspace. We obtain the optimal information capacity by applying the water-filling solution to the SVD pre/post-RAKE and investigate the capacity behavior at an asymptotic high SNR. The SVD pre/post-RAKE provides remarkable capacity improvement without increasing the average transmit power or frequency bandwidth, since multiple data streams can be reliably transmitted through the parallel subchannels. For practical implementation, the adaptive trellis-coded modulation technique with a bit and power-allocation algorithm is applied to the SVD pre/post-RAKE. Compared with other RAKE structures, the SVD pre/post-RAKE provides a significant performance gain in high data rate communication. View full abstract»

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  • BER performance of linear STBC from orthogonal designs over MIMO correlated Nakagami-m fading channels

    Page(s): 307 - 317
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the evaluation of the average bit error rate (BER) performance of linear space-time block codes (STBC) from orthogonal designs over correlated identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels. Starting from the moment-generating function (MGF) of the multipath component signals at the antenna array elements, analytical expressions of the BER performance for both integral and nonintegral Nakagami-m fading parameters are derived. Closed-form expressions of the spatial cross-correlation function for mobile nonfrequency selective Nakagami-m fading multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels are obtained, which are valid for small angle-of-arrival (AOA) spread. In this expressions, various parameters of interest, such as the mean AOA of the signal, AOA spread, and array configurations, are all taken into account. The effects of antenna array configuration and the operating environment (mean AOA, AOA spread, Nakagami fading parameter) on the BER performance of the system are illustrated by several numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Space-time turbo trellis codes for two, three, and four transmit antennas

    Page(s): 318 - 328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New space-time turbo trellis codes (ST turbo TCs) with 4-phase-shift keying (PSK) and 8-PSK for two, three, and four transmit antennas in slow and fast fading channels are proposed in this paper. The component codes of the space-time turbo schemes are constructed by choosing the feedforward coefficients to maximize the minimum squared Euclidean distance and the feedback coefficients to minimize the iterative decoding threshold. The performance of the proposed ST turbo TCs with various memory orders, transmit antennas, and interleaver structures is evaluated by simulation. It is shown that the new codes achieve better performance than previously designed codes. The impact of antenna correlation and imperfect channel estimation on the code performance is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Soft-decision decoding of fixed-rate entropy-coded trellis-coded quantizer over a noisy channel

    Page(s): 329 - 338
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents new techniques to improve the performance of a fixed-rate entropy-coded trellis-coded quantizer (FE-TCQ) in transmission over a noisy channel. In this respect, we first present the optimal decoder for a fixed-rate entropy-coded vector quantizer (FEVQ). We show that the optimal decoder for the FEVQ can be a maximum likelihood decoder where a trellis structure is used to model the set of possible code words and the Viterbi algorithm is subsequently applied to select the most likely path through this trellis. In order to add quantization packing gain to the FEVQ, we take advantage of a trellis-coded quantization (TCQ) scheme. To prevent error propagation, it is necessary to use a block structure obtained through a truncation of the corresponding trellis. To perform this task in an efficient manner, we apply the idea of tail biting to the trellis structure of the underlying TCQ. It is shown that the use of a tail-biting trellis significantly reduces the required block length with respect to some other possible alternatives known for trellis truncation. This results in a smaller delay and also mitigates the effect of error propagation in signaling over a noisy channel. Finally, we present methods and numerical results for the combination of the proposed FEVQ soft decoder and a tail-biting TCQ. These results show that, by an appropriate design of the underlying components, one can obtain a substantial improvement in the overall performance of such a fixed-rate entropy-coded scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of SIMO space-time scheduling with convex utility function: zero-forcing linear processing

    Page(s): 339 - 350
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    In a multiple-antenna system, an optimized design across the link and scheduling layers is crucial toward fully exploiting the temporal and spatial dimensions of the communication channel. In this paper, based on discrete optimization techniques, we derive a novel analytical framework for designing optimal space-time scheduling algorithms with respect to general convex utility functions. We focus on the reverse link (i.e., client to base station) and assume that the mobile terminal has a single transmit antenna while the base station has nR receive antennas. In order that our proposed framework is practicable and can be implemented with a reasonable cost in a real environment, we further assume that the physical layer involves only linear-processing complexity in separating signals from different users. As an illustration of the efficacy of our proposed analytical design framework, we apply the framework to two commonly used system utility functions, namely maximal throughput and proportional fair. We then devise an optimal scheduling algorithm based on our design framework. However, in view of the formidable time complexity of the optimal algorithm, we propose two fast practical scheduling techniques, namely the greedy algorithm and the genetic algorithm (GA). The greedy algorithm, which is similar to the one widely used in 3G1X and Qualcomm high-data-rate (HDR) systems (optimal when nR=1), exhibits significantly inferior performance when nR>1 as compared with the optimal approach. On the other hand, the GA is quite promising in terms of performance complexity tradeoff, especially for a system with a large number of users with even a moderately large nR. As a case in point, for a system with 20 users and nR=4, the GA is more than 36 times faster than the optimal while the performance degradation is less than 10%, making it an attractive choice in the practical implementation for real-time link scheduling. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of space-time block codes over keyhole Nakagami-m fading channels

    Page(s): 351 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) fading environments, degenerate channel phenomena, called keyholes or pinholes, may exist under the realistic assumption that the spatial fading is uncorrelated at the transmitter and the receiver, but the channel has a rank-deficient transfer matrix. In this paper, we analyze the exact average symbol error rate (SER) of orthogonal space-time block codes (STBCs) with M-PSK and M-QAM constellations over Nakagami-m fading channels in the presence of the keyhole. We derive the moment generating function (MGF) of instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) after space-time block decoding (signal combining) in such channels. Using a well-known MGF-based analysis approach, we express the average SER of the STBC in the form of single finite-range integrals whose integrand contains only the derived MGF. Numerical results show that the keyhole significantly degrades the SER performance of the STBC from idealistic behaviors in independent identically distributed MIMO channels. View full abstract»

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  • Blind channel estimation using fractional sampling

    Page(s): 363 - 371
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of blind estimation of a communication channel based on the oversampled channel output. We propose a nonparametric approach that, based on the cyclic spectrum of the output, finds the channel phase response without neither the need of phase unwrapping nor channel length information. For band-limited channels, the cyclic spectrum has limited support. For this case, we propose an approximation for the discretized phase of the cyclic spectrum that, under certain conditions, results in a simpler channel estimation method. The proposed approach is applied to simulated data and real recordings and is compared to existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Lateral control of higher order nonlinear vehicle model in emergency maneuvers using absolute positioning GPS and magnetic markers

    Page(s): 372 - 384
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    The performance of an automatic steering system based on an absolute positioning global positioning system (GPS) and a magnetic marker reference system during emergency situations is examined in this paper, as it is a vital safety issue in highway automation. Robust control technique in the form of parameter space approach in an invariance plane is utilized for lateral controller design based on a higher order nonlinear vehicle model. In addition, the control system incorporates an exponential smoothing algorithm based on road curvature preview for vehicle-handling enhancement. The proposed estimation and control system is shown, in computer simulations, to be effective in handling vehicle emergency situations. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Page(s): 385 - 389
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one hand and cost, fuel economy, and performance on the other. Each component, as well as the overall system, have to be optimized to give optimal performance and durability at a low price. In this paper, we look at the effects of hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performances of vehicles. Different hybridization levels from mild to full hybrid electric traction systems are examined. We also present the optimum level of hybridization for typical passenger cars. This study shows that low hybridization levels provide an acceptable fuel economy benefit at a low price, while the optimal level of hybridization ranges between 0.3 and 0.5, depending on the total vehicle power. View full abstract»

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  • PSIM-based modeling of automotive power systems: conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles

    Page(s): 390 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automotive manufacturers have been taking advantage of simulation tools for modeling and analyzing various types of vehicles, such as conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles. These simulation tools are of great assistance to engineers and researchers to reduce product-development cycle time, improve the quality of the design, and simplify the analysis without costly and time-consuming experiments. In this paper, a modeling tool that has been developed to study automotive systems using the power electronics simulator (PSIM) software is presented. PSIM was originally made for simulating power electronic converters and motor drives. This user-friendly simulation package is able to simulate electric/electronic circuits; however, it has no capability for simulating the entire system of an automobile. This paper discusses the PSIM validity as an automotive simulation tool by creating module boxes for not only the electrical systems, but also the mechanical, energy-storage, and thermal systems of the vehicles. These modules include internal combustion engines, fuel converters, transmissions, torque couplers, and batteries. Once these modules are made and stored in the library, the user can make the car model either a conventional, an electric, or a hybrid vehicle at will, just by dragging and dropping onto a schematic blank page. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative iteration algorithm for a vehicle simulation program

    Page(s): 401 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resulting from Ph.D. research, a vehicle simulation program is proposed and continuously developed, which allows simulation of the behavior of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and internal combustion vehicles while driving any reference cycle. The goal of the simulation program is to study power flows in the drivetrains of vehicles and the corresponding component losses, as well as to compare different drivetrain topologies. This comparison can be realized for energy consumption and emissions, as well as for performance (acceleration, range, maximum slope, etc.). The core of this program, consisting of a unique iteration algorithm, will be highlighted in this paper. This algorithm not only allows the calculation of the limits of vehicle acceleration in the function of drivetrain component characteristics, but at the same time is able to develop and evaluate the different power-management strategies of hybrid vehicles, combining combustion engines and electric motors. Furthermore, the comprehensive iteration algorithm is demonstrated to be very efficient in handling any type of working limit for all components in different types of drivetrains, which results in an accurate and modular vehicle simulation program with high data flexibility. View full abstract»

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  • A 2-D random-walk mobility model for location-management studies in wireless networks

    Page(s): 413 - 424
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, a novel two-dimensional (2-D) random-walk mobility model is proposed, which can be used for studying and analyzing the location-area crossing rate and dwell time of mobile users in wireless networks. The development and application of the model under two cell structures, namely the square and hexagon cells, have been detailed. The analytical results obtained for location-update rates and dwell times have been validated using simulated and published results. The highlights of the model are its simplicity, minimal assumptions, and adaptability to conduct both "location-crossing rate" and "dwell-time" studies using the same model with slight modifications for either the square or hexagon cells. Using symmetry of mobile-user movement, a reduced number of computational states was achieved. A novel wrap-around feature of the model facilitates reduced assumptions on user mobility, which has also resulted in considerably reduced mathematical computation complexity. A regular Markov chain model was used for computing the average location-area crossing rate. A slightly modified model with absorbing states was used to derive the dwell time. This is the first model of its kind that can be used for studying area-crossing rates. To further emphasize the flexibility of the model, we have extended the model to study an overlapped location-area strategy. The study and analysis of overlapped locations areas has hitherto been difficult due to the complexity of the models. View full abstract»

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  • Module count-based overflow-control scheme for UMTS high-speed downlink packet access

    Page(s): 425 - 432
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the universal mobile telecommunication system, the user equipment (UE) communicates with all cells in the active set through the air interface. Multiple radio links between the UE and the cells may reduce the transmission speed due to interference. In high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), only one serving cell is selected in the active set for high-speed downlink transmission. When the radio link quality between the serving cell and the UE degrades below some threshold, the best cell (in terms of the radio characteristics) in the active set is selected as the new serving cell and the UE switches from the old serving cell to the new serving cell. This action is referred to as frame synchronization. The frame-synchronization information may be delivered through more than one wireless transmission, which introduces long delay for the frame-synchronization process. In this paper, we propose an overflow-control scheme with module count for HSDPA, which guarantees that the frame-synchronization information is delivered through one wireless transmission and that when the UE switches wireless link to the new serving cell, no packet frames are lost. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive iterative detection for the phase-uncertain channel: limited-tree-search versus truncated-memory detection

    Page(s): 433 - 442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider iterative detection over bandpass channels that introduce an unknown phase rotation in the transmitted signal. This work focuses on the comparison between two adaptive detection strategies for trellis-based coded modulation: limited-tree-search (LTS) detection, obtained by reducing a tree search to a limited trellis search, and truncated-memory (TM) detection, based on channel-memory truncation, which automatically leads to a trellis search. Both strategies are used to derive trellis-based forward-backward (FB) algorithms. A quantitative analysis based on simulations, with various coding and modulation schemes, is carried out to evaluate and compare the two approaches. The results show that the channel-phase dynamics should significantly influence the choice of the detection strategy: For low-phase variations, LTS algorithms are a simple and reasonable choice, while for moderate to fast phase variations, TM algorithms show a considerable robustness. View full abstract»

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  • Gain, phase imbalance, and phase noise effects on error vector magnitude

    Page(s): 443 - 449
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The error vector magnitude (EVM) is extensively applied as a measure of communication systems' performance. In this paper, the effects of gain, phase imbalance, and phase noise on EVM are examined. The work is focused on single-carrier, linear, and memoryless modulated signals, such as phase-shift keying and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The EVM is calculated under the assumption that the transmitted signal consists of zero-mean uncorrelated inphase and quadrature components that are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. The contributions of this paper are as follows. First, an expression for the EVM is derived using a simple model that accounts for linear transmitter and receiver imperfections, inspired by the works of Cavers and Liao, 1993. Second, a union bound on the symbol error rate (SER) is derived. The root mean square EVM is shown to be independent of the constellation shape. The SER, however, is sensitive to the individual transmitted symbols and, therefore, the constellation shape. The resulting equations are used to examine the relation between EVM, sideband suppression, and phase noise. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative receiver for joint detection and channel estimation in OFDM systems under mobile radio channels

    Page(s): 450 - 460
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an iterative receiver for a joint data-detection and channel-estimation scheme is presented for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems, which incorporates iterative decoding in the receiver. In the proposed scheme, a maximum a posteriori-based decoder and a channel estimator provide more reliable information on the coded bits for each other in an iterative manner. We first consider a practical implementation issue for the optimal minimum mean squared error two-dimensional (2-D) channel estimator as an essential element in the iterative receiver. To reduce the complexity of the 2-D estimator as suited to the iterative receiver, we focus on rigorously investigating how a separable estimator must be designed so that its structure may become asymptotically equivalent to that of the optimal 2-D estimator. Furthermore, we derive an analytical expression of the iterative process to evaluate a convergence performance as a function of the number of iterations and discuss its convergence property. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed iterative receiver achieves a near-ideal performance with only a few iterations under time-variant multipath fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • Improved approximate maximum-likelihood receiver for differential space-time block codes over Rayleigh-fading channels

    Page(s): 461 - 468
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an approximate maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver for differential space-time block codes is investigated. The receiver is derived from the ML criterion and is shown to mitigate error floor occurring in a conventional differential receiver very well. Because the receiver employs knowledges of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and fading rate, we study mismatched cases when these parameters are not accurate. It is shown that the receiver is more sensitive to the mismatched parameters when the fading rate is high. Then, a union bound on the bit error probability is derived. The bounds show good agreement with the simulation results at high fading rate and at high SNR. Finally, a modified receiver, denoted as multistage receiver, is proposed to compensate the so-called intrablock interference caused by the time-varying characteristic of the channel within a transmission block. The multistage receiver offers further reduction of error floor of about half order of magnitude as compared with an approximate ML receiver. View full abstract»

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  • Complex gain and fixed-point digital predistorters for CDMA power amplifiers

    Page(s): 469 - 478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two digital baseband predistortion techniques, one based on the complex gain digital predistorter (CGDP) approach and the other based on the fixed-point predistorter (FPPD) approach, are used to compensate a nonlinear high-power amplifier (HPA) in an IS-2000 system. Forward-link performance for a perfectly linear HPA, nonlinear HPA, and compensated HPA using both a CGDP and an FPPD are compared using an IS-2000 forward-link simulator. Both predistortion techniques are shown to provide similar forward-link performance and reduction in spectral regrowth of the sidebands for the wide-band compensated HPAs utilized by IS-2000 systems. View full abstract»

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  • An optimal lognormal approximation to lognormal sum distributions

    Page(s): 479 - 489
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sums of lognormal random variables occur in many problems in wireless communications because signal shadowing is well modeled by the lognormal distribution. The lognormal sum distribution is not known in the closed form and is difficult to compute numerically. Several approximations to the distribution have been proposed and employed in applications. Some widely used approximations are based on the assumption that a lognormal sum is well approximated by a lognormal random variable. Here, a new paradigm for approximating lognormal sum distributions is presented. A linearizing transform is used with a linear minimax approximation to determine an optimal lognormal approximation to a lognormal sum distribution. The accuracies of the new method are quantitatively compared to the accuracies of some well-known approximations. In some practical cases, the optimal lognormal approximation is several orders of magnitude more accurate than previous approximations. Efficient numerical computation of the lognormal characteristic function is also considered. View full abstract»

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  • A building-transmission model for improved propagation prediction in urban microcells

    Page(s): 490 - 502
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model for the propagation of radiowaves through buildings. The model can be used as a seamless extension to ray-based propagation prediction models that only consider external reflection and diffraction, as do most current models. This involves the use of so-called transmitted rays, which are traced through building walls. Outdoor-to-indoor propagation (building penetration) is automatically taken into account as a "by-product". The transmission model requires no information about each building's interior other than a specific attenuation factor that describes the global behavior of the field inside the building. This coefficient can be determined for individual buildings by measuring the excess loss associated with the propagation path through the building. It is shown, however, that no large errors are to be expected if all buildings are characterized by the average of the empirical values obtained in this study, at 1.9 GHz. Path loss predictions generated with the aid of the new model are shown and compared with measured data to illustrate the considerable improvement in accuracy that can be achieved in realistic urban microcell scenarios by taking into account building penetration and transmission. View full abstract»

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  • A tree-scattering model for improved propagation prediction in urban microcells

    Page(s): 503 - 513
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model for the scattering of radiowaves from the canopy of a single tree. The canopy is modeled as a cylindrical volume containing randomly distributed and oriented cylinders, representing the branches, and thin disks, representing the leaves. A simple expression for the incoherent scattered field outside the canopy is obtained using Twersky's multiple scattering theory. This expression is shown to agree well with results of scattering measurements on a live tree typical of those found in urban environments. The scattering model can be readily incorporated in ray-based propagation prediction tools that assist the planning of microcellular radio networks. This involves the use of so-called tree-scattered rays, which interact at the tree centers. Path loss predictions generated with the aid of the new model are shown and compared with measured data to illustrate the considerable improvement in prediction accuracy that can be achieved in realistic urban microcellular scenarios by taking into account the scatter from trees. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic scattering by a mixture of conducting and dielectric objects: analysis using method of moments

    Page(s): 514 - 520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the method of moments is employed to solve the combined field integral equation for characterizing electromagnetic scattering by large three-dimensional structures of arbitrary shape. Unlike those discussed in the literature, these structures consist of mixed conducting and homogeneous dielectric objects. To improve the matrix conditioning number, the basis functions used to represent magnetic currents are also chosen as the popular Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions, but are multiplied by a constant number. A Galerkin's procedure is implemented, i.e., the testing functions are chosen to be the same as the basis functions. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida