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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2004

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c2
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  • Entropy methods for adaptive utility elicitation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 169 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an optimal question-selection algorithm to elicit von Neumann and Morgenstern utility values for a set of ordered prospects of a decision situation. The approach uses information theory and entropy-coding principles to select the minimum expected number of questions needed for utility elicitation. At each stage of the questionnaire, we use the question that will provide the largest reduction in the entropy of the joint distribution of the utility values. The algorithm uses questions that require binary responses, which are easier to provide than numeric values, and uses an adaptive question-selection scheme where each new question depends on the previous response obtained from the decision maker. We present a geometric interpretation for utility elicitation and work through a full example to illustrate the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Testing the effectiveness of icons for supporting distributed team decision making under time pressure

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 179 - 189
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There has been minimal experimentation testing the effectiveness of icons (or interface features in general) on distributed team decision making. To overcome this deficiency, an experiment tested the effectiveness of a "send" icon to remind team members to send information to their teammates, and a "receive" icon to tell them when they had received information, for a simulated, military task. As predicted, the "send" icon was effective in maintaining information flow, particularly when time pressure was high and simulated teammates sent less information, because it reduced memory burden and supported proactive behavior. The "receive" icon was only effective in supporting decision accuracy when time pressure was low. As time pressure increased, participants' with the "receive" icon increasingly used a strategy of making decisions before reading the most important information, completely counter to expectations. These results illustrate the subtle, sometimes surprising way task characteristics (e.g., time pressure) can affect participants' strategies and, thereby, ify the positive effect of displays on performance. The experiment also examined other task characteristics and working memory capacity, and showed how the lens model equation (LME) helped explain all effects on decision accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Semantic association of multimedia document descriptions through fuzzy relational algebra and fuzzy reasoning

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 190 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    According to the emerging MPEG-7 standard, the semantic description of multimedia documents is expressed in terms of semantic entities such as objects, events, concepts, and relations among them. The semantic entities can be used as index terms, in order to support the semantic search process. In this paper, we propose a method that a) applies fuzzy relational operations (closure, composition) and fuzzy rules to expand a semantic encyclopedia and b) uses the encyclopedia to associate the semantic entities with the aid of a fuzzy thesaurus. This method is shown to reduce the need for human intervention in creating semantic descriptions of multimedia documents, as well as correct for incompleteness and inconsistency. View full abstract»

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  • The ideal moment of inertia for a baseball or softball bat

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 197 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In selecting a baseball or a softball bat, both weight and weight distribution should be considered. However, these considerations must be individualized, because there is large variability in how different batters swing a bat and in how each batter swings different bats. Previous research has defined the ideal bat weight as that weight that maximizes the batted-ball speed based on measurements of individual swings, the concept of the coefficient of restitution, and the laws of conservation of momentum. In this paper, a method is given that extends this approach to recent bat designs where the moment of inertia can be specified. The data presented in this paper show that all of the players in our study would probably profit from using end-loaded bats. View full abstract»

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  • Extraction of salient textual patterns: synergy between lexical cohesion and contextual coherence

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 205 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most current information retrieval systems rely solely on lexical item repetition, which is notorious for its vulnerability. In this research, we propose a novel method for the extraction of salient textual patterns. One of our major objectives is to move away from keywords and their associated limitations in textual information retrieval. How individual sentences in text fit together to be perceived as a salient pattern is identified. A text network that exhibits textual continuity, arising from a connectionist model, is described. The network facilitates a dynamic extraction of salient textual segments by capturing semantics from two different categories of natural language, namely lexical cohesion and contextual coherence. We also present the results of an empirical study designed to compare our model with the performance of human judges in the identification of salient textual patterns. The preliminary results show that our model has the potential for automatic salient patterns discovery in text. View full abstract»

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  • Computing bounds for forbidden State reachability functions for controlled Petri nets

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 219 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Characterizing uncontrollable reachability is a central issue in forbidden state control of discrete event systems. In this paper, we present methods for building expressions which estimate uncontrollable reachability in a general class of Petri nets and which characterize the control sets which ensure future markings will not be forbidden. These expressions are determined by constructing an abstract syntax tree from an analysis of the Petri net model of the system. We show that these expressions represent bounds that are useful for evaluating uncontrollable reachability and for evaluating control actions. View full abstract»

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  • Performance modeling and analysis of workflow

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 229 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Workflow model analysis is performed at logic, temporal, and performance levels. This paper mainly deals with the performance level issues. Workflow net (WF-net) is extended with time information to the timing workflow net (TWF-net). To provide a formal framework for modeling and analyzing workflow, this paper proposes a multidimension workflow net (MWF-net) that include multiple TWF-nets and the organization and resource information. The algorithm to decompose a free-choice and acyclic Petri nets (PN) into a set of T-components is extended to a TWF-net containing iteration structures. Then, resource availability and workload analysis is performed. A method for computing the lower bound of average turnaround time of transaction instances processed in a MWF-net is proposed. Finally a case study is used to show that the proposed method can be effectively utilized in practice. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptability of a hybrid route choice model to incorporating driver behavior dynamics under information provision

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 243 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a seamless framework to incorporate the day-to-day and within-day dynamics of driver route choice decisions under real-time information provision by adapting a hybrid probabilistic-possibilistic model previously developed by the authors. The day-to-day dynamics are captured through the update of driver perception and route choice rules based on the current day's experience. The within-day dynamics are captured through the en-route adjustment of the weights of the driver route choice rules in response to situational factors. Experiments are conducted to analyze the model's ability to capture driver behavior dynamics, and the associated prediction accuracy. The results suggest that the framework can reflect the evolution of driver route choice behavior over time, and adapt to the within-day variability in ambient driving conditions. This is illustrated by its ability to capture phenomena such as inertia, compliance, delusion, freezing, and perception update under information provision, in addition to the effects of familiarity and route complexity. In the within-day context, the results highlight the sensitivity to the situational factors unfolding in real-time. The results also illustrate the better prediction power of the hybrid model compared to that of a traditional multinomial probit model; however, this gap reduces with increasing heterogeneity in driver behavioral class fractions. Elsewhere, the authors show that the proposed framework can be used to predict the ambient driver class fractions, thereby addressing a key deployment limitation of existing dynamic network models for real-time traffic control through route guidance. View full abstract»

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  • Network-based distributed planning using coevolutionary agents: architecture and evaluation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 257 - 269
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel evolutionary planning framework (coevolutionary virtual design environment) particularly suited to distributed network-enabled design and manufacturing organizations is presented. The approach utilizes distributed evolutionary agents and mobile agents as principal object-oriented software entities that support a network-efficient evolutionary exploration of planning alternatives in which successive populations systematically select planning alternatives that reduce cost and increase throughput. This paper presents the architecture of the coevolutionary virtual design environment, and examines the network-based performance of the coevolutionary algorithms that execute in this environment. Simulation analysis examines the percentage convergence error and percentage computational advantage comparing the distributed network-based implementation to a centralized network-based implementation. The algorithms and architectures are evaluated in a realistic network setting and analyzed using models of network delays and processing times. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptation of hidden Markov models using maximum model distance algorithm

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 270 - 276
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach that uses the maximum model distance (MMD) method for the adaptation of hidden Markov models (HMMs). This method has the same framework as it is used for constructing speech recognizers with abundant data, and work effectively with any amount of adaptation data. All parameters of the HMMs with or without the adaptation data could be adapted. If the adaptation data is sufficient, then the adapted models will gradually become a speaker-dependent one. Both the dialect and the speaker adaptation experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In the speaker adaptation experiments, up to 65.55% phoneme error reduction was achieved, and the MMD could reduce the phoneme error by 16.91% even only one adaptation utterance is available. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of query complexity and learning on novice user query performance with conceptual and logical database interfaces

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 276 - 281
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Users see the database interface as the database system. A good interface enables them to formulate queries better. The semantics communicated through the interface can be classified according to abstraction levels, such as the conceptual and logical levels. With the conceptual interface, interaction is in terms of real-world concepts such as entities, objects and relationships. Current user-database interaction is mainly based on the logical interface, where interaction is in terms of abstract database concepts such as relations and joins. Many researchers argue that end users will perform better with the conceptual interface. This research tested this claim, as well as the effects of query complexity and learning, on the visual query performance of users. The experiment involved three tests: an initial test, a retention test and a relearning test. The results showed that, for complex queries, conceptual interface users achieved higher accuracy, were more confident in their answers, and spent less time on the queries. This is persistent across retention and relearning tests. View full abstract»

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  • Internet scheduling environment with market-driven agents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 281 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new generation scheduling paradigm, the Internet scheduling environment. It is formed by a group of Internet scheduling agents which share computational resources to solve scheduling problems in a distributed and collaborative manner. We propose a migration scheme to transform existing standalone scheduling systems to Internet scheduling agents that can communicate with each other and solve problems beyond individual capabilities. To coordinate computational resource collaboration among agents, we introduce the market-based control mechanism in which self-interested agents initiate or participate in auctions to sell or buy scheduling problems. Efficient allocation of computational resources is achieved through the auctions. This paper also describes a prototype Internet scheduling environment named LekiNET, which is migrated from LEKIN®, a flexible job shop scheduling system. The experiments on the LekiNET testbed demonstrate that the agent-based market-driven Internet scheduling environment is feasible and advantageous to future scheduling research and development. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Elementary Siphons of Petri Nets and Their Application to Deadlock Prevention in Flexible Manufacturing Systems"

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 289
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans call for papers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 290
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    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 291
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 292
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society Information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans information for authors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta