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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1 - 1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • A higher order nonstandard FDTD-PML method for the advanced modeling of complex EMC problems in generalized 3-D curvilinear coordinates

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    A higher order finite-difference time-domain perfectly matched layer (PML) methodology for the systematic modeling of generalized three-dimensional electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems, is presented in this paper. Establishing a covariant/contravariant formulation, the novel algorithm introduces a parametric topology of accurate nonstandard schemes for the nonorthogonal div-curl problem and the suppression of lattice dispersion. Also, the wider boundary stencils are treated by compact operators, while a mesh expanding process reduces the absorber's depth. At arbitrarily-aligned interfaces, consistency is preserved through a convergent concept that considers the proper continuity conditions. Hence, the enhanced PMLs attain large annihilation rates for complex domains and broadband spectrums. Numerical validation-stressing on evanescent waves near scatterers-confirms the superiority of the proposed algorithm via realistic EMC applications, like shielding enclosures, printed circuit boards, and modern antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain measurement and spectral analysis of nonstationary low-frequency magnetic-field emissions on board of rolling stock

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 12 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    This paper deals with the assessment of low-frequency magnetic-field emissions (MFE) in the engine-driver cab and the passengers' compartments of rolling stock. For emissions' measurement, an experimental setup is designed, involving a three-axial magnetic-field sensor mounted on an antenna positioner, and optically linked to the data-handling system. Measurement is accomplished in the time domain and allows one to retrieve digitized time series of the spatial components of the magnetic-flux density (MFD) vector, at specific points in the measurement volume. Worst case emissions are related to the train operating modes by referring to an experiment that includes acceleration from an initial stop, inertial motion, and braking up to a new stop. The nonstationary behavior of the most relevant MFD sinusoidal components is evidenced, and it is accounted in the spectral analysis by resorting to short-time Fourier transform based on a fixed-length time windows of proper duration. For safety assessment, a compliance check of MFE levels with exposure limits is proposed, based on the computation of an instantaneous safety parameter, obtained by extending requirements developed in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines for the simpler case of multiple-frequency steady-state fields. View full abstract»

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  • Balancing networks for symmetric antennas: part II-practical implementation and modeling

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 24 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The practical aspects of implementing the three fundamental types of balancing networks presented in the first part of this paper, using a 180° 4-port hybrid network are investigated. It is shown, for the first time, that the use of attenuators between the hybrid and the antenna detracts from the ability of the balanced-to-unbalanced network (balun) to balance any of the three quantities: current, voltage, or forward power. It is shown that additional time delay or linear phase shift, even when made equal for each port, makes the implementation of a current or voltage balun difficult over a broad frequency range although narrowband operation is still possible. Thus, the placement of phase-matched coaxial lines between the balun and the antenna is not desirable. It is shown that the equal-delay hybrid is uniquely adapted for the realization of a voltage or current balun. Finally, the modeling of symmetric antennas as driven by each fundamental type of balun is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical and experimental investigation of radiation caused by the switching noise on the partitioned DC reference planes of high speed digital PCB

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 33 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    Influence of the partitioning and bridging of the power/ground planes on the radiation caused by the switching noise on the dc reference planes is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain modeling, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance of the partitioned power/ground planes is studied. Radiated emission at the 3-m distance from the tested boards is measured in a fully anechoic chamber. The measured and the numerical results agree generally well. The radiation behavior of four kinds of partitioned configuration of the power/ground planes is studied. It is found that completely isolating the noise source by the etched slits, or moats, significantly reduces the radiation level at the frequencies near resonance. However, bridges connecting two sides of the moat not only significantly degrade the ability of the EMI protection of the moat, but also excite a new low-frequency resonant mode. The effect of the geometrical parameters, such as the moat size, moat location, bridge width, and bridge position, on the radiation behavior of the printed circuit board is considered. The radiation mechanism of the EMI behavior of the partitioned dc reference planes is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Common-mode current due to a trace near a PCB edge and its suppression by a guard band

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The common-mode (CM) current due to a trace near a printed circuit board (PCB) edge, and its suppression by a guard band have been studied experimentally and with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. As the guard band, copper tape is connected along the entire edge of the ground plane. First, a PCB electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling path that results from the nonzero impedance of the PCB ground plane is discussed. As the trace is moved closer to the PCB edge, the CM current increases. Then, the effect of the guard band on the CM current is detailed. A guard band parallel to and near a trace is most effective in suppressing the CM current. The cross-sectional magnetic field distribution at center of the PCB with and without the guard band is also calculated with FDTD modeling. The guard band decreases the magnetic field distributed on the reverse side of a PCB. These results indicate the guard band is effective in suppressing CM current. Finally, an empirical formula to quantify the relationship between the position of a trace and CM current for the case with a guard band is proposed. Calculated results using the empirical formula and FDTD modeling are in good agreement, which indicates this empirical formula should be useful for developing EMI design guidelines. View full abstract»

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  • On the external inductive coupling of differential signalling on printed circuit boards

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 54 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    A study of the common-mode radiation behavior of differential signalling is presented, considering small current imbalances, which may originate from differential driver phase skew and circuit asymmetries. Two configurations are investigated, a solid ground plane and a ground plane with an open slit as an example of a ground-plane discontinuity. The external coupling voltage responsible for common-mode radiation is quantified through coupling inductances, for which closed-form expressions are derived and numerically validated. It is found that common-mode electromagnetic interference from differential signalling may become comparable to conventional single trace routing when traces are placed near the edge of the ground plane. For traces routed across a ground-plane discontinuity, differential signalling is only an effective means for reducing radiation when signal imbalance can be kept small. View full abstract»

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  • Study of the coupling between human head and cellular phone helical antennas

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 62 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction between normal-mode helical antennas and human head models is analyzed, using both a novel accurate semi-analytical method and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The semi-analytical method is based on the combination of Green's functions theory with the method of moments (Green/MoM) and is able to model arbitrarily shaped wire antennas radiating in the close proximity of layered lossy dielectric spheres representing simplified models of the human head. The purpose of the development of the Green/MoM technique is to provide a reliable tool for preliminary (worst case) estimation of human head exposure to the field generated by different antenna configurations with emphasis on the helical antenna, representing the most diffused antenna type used in modern cellular handsets. Furthermore, the accurate semi-analytical character of the Green/MoM technique permits the accuracy assessment of purely numerical techniques, such as the FDTD, which is currently the most widely used computational method in mobile communication dosimetric problems, since it allows modeling of anatomically based head models. After appropriate benchmarking, FDTD simulations are used to study the interaction between a heterogeneous anatomically correct model of the human head exposed to a normal-mode helix monopole operating at 1710 MHz mounted on the top of a metal box representing a realistic mobile communication terminal. The study of both canonical and realistic exposure problems includes computations of specific absorption rates (SARs) inside the human head, total power absorbed by the head and assessment of antenna performance. Emphasis is placed on the comparative dosimetric assessment between adults and children head models. View full abstract»

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  • Bandwidth, SAR, and efficiency of internal mobile phone antennas

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 71 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (75)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a thorough investigation into the effects of several phone chassis-related parameters-length, width, thickness, and distance between the head and phone-on the bandwidth, efficiency, and specific absorption rate (SAR) characteristics of internal mobile phone antennas. The studied antenna-chassis combinations are located beside an anatomical head model in a position of actual handset use. The effect of the user's hand is also studied with two different hand models. The main part of the study is based on FDTD simulations, but also experimental results, which support the computationally obtained conclusions, are given. The presented analysis provides novel and useful information for future design of mobile handset antennas. The results show the general trends of bandwidth, SAR, and efficiency with different chassis parameters. The results also reveal a connection between these three performance parameters: an increase in SARs and a decrease in radiation efficiency occur compared to the general trend when the bandwidth reaches its maximum. This happens when the resonant frequency of the chassis equals that of the antenna. View full abstract»

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  • The fine structure of positive lightning return-stroke radiation fields

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 87 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    The electric fields generated by lightning flashes striking the North Sea were measured, with a time resolution better than a few tens of nanoseconds, at Fano island in Denmark. The measuring station was located a few tens of meters away from the high water mark at the west coast of the island. This particular location made it possible to capture, with minimal propagation effects, the electromagnetic fields from lightning flashes striking the North Sea. The waveforms were recorded by a measuring system that could provide a time resolution of about 10 ns. The data recorded had the following features. The initial rising part of the positive return-stroke fields contains a slow front followed by a fast transition. The duration of the slow front of the positive return-stroke fields had an average of 8.3 μs and its amplitude, measured as a fraction of the initial peak, had an average of 0.61. The 10%-90% rise time of the fast rising portion of the positive return-stroke fields was about 0.26 μs, on average. The average peak value of the measured radiation fields normalized to 100 km was 15.7 V/m. The mean of the peak value of the time derivative of the radiation fields was 25 V/m/μs. The full width at half maximum of the radiation field derivative had a mean of 170 ns. View full abstract»

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  • Triggered lightning testing of an airport runway lighting system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 96 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction of rocket-triggered lightning with an airport runway lighting system has been studied. The lighting system included a buried counterpoise with attached vertical ground rods for protection of the series lighting cable from lightning. Experimental data for voltages and currents at various locations in the runway lighting system due to direct lightning strikes are presented along with the causative lightning current. The data include the first measurements of the responses of an underground bare conductor (counterpoise) to direct lightning strikes. These measurements can serve as ground truth for the testing of the validity of various counterpoise models. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of carbon fiber composite for microwave absorber

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 102 - 106
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    Optimization of the carbon fiber composite for a microwave absorber is presented. The predicted results are based on the modulus of permittivity which obeys a logarithmic law of mixtures while the dielectric loss tangents are related through a linear law of mixtures. Linear regression analysis performed on the data points provides the constants which are used to predict the effective permittivities at different frequencies. An optimization program is written to compute the optimum amount of carbon fiber paste and thickness required for each layer. As shown, the predicted results agree quite well with the measured data. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling of apertures in enclosures to external cabling structures

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 107 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In addition to the direct radiation from enclosure apertures, an indirect contribution also exists due to the coupling to external cables. Based on an inductive coupling model, a relation for the external coupling voltage is derived and combined with a resonant dipole-antenna model for worst case estimations of the radiation level. An expression for the direct-to-indirect radiation-amplitude ratio is deduced. The model is well confirmed by a numerical example for a rectangular box with a slit. The results clearly indicate that in the low-to-intermediate frequency range the indirect cable radiation exceeds by far the direct radiation from the aperture. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation on the effectiveness of the IC susceptibility TEM cell method

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 110 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    This short paper concerns the measurement of IC susceptibility to radiated electromagnetic interference by means of a TEM cell. In particular, it points out the main weaknesses of such a method on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental tests. The analytical expression of the radio frequency (RF) voltage induced on each IC package lead by the transverse electromagnetic field inside a TEM cell is derived. Then, it is pointed out that the amplitude of the RF interference (RFI), which is induced between two generic IC leads, depends on their position with respect to the direction of the electromagnetic field propagation within the TEM cell. Finally, the theoretical results are supported with experimental ones, which have been obtained by using a specific test chip. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent dipole moment method to characterize magnetic fields generated by electric appliances: extension to intermediate frequencies of up to 100 kHz

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 115 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A previously proposed simple method to characterize magnetic fields near electric appliances was extended to intermediate frequencies of up to 100 kHz. The method consists of identification of the magnetic dipole moment that is equivalent to a magnetic field source of an electric appliance and simple estimation of the magnetic field distribution around the appliance. In addition, frequency characteristics of the magnetic field were taken into account by considering the harmonic components in the magnetic-field waveform for both power frequency and intermediate frequency ranges. For the application of the method, a wide-frequency range (from power frequency to 100 kHz) magnetic-field measuring instrument was developed and applied to appliances that generate intermediate frequency magnetic fields, i.e., an induction heating cooker, a TV set, and a metal detector. The results revealed that the method is adequate to quantify the magnetic field near the electric appliances at frequencies of up to 100 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Transient response of nonlinearly loaded wires in a two media configuration

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 121 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transient behavior of thin wires with nonlinear resistive load in the presence of a dielectric half-space is analyzed directly in the time domain. The nonlinear wire problem is formulated by the space-time Hallen integral equation. The effect of a two-media configuration is taken into account via the space-time reflection coefficient appearing within the Green function. The resulting integral equation is handled by the space-time boundary integral equation method. The transient response for the case of a thin wire isolated in free space computed by this direct time-domain approach is compared with results obtained by another method solved using data derived from frequency-domain analysis. Results for various other configurations are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric properties of tissue-equivalent liquids and their effects on specific absorption rate

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 126 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radio frequency safety of mobile phones has been evaluated in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR). Standard methods for measurement of the SAR, including recipes for tissue-equivalent dielectric liquids, have recently been the subject of discussion among international standards organizations. Standards currently recommend glycol-type liquids as tissue-equivalent liquids for frequencies above 1 GHz. Although the ingredients are specified in the recipes provided, some fundamental information, such as the stability of dielectric properties, remains unclear. We measured the change of dielectric properties with time and with temperature of tissue-equivalent liquids recommended in the standard documents, and evaluated their effects on SAR. The conductivity decreased with increasing temperature in all glycol-type specimens. The permittivity, on the other hand, was almost constant. With the evaporation of water, the permittivity decreased, although the conductivities remained constant. Experimental results proved that dielectric properties are affected by environmental conditions, and that it is inevitably necessary to adjust the dielectric properties regularly, through the addition of ingredients, in order to follow the standards. The SAR values, however, were not affected significantly by the change in dielectric properties; thus, a larger tolerance of the dielectric properties may be acceptable in practical SAR measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Reproduction of lightning electromagnetic field waveforms by engineering model of return stroke

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 130 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this short paper, a new "engineering" model of subsequent return stroke has been proposed. In the model, the propagation characteristic of a channel current follows the Diendorfer and Uman (DU) model in the bottom region but a current pulse attenuates further in the upper region. This model has succeeded in reproducing all the features of reported typical electric- and magnetic-field waveforms associated with natural subsequent lightning and triggered lightning. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation methods of electromagnetic fields very close to lightning

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 133 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this short paper, we present two methods: Quasi-images formula and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to evaluate the electromagnetic fields very close to lightning channel, which are applicable for poorly conducting ground case, and the numerical results are consistent with each other. Moreover, the vertical electric fields at 15 m obtained by the two proposed methods is in good agreement with the measured result, and the horizontal electric field at a distance of 100 m above finely conducting ground obtained by the FDTD method is identical to the field obtained by accurate Cooray-Rubinstein approximation. With the proposed quasi-images formula, the effects of electrical dispersion of the ground on the lightning generated electromagnetic fields are analyzed and some significant results are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • New figures of merit for the characterization of the performance of shielding enclosures

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (43 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Evaluation and measurement of shielding performance of enclosures and protection structures in general are based on the comparison between the local field values with and without the shield. Apart from some practical problems arising in specific, but relevant, situations like enclosures of small dimensions, such an approach appears rather incomplete and sometime deceitful. Despite this, shielding effectiveness (SE) is a well-established parameter, and it seems that for decades, the attention has been focussed more on how to evaluate and measure the so-called SE, rather on what the goal of any shielding structure is and why each evaluation and measurement should be performed. The main drawback is that SE is a local quantity and its knowledge does not help in the prediction of the real mitigation of undesired effects achieved by means of any shielding structure; undesired effects are mainly due to an integral of an electric or magnetic field, and/or to spatial variations of electric and magnetic field components. In the past, proposals were advanced toward an improved definition and measurement of electromagnetic SE; the proposed new figures of merit were based on the energy (power) penetrating the enclosure, perceived as the key factor for the shielding problem. However, it seems more adequate and correct the direct reference to the mechanism of birth of induced effects, as stemming from Maxwell equations. For these reasons, two new figures of merit are proposed for the comparison of enclosures and shields performance. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 143 - 144
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch