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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 741 - 742
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  • 60-GHz-band coplanar MMIC active filters

    Page(s): 743 - 750
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and performance of 60-GHz-band coplanar monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) active filters. To compensate for the loss of the passive filter, a resonator composed of a quarter-wavelength line is terminated by a circuit with a constant negative resistance over a wide frequency band. Cross-coupling is introduced to make the attenuation poles on both sides of the passband. We develop two types of two-stage filter: one with medium bandwidth and the other with narrow bandwidth. The former shows an insertion loss of 3.0 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.6 GHz and a rejection of larger than 20 dB at a 3-GHz separation from a center frequency of 65.0 GHz. This filter also shows a noise figure of 10.5 dB. The latter filter shows an insertion loss of 2.8 dB with a 10-dB bandwidth of 2.1 GHz at a center frequency of 65.0 GHz. It also shows an output power of 5.0 dBm at a 1-dB compression point. The loss variation due to temperature variation is successfully compensated using a gate bias control circuit. The size of the MMIC filters is 2.5 mm×1.1 mm. View full abstract»

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  • A new 94-GHz six-port collision-avoidance radar sensor

    Page(s): 751 - 759
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new 94-GHz collision avoidance radar sensor is proposed. The receiver front-end module is based on a six-port phase/frequency discriminator (SPD). The SPD, composed of four 90° hybrid couplers, is manufactured in a metal block of brass using a computer numerically controlled milling machine. Simulation and measurement S-parameters of the SPD are presented in the frequency band. New SPD computer models are generated and used in the system simulations. Preliminary measurements and system simulations performed to obtain the relative velocity of the target and its distance are presented. Statistical evaluations show an acceptable measurement error of this radar sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Nonorthogonality relations between complex hybrid modes: an application for the leaky-wave analysis of laterally shielded top-open planar transmission lines

    Page(s): 760 - 767
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the orthogonality relations between complex modes are investigated to demonstrate the coupling effect that exists along a transverse direction (z-axis) between TEz and TMz hybrid modes when power storage, loss, or leakage occur in the longitudinal direction (y-axis) of a transmission line. As an example, the parallel-plate waveguide modes are used to study a laterally shielded top-open microstrip line. The study of leaky waves is a very interesting application of the novel orthogonality relations derived in this paper. This study is carried out using the correct and incorrect orthogonality formulations, showing that physically valid results are obtained only when the orthogonality relations derived in this paper are properly introduced in the formulation. A physical explanation of this novel coupling effect between TEz and TMz hybrid modes with respect to the y-direction is given in terms of inhomogeneous plane waves. Comparisons with previous results for a laterally shielded slot-line antenna are presented to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of this novel proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling matrix extraction for cascaded-triplet (CT) topology

    Page(s): 768 - 772
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes two different approaches for designing cascaded-triplet filters, having generalized Chebyshev characteristics. Both approaches use an orthonormalization procedure (which satisfies the required topology) that leads to a set of nonlinear equations. In the first approach, these equations are solved by a Newton-Raphson (NR) method. The second approach uses an algebraic reduction technique to reduce the number of variables to just one or two. These variables are scanned to find solutions. These approaches are complimentary; the NR method gives great accuracy, but needs suitable starting points to find all solutions, and the algebraic approach has limited accuracy, but reveals all solution regions. View full abstract»

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  • FDTD modeling of transient microwave signals in dispersive and lossy bi-isotropic media

    Page(s): 773 - 784
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel finite-difference time-domain model of transient wave propagation in general dispersive bi-isotropic media with losses. The special properties of these materials may lead to new applications in microwave and millimeter-wave technology. While their frequency-domain properties have been well described in the literature, their time-domain behavior has only been modeled thus far for special sub-classes and monochromatic time dependence. We have validated our method by first computing time-harmonic wave propagation through a bi-isotropic medium and comparing it with analytical results. Agreement is typically better than 1%. We have then computed transient field propagation in a general lossy dispersive bi-isotropic medium. View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state analysis of multitone nonlinear circuits in wavelet domain

    Page(s): 785 - 797
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new approach to steady-state analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits under periodic excitation. The new method is similar to the well-known technique of harmonic balance, but uses wavelets as basis functions instead of Fourier series. Use of wavelets allows significant increase in sparsity of the equation matrices and, consequently, decrease in CPU cost and storage requirements, while retaining accuracy and convergence of the traditional approach. The new method scales linearly with the size of the problem and is well suited for simulations of highly nonlinear, multitone, and broad-band circuits. View full abstract»

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  • A compact enhanced-bandwidth hybrid ring using an artificial lumped-element left-handed transmission-line section

    Page(s): 798 - 804
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    A new type of compact enhanced-bandwidth hybrid ring using an artificial lumped-element left-handed (LH) transmission-line (TL) section is proposed. The replacement of the 270° branch of the conventional hybrid ring by a -90° LH-TL branch results in both size reduction and bandwidth enhancement. The working principle of the LH TL used in the hybrid ring is explained and the performances of the component are demonstrated by measurement results. The proposed hybrid exhibits 67% size reduction compared to the conventional one, and shows a 58% and 49% bandwidth enhancements at 2 GHz in the 180°-out-of-phase and in-phase operations, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Hot small-signal S-parameter measurements of power transistors operating under large-signal conditions in a load-pull environment for the study of nonlinear parametric interactions

    Page(s): 805 - 812
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a setup that enables wide-band (in-band and out-of-band) measurements of hot small-signal S-parameters of nonlinear devices driven by a large-signal single tone (namely, the pump signal). A load-pull characterization is performed at the pump frequency (F0), while hot small-signal S-parameters are measured with a perturbating signal at a frequency (f) by the use of a probe tone. Basically, the frequency of the probe tone is swept over a wide bandwidth (at the present time from 300 MHz up to F0/2). A higher frequency range, from near dc to KF0, will be implemented in a similar manner. The measurement setup reported here is applied to on-wafer measurements of S-band HBTs. Hot small-signal S-parameter measurements versus large-signal load impedance and pump level will be shown. An application to the prediction of parametric oscillations will be demonstrated. A parametric oscillation predicted at 373 MHz is confirmed by spectrum measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of signal-to-noise and distortion ratio degradation in nonlinear systems

    Page(s): 813 - 822
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new figure-of-merit to evaluate signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) ratio degradation in nonlinear systems, herein referred to as the noise and distortion figure (NDF). In order to obtain a mathematical formula for this NDF, the best linear approximation calculation is presented for memoryless and dynamic nonlinear systems, which can be modeled by a finite Volterra series. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such an attempt of calculating the NDF for a nonlinear and dynamic system is made. NDF results are discussed in both types of systems by means of numerical simulations of systems up to the third order. View full abstract»

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  • A simplified analytic CAD model for linearly tapered microstrip lines including losses

    Page(s): 823 - 830
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    Quasi-TEM propagation, appropriate for a linearly tapered microstrip line is modeled, and known microstrip impedance behavior is approximated directly. The telegraphist's equations and the resulting ABCD matrix are solved in terms of Airy functions. The theoretical model, which includes conductor and substrate losses, has been verified experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Two movable-plate nitride-loaded MEMS variable capacitor

    Page(s): 831 - 837
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    A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) variable capacitor having two movable plates loaded with a nitride layer is proposed. A trench in the silicon substrate underneath the capacitor is used to decrease the parasitic capacitance. The use of an insulation dielectric layer on the bottom plate of the MEMS capacitor increases the capacitor's tuning range and eliminates stiction. Experimental and theoretical results are presented for two capacitors having different capacitance values. The measured tuning range is found to be 280% at 1 GHz. The achievable tuning range far exceeds that of the traditional parallel-plate MEMS variable capacitors. The proposed MEMS variable capacitor is built using the MetalMUMP's process. View full abstract»

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  • Range correlation and I/Q performance benefits in single-chip silicon Doppler radars for noncontact cardiopulmonary monitoring

    Page(s): 838 - 848
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Direct-conversion microwave Doppler-radar transceivers have been fully integrated in 0.25-μm silicon CMOS and BiCMOS technologies. These chips, operating at 1.6 and 2.4 GHz, have detected movement due to heartbeat and respiration 50 cm from the subject, which may be useful in infant and adult apnea monitoring. The range-correlation effect on residual phase noise is a critical factor when detecting small phase fluctuations with a high-phase-noise on-chip oscillator. Phase-noise reduction due to range correlation was experimentally evaluated, and the measured residual phase noise was within 5 dB of predicted values on average. In a direct-conversion receiver, the phase relationship between the received signal and the local oscillator has a significant effect on the demodulation sensitivity, and the points can be avoided with a quadrature (I/Q) receiver. In this paper, measurements that highlight the performance benefits of an I/Q receiver are presented. While the accuracy of the heart rate measured with the single-channel chip ranges from 40% to 100%, depending on positioning, the quadrature chip accuracy is always better than 80%. View full abstract»

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  • A comprehensive compact-modeling methodology for spiral inductors in silicon-based RFICs

    Page(s): 849 - 857
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new comprehensive wide-band compact-modeling methodology for on-chip spiral inductors is presented. The new modeling methodology creates an equivalent-circuit model consisting of frequency-independent circuit elements. A fast automated extraction procedure is developed for determining the circuit element values from two-port S-parameter measurement data. The methodology is extremely flexible in allowing for accurate modeling of general classes of spiral inductors on high- or low-resistivity substrate and for large spirals exhibiting distributed trends. The new modeling methodology is applied to general classes of spirals with various sizes and substrate parameters. The extracted models show excellent agreement with the measured data sets over the frequency range of 0.1-10 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Impact-ionization effects on the high-frequency behavior of HFETs

    Page(s): 858 - 863
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    A new small-signal equivalent-circuit model is presented, which takes into account strong impact-ionization effects on the high-frequency behavior of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFET). The proposed model overcomes the limitations of previous models and includes the bipolar action of the space charge of holes generated by impact ionization. It is shown that the developed model is capable of explaining the anomalous high-frequency behavior of HFETs with channels of high indium content. View full abstract»

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  • p-Type multiplicative Schwarz (pMUS) method with vector finite elements for modeling three-dimensional waveguide discontinuities

    Page(s): 864 - 870
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    This paper presents the application of a p-type multiplicative Schwarz (pMUS) method for solving three-dimensional waveguide discontinuity problems. The two major contributions of the proposed pMUS method are: 1) the use of hierarchical curl-conforming basis functions that incorporate a discrete Hodge decomposition explicitly and 2) the treatment of each polynomial space (or basis functions group) as an abstract grid/domain in the Schwarz method. These two features greatly improve the applicability of the curl-conforming vector finite-element methods (FEMs) for solving Maxwell equations. Various numerical examples are solved using the proposed approach. The performance of the pMUS method has been compared to commercial FEM software as well as the incomplete Choleski conjugate gradient method. It is found that the pMUS method exhibits superior efficiency and consumes far less memory and CPU times. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of InP-InGaAs HPT gain: design of an opto-microwave monolithic amplifier

    Page(s): 871 - 881
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have designed an opto-microwave monolithic amplifier with emphasis on the definition of the opto-microwave power gain. First, we present physical simulations of an InP-InGaAs heterostructure phototransistor (HPT), which enable the structural analysis of the composition and behavior of the phototransistor. From these simulations and from both electrical and optical measurements, we next established a large-signal model, which adds photoelectric effect to an HBT model. Small-signal opto-microwave S-parameters of the HPT are first defined and then related to the small-signal opto-microwave power gain of the phototransistor. Relations are given to enable optimum loads on the base and collector ports to be found so that the opto-microwave gain can be optimized. An opto-microwave amplifier is then designed, realized, and measured with a setup based on the beating of two lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of an exact modal absorbing boundary termination condition for the application of the finite-element time-domain technique to discontinuity problems in closed homogeneous waveguides

    Page(s): 882 - 888
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an exact and mesh-efficient modal absorbing boundary termination condition (MABTC) to the Galerkin weighted residual finite element time domain (FETD) modeling technique. The developed boundary-condition formulation is specific to closed homogeneous waveguides. Two-dimensional parallel-plate waveguide problems are considered for which the MABTC, at the waveguide ports, is obtained by the convolution of the modal characteristic impedances with the modal profiles of the waveguide modes following an inverse Laplace transform. A time-truncated approximate version of the MABTC is also presented, which results in a more efficient memory and time FETD implementation (compared with the FETD code without the approximation) for the exact electromagnetic analysis of microwave circuits. Very good agreement between FETD-MABTC and finite-element frequency-domain results is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid method for the efficient calculation of the band structure of 3-D metallic crystals

    Page(s): 889 - 902
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    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid method to characterize the band structure of three-dimensional metallic crystals. We formulate an auxiliary problem that has the same spectrum as the metallic crystal. We prove that the spectrum of the auxiliary problem can be efficiently computed using the plane-wave method and the method of moments. Thus, the band structure of the metallic crystal can also be efficiently calculated. Our approach is much more effective than root-searching methods, because all of the eigenvalues are obtained at once and degenerate cases pose no difficulty. This is a generalization of a previously proposed method for two-dimensional structures. View full abstract»

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  • Permittivity and permeability measurement of microwave packaging materials

    Page(s): 903 - 907
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    There has recently been a growing interest in using new packaging materials-dielectric and/or magnetic-in a wide variety of applications for controlling the microwave heating of food. The study of the thermal behavior of these products requires the accurate determination of the complex permittivity and permeability when the temperature varies, and when the materials are irradiated in specific conditions. One of the main challenges is to distinguish the dielectric losses from the magnetic ones. In this paper, a practical measurement method is proposed, which consists of irradiating a rod sample successively with a homogeneous electric-field distribution with a low magnetic field and with a homogeneous magnetic-field distribution with low electric field. An accurate and efficient electromagnetic analysis tool is used to generate a set of points, which allow the construction of several bilinear functions that relate the scattering parameters of the circuit to the complex values of ε and μ so that ε and μ can then be easily determined from experimental measurements in accordance to whatever the special irradiation conditions. Some results for test materials are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band HBT BPSK and IQ modulator MMICs and millimeter-wave vector signal characterization

    Page(s): 908 - 919
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reflection-type binary phase-shift keying and in-phase and quadrature modulator monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) are reported in this paper. These MMICs are fabricated by 1-μm HBT process and evaluated successfully under vector signal characterization. A cold-mode HBT device model with varying bias conditions is proposed, which is suitable for millimeter-wave circuit design and simulation. The analysis and design equations of imbalance effects for the reflection-type modulators are also presented. These MMICs demonstrate measured error vector magnitude of less than 12%, a carrier rejection of better than 15 dB, and an adjacent channel power ratio of better than -21 dBc from 50 to 110 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive algorithm for fast frequency response computation of planar microwave structures

    Page(s): 920 - 926
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast and efficient adaptive algorithm for computing the response of microwave circuits over a wide frequency band is introduced in this paper. The algorithm uses a binary-tree structure for sweeping the frequency and constructs the currents induced on the circuit by using characteristic basis functions, thus obviating the need to repeatedly solve a large method of moments matrix system at each frequency point. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is quite simple and can be readily integrated into existing electromagnetic simulation software modules. Numerical results are presented for two test cases demonstrating the accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Amplifier linearization using compact microstrip resonant cell-theory and experiment

    Page(s): 927 - 934
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel technique for reducing the intermodulation distortions (IMDs) in power amplifiers. In this method, both second- and third-harmonic components generated by the transistor are reflected back simultaneously by the compact microstrip resonant cell (CMRC) at the input port with proper phases to mix with the fundamental signal for the reduction of IMDs. A rigorous mathematical analysis on the effectiveness of multiharmonic reflections has been formulated and derived using the Volterra series. Moreover, the delay mismatch factor of the proposed method is analytically studied and the result shows that a better tolerance to the delay error can be achieved by using CMRC circuitry. Standard two-tone test measurements reveal 32- and 22-dB reductions for the third-order IMD and fifth-order IMD, respectively, without affecting the fundamental signal at 2.45 GHz. Meanwhile, the proposed approach gives a peak power added efficiency of 53% with 11.5 dB transducer gain and 15 dBm output power for a single-stage SiGe bipolar junction transistor. The adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) is -55dBc for a data rate of 384-kb/s quadrature phase shift keyed modulated signal with 2-MHz spanning bandwidth, and this ACPR is maintained for a broad range of output power level. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org