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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 43
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • An implementation of a programmable cascaded low-pass filter for a rotor flux synthesizer for an induction motor drive

    Page(s): 257 - 263
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates a programmable cascaded low pass filter for the estimation of rotor flux of an induction motor, with a view to estimate the rotor time constant of an indirect field orientation controlled induction motor drive. Programmable cascaded low pass filters have been traditionally used in stator flux oriented vector control of the induction motor. This paper extends the use of this filter to estimate the rotor flux for the indirect field orientation control by generating rotor flux estimates from stator flux estimates. This is achieved by using a three-stage programmable cascaded low pass filter. The three-stage programmable cascaded low-pass filter investigated in this paper has resulted in excellent estimation of rotor flux in the steady-state and transient operation of an indirect field oriented drive. The estimated rotor flux data have also been used for the on-line rotor resistance identification with artificial neural network. Modeling and experiment results presented in this paper demonstrate this method of estimating rotor flux clearly. View full abstract»

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  • Overvoltage suppression filter design methods based on voltage reflection theory

    Page(s): 264 - 271
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To reduce voltage overshoot at the motor terminal, RLC filters are used at the inverter side with an objective of increasing the rise time, while RC filters are used at the motor side as a means of reducing the load impedance at high frequency. However, no clear optimal method for determining the filter parameters has appeared. In this work, we propose filter design methods that fully utilize given conditions such as cable length, cable inductance, cable capacitance, and the reflection coefficient at the inverter side. For determining the parameters of the RLC filter, the filter transfer function is utilized to make the rise time long enough to achieve desirable overshoot level at motor terminals. In choosing the parameters of the RC filter, the reflection coefficient is regarded as a transfer function between the incident and reflected voltages, and the capacitance is chosen so that cancellation occurs between the reflected voltage and its resulting incident voltage. The validity of the proposed design method is supported by simulation results, which are also compared with the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Torque ripple minimization in PM synchronous motors using iterative learning control

    Page(s): 272 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Parasitic torque pulsations exist in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) due to nonsinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap, errors in current measurements, and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to stator slots. These torque pulsations vary periodically with rotor position and are reflected as speed ripple, which degrades the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds. Because of the periodic nature of torque ripple, iterative learning control (ILC) is intuitively an excellent choice for torque ripple minimization. In this paper, first we propose an ILC scheme implemented in time domain to reduce periodic torque pulsations. A forgetting factor is introduced in this scheme to increase the robustness of the algorithm against disturbance. However, this limits the extent to which torque pulsations can be suppressed. In order to eliminate this limitation, a modified ILC scheme implemented in frequency domain by means of Fourier series expansion is presented. Experimental evaluations of both proposed schemes are carried out on a DSP-controlled PMSM drive platform. Test results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes in reducing torque ripple by a factor of approximately three under various operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Novel soft-switching inverter for brushless DC motor variable speed drive system

    Page(s): 280 - 288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Brushless DC motor has been widely used in industrial applications because of its low inertia, fast response, high power density, high reliability and maintenance-free. It is usually supplied by a hard-switching PWM inverter, which normally has low efficiency since the power losses across the switching devices are high. In order to reduce the losses, many soft switching inverters have been designed. Unfortunately, there are many drawbacks, such as high device voltage stress, large DC link voltage ripple, complex control scheme and so on. This paper introduces a novel soft-switching inverter which generates notches of the DC bus voltage becomes to zero during chopping switches commutation to guarantee all switches working in zero voltage state. The result of this investigation will be very useful for industrial applications. View full abstract»

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  • Fault-tolerant switched reluctance motor drive using adaptive fuzzy logic controller

    Page(s): 289 - 295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An adaptive fuzzy controller has been designed to develop a high-performance fault-tolerant switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The fuzzy controller continuously adapts its properties to regulate the machine torque as desired by the drive system even under fault conditions. The adaptation of the fuzzy membership functions results in extended conduction period and increased peak current of the healthy phases to deliver the commanded torque, as much as possible. The adaptive fuzzy controller provides smooth torque output with minimum ripple, even under fault conditions, yielding a high-performance SRM drive with fault-tolerant capability. View full abstract»

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  • Low-cost sensorless control of brushless DC motors with improved speed range

    Page(s): 296 - 302
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    This paper presents a low-cost position sensorless control scheme for brushless dc motors. Rotor position information is extracted by indirectly sensing the back EMF from only one of the three motor-terminal voltages for a three-phase motor. Depending on the terminal voltage sensing locations, either a low-pass filter or a band-pass filter is used for position information retrieval. This leads to a significant reduction in the component count of the sensing circuit. The cost saving is further increased by coupling the sensing circuit with a single-chip microprocessor or digital signal processor for speed control. In addition, a look-up-table-based correction for the nonideal phase delay introduced by the filter is suggested to ensure accurate position detection even at low speed. This extends the operating speed range and improves motor efficiency. Experimental results are included to verify the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Short term braking capability during power interruptions for integrated matrix converter-motor drives

    Page(s): 303 - 311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new trend in adjustable speed drives (ASD) is to integrate the inverter and the motor into a single unit in order to reduce the production cost, the commissioning time, and the physical size of the equipment. This last issue becomes more important, making the matrix converter topology more attractive. Sinusoidal input currents and bidirectional power flow are other advantages of the matrix converter but it is less immune to power grid disturbances compared to a standard ASD. In hoisting applications, short-term braking capability during a power outage is needed until the mechanical brake engages or to perform more effective a combined braking. This paper proposes a new method to provide short-term braking capability during a power outage for matrix converters. A braking chopper is needed in the clamp circuit, which allows for a drastically reduction of the capacitor size. The power flow in the clamp circuit may be reduced by increasing the harmonic content in the motor currents, which causes higher motor losses. Experiments prove the validity of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Commutation torque ripple reduction in brushless DC motor drives using a single DC current sensor

    Page(s): 312 - 319
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on reducing commutation torque ripples generated in brushless DC motor drives with only a single DC-link current sensor provided. In such drives, commutation torque ripple suppression techniques that are practically effective in low speed as well as high speed regions are scarcely found. The commutation compensation technique proposed here is based on a strategy that the current slopes of the incoming and the outgoing phases during the commutation interval can be equalized by a proper duty-ratio control. Being directly linked with deadbeat current control scheme, the proposed control method accomplishes suppression of the spikes and dips superimposed on the current and torque responses during the commutation intervals of the inverter. Effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified through simulations and experiments. View full abstract»

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  • A novel concept of a multiphase, multimotor vector controlled drive system supplied from a single voltage source inverter

    Page(s): 320 - 335
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since variable speed electric drive systems are supplied from power electronic converters, it is possible to utilize ac machines with a phase number higher than three. It is shown in the paper, using general theory of electrical machines, that an increase of the stator phase number to at least five (or more) enables completely independent vector control of two (or more) multiphase machines that are supplied from a single current-controlled voltage source inverter. In order to achieve such an independent control it is necessary to connect multiphase stator windings of the machines in series and perform an appropriate phase sequence transposition. The concept is equally applicable to any multiphase ac machine type and its major advantage, compared to an equivalent multimotor three-phase drive system, is the saving of a certain number of inverter legs. The actual saving depends on the number of phases. The concept is introduced using an n-phase induction machine as the starting point and further analysis is restricted to an odd number of phases, for the reason explained in the paper. Classification of all the possible cases that may arise is given, followed by presentation of connection diagrams for selected phase numbers. Detailed verification of the proposed concept is provided by simulating the operation of a seven-phase three-motor drive system, controlled using indirect rotor flux oriented control principles. Some preliminary experimental results, which confirm the feasibility of a two-motor series-connected drive system, are included as well. The main advantages and drawbacks of the concept, when compared with an equivalent three-phase multimotor drive system, are finally addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and validation of a real-time AC drive simulator

    Page(s): 336 - 345
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    This paper presents the analysis and validation of a real-time AC drive simulator. Real-time simulation has been used for over a decade in power systems engineering to test controllers thoroughly, efficiently, and safely. The development and testing of large DC drives could benefit from this type of simulation, but real-time power system simulators have modeling restrictions preventing stable and accurate simulation of isolated drives switching at high frequencies. These restrictions can be overcome by combining in a single model both the power converter and motor models. After discussing the salient issues related to the real-time simulation of DC drives, a prototype real-time simulator for drives is described. Its ability to accurately emulate the behavior of large drives is demonstrated through two case studies. A first case study demonstrates the feasibility of simulating a drive of typical complexity in real-time. The second case study demonstrates how the controller for a PWM VSI fed induction motor, switching at 4 kHz, is designed, implemented in a microcontroller and tested in real-time using a simulated inverter, motor and load. Comparisons against results obtained with another simulation tool, which uses extremely accurate variable-step integration algorithms, demonstrates the validity of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • A novel direct torque controlled interior permanent magnet synchronous machine drive with low ripple in flux and torque and fixed switching frequency

    Page(s): 346 - 354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A modified direct torque control (DTC) scheme for interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) is investigated in this paper, which features in very low flux and torque ripple and almost fixed switching frequency. It is based on the compensation of the error flux linkage vector by means of space vector modulation. Modeling and experimental results show that the flux and torque ripples are greatly reduced when compared with those of the basic DTC. With the new scheme, very short sampling time is not essential. All the advantages of the basic DTC are still retained. In addition, fixed switching frequency at different operating conditions becomes possible. The field-weakening control of this drive is also studied; an IPM DTC drive with a wider operation range and lower flux and torque ripple has been achieved experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Closed loop control of excitation parameters for high speed switched-reluctance generators

    Page(s): 355 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach to the automatic control of excitation parameters for the switched-reluctance generator (SRG) where the SRG system operates at sufficiently high speed that it operates in the single pulse mode. The turn-on and turn-off angles are the two parameters through which we can control the electric power generation. The objective of the work is to develop an easily implementable control algorithm that automatically maintains the most efficient excitation angles in producing the required amount of electric power. The work is focused on finding the most efficient excitation angles and characterizing them for easy implemention under closed loop control. Through modeling of an experimental SRG and extensive simulation, it can be seen that the optimal-efficiency turn-off angles can be characterized as a function of power and speed level. Within the closed-loop power controller, the optimal-efficiency turn-off angle is determined from an analytic curve fit. The turn-on angle is then used as the degree of freedom necessary to regulate the power produced by the SRG. Given that the turn-off angle is associated with optimal-efficiency at each speed and power point, overall operation is achieved at optimal-efficiency. The SRG, inverter and control system are modeled in Simulink to demonstrate the operation of the system when implemented within a voltage regulation system. The control technique is then applied to an experimental SRG system. Experimental operation documents that the technique provides for efficient operation of the SRG system through tuning the controller at only four operating points. View full abstract»

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  • A passive soft-switching snubber for PWM inverters

    Page(s): 363 - 370
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    This paper presents a regenerative passive snubber circuit for pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverters to achieve soft-switching purposes without significant cost and reliability penalties. This passive soft-switching snubber (PSSS) employs a diode/capacitor snubber circuit for each switching device in an inverter to provide low dv/dt and low switching losses to the device. The PSSS further uses a transformer-based energy regenerative circuit to recover the energy captured in the snubber capacitors. All components in the PSSS circuit are passive, thus leading to reliable and low-cost advantages over those soft-switching schemes relying on additional active switches. The snubber has been incorporated into a 150 kVA PWM inverter. Simulation and experimental results are given to demonstrate the validity and features of the snubber circuit. View full abstract»

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  • A 12 kW three-phase low THD rectifier with high-frequency isolation and regulated DC output

    Page(s): 371 - 377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust 12 kW rectifier with low THD in the line currents, based on an 18-pulse transformer arrangement with reduced kVA capacities followed by a high-frequency isolation stage is presented in this work. Three full-bridge (buck-based) converters are used to allow galvanic isolation and to balance the dc-link currents, without current sensing or current controller. The topology provides a regulated dc output with a very simple and well-known control strategy and natural three-phase power factor correction. The phase-shift PWM technique, with zero-voltage switching is used for the high-frequency dc-dc stage. Analytical results from Fourier analysis of winding currents and the vector diagram of winding voltages are presented. Experimental results from a 12 kW prototype are shown in the paper to verify the efficiency, robustness and simplicity of the command circuitry to the proposed concept. View full abstract»

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  • PFC full bridge rectifiers EMI modeling and analysis-common mode disturbance reduction

    Page(s): 378 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switched mode power supplies must comply with electro-magnetic interference (EMI) regulations. Due to technological improvements, switching frequencies have been increased leading to reduced passive component values but also greater EMI levels, especially conducted common mode disturbances. This paper presents a simple and effective EMI forecast method to study and to analyze the conducted EMI effects before prototype testing. The methodology is validated and applied to the single phase full bridge power factor correction (PFC) rectifier. Several techniques to reduce common mode current (CMC) levels created by the converter are presented. The study is based on high frequency models and understanding of phenomenon. Looking at the control strategies and/or the propagation paths, it is demonstrated that EMI levels may be reduced. It is shown that with symmetrical EMI propagation paths, synchronized control strategies such as bipolar pulse width modulation (PWM) are preferred and lead to reduced CMC levels. On the other hand, with asymmetrical propagation paths, unipolar and half bridge control strategies may be preferred to reduce both differential mode current (DMC) and CMC levels. Results are validated using practical experiments performed under EMI regulation testing conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A soft-single-switched forward converter with low stresses and two derived structures

    Page(s): 388 - 395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a soft-single-switched forward converter with low current and voltage stresses and two derived converters. These converters operate with a nondissipative snubber in ZCS mode at turning on and ZVS mode at turning off. The output voltage is controlled by using PWM technique. It is carried out a detailed study, where operating principles and some simulation and experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Zero-current and zero-voltage soft-transition commutation cell for PWM inverters

    Page(s): 396 - 403
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a universal auxiliary commutation cell for pulse-width modulated (PWM) inverters termed zero current and zero voltage transition (ZCZVT) commutation cell. It provides zero current and zero voltage commutation, simultaneously, during main power devices turn-on and turn-off, with controlled di/dt and dv/dt. As a result, commutations of the main power devices occur without any losses. This unique characteristic is not achieved by any other soft-switching commutation cell for inverters hitherto presented in the literature, making it a strong candidate for use in low-power (MOSFET), medium-power (IGBT) or high-power applications (GTO, thyristor). Furthermore, reverse recovery losses of main diodes are minimized and auxiliary switches commutate at zero current. To demonstrate the operation of the proposed universal auxiliary commutation cell, a ZCZVT PWM full-bridge inverter is analyzed. To evaluate the operation of the auxiliary circuit in different conditions, prototypes with both IGBTs and MOSFETs for different output powers levels were implemented and their performances compared. Experimental results confirm that there is no overlap between main switch current and voltage, and that waveform ringing is practically eliminated. View full abstract»

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  • DC voltage sensorless single-phase PFC converter

    Page(s): 404 - 410
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a simple DC voltage sensorless single phase PFC converter by detecting an AC line voltage waveform. Both DC voltage and AC current sensors used in the conventional PFC converter are not required to construct the control system. The conventional converter circuit with a boost chopper circuit in the DC side from a rectifier circuit is used as the main PFC converter circuit. In the control system, the circuit parameters such as a series inductance L and equivalent load resistance value Rd are used to generate the sinusoidal current waveform. The DC voltage is directly controlled by the command input signal kd(=Ed/Ea) for the boost chopper circuit. The DC voltage regulation is small because of the feed forward control for the AC line voltage Ea and no dependence of the circuit parameters. The sinusoidal current waveform in phase with the AC line voltage can be obtained. The feasibility of the proposed control system is verified by some simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of phase shift full bridge converter with series-connected two transformers

    Page(s): 411 - 419
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new phase shift full bridge (PSFB) converter with series-connected two transformers is proposed. The proposed converter shows wide zero voltage switching (ZVS) ranges and no output inductor is needed since each transformer individually acts as an inductor or a transformer during different times of the switching cycle. The operational principle, large signal modeling, and design equations are presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed converter can achieve a significant improvement in the efficiency for a 100W (5 V, 20 A) telecommunication on-board power supply. View full abstract»

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  • A novel ZVS DC/DC converter for high power applications

    Page(s): 420 - 429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel zero voltage switch (ZVS) pulse-width modulation (PWM) DC/DC converter for high power, high output voltage applications. By using two active switches in the secondary side of a transformer, the proposed converter achieves not only ZVS of the active switches in the entire load ranges but also soft commutation of the output rectifier diodes. The proposed topology has simple structure and control strategy. Simulation results and experimental results of a 2.8 kW 200 kHz DC/DC converter are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A low frequency AC to high frequency AC inverter with build-in power factor correction and soft-switching

    Page(s): 430 - 442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a full bridge AC-AC inverter for high frequency power distribution system with power factor correction stage controlled by a unified controller. The proposed inverter has the following features: 1) load independent output voltage with constant frequency and very low total harmonic distortion (THD); 2) soft switching of the full bridge switches for a wide range of input voltage and load conditions; 3) low DC bus voltage; 4) simple control and cost effectiveness for the power factor correction stage. Operating principles and performance characteristics are presented, and guidance to design the converter is given. Experimental results of a 90-265Vac input, 30 Vac output at 100 kHz, 250 W laboratory prototype are given to verify the theoretical and simulation results. The proposed ac-ac inverter is attractive for low power (up to 250 W) high frequency applications. View full abstract»

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  • A low voltage, dynamic, noninverting, synchronous buck-boost converter for portable applications

    Page(s): 443 - 452
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasing use of low voltage portable devices and growing requirements of functionalities embedded into such devices, efficient power management techniques are needed for longer battery life. Given the highly variable nature of batteries (e.g., 2.7-4.2 V for Li-ion), systems often require supply voltages to be both higher and lower than the battery voltage (e.g., power amplifier for CDMA applications), while supplying significant current, which is most efficiently generated by a noninverting buck-boost switching converter. In this paper, the design and experimental results of a new dynamic, noninverting, synchronous buck-boost converter for low voltage, portable applications is reported. The converter's output voltage is dynamically adjustable (on-the-fly) from 0.4 to 4.0 V, while capable of supplying a maximum load current of 0.65 A from an input supply of 2.4-3.4 V. The worst-case response time of the converter for a 0.4 to 4 V step change in its output voltage (corresponding to a 0.2 to 2 V step at its reference input) is less than 300 μsec and to a load-current step of 0 to 0.5 A is within 200 μsec, yielding only a transient error of 40 mV in the output voltage. This paper also presents a nonmathematical, intuitive analysis of the time-averaged, small-signal model of a noninverting buck-boost converter. View full abstract»

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  • The double discontinuous mode operation of a converter: a method for soft switching

    Page(s): 453 - 460
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a way of ensuring soft switching in a converter without using additional components. This method is called double discontinuous mode (DDM). In particular, it permits any free wheeling diode to switch off at zero current, and for transistors to switch on at zero current and to switch off at zero voltage. The method illustrated here refers to a buck, but this concept may be applied to any type of converter, with or without transformer. Various mathematical models of this method are developed, and its characteristics and fields of application highlighted in this paper. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope