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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2004

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  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Society publication information

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  • Cache satellite distribution systems: modeling, analysis, and efficient operation

    Page(s): 218 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Web caches have become an integral component contributing to the improvement of the performance observed by Web clients. Cache satellite distribution systems (CSDSs) have emerged as a technology for feeding the caches with the information clients are expected to request, ahead of time. In such a system, the participating proxies periodically report to a central station about requests received from their clients. The central station selects a collection of Web documents, which are "pushed" via a satellite broadcast to the participating proxies, so that upon a future local request for the documents, they will already reside in the local cache, and will not need to be fetched from the terrestrial network. In this paper, our aim is addressing the issues of how to operate the CSDS, how to design it, and how to estimate its effect. Questions of interest are: 1) what Web documents should be transmitted by the central station and 2) what is the benefit of adding a particular proxy into a CSDS? We offer a model for CSDS that accounts for the request streams addressed to the proxies and which captures the intricate interaction between the proxy caches. Unlike models that are based only on the access frequency of the various documents, this model captures both their frequency and their locality of reference. We provide an analysis that is based on the stochastic properties of the traffic streams that can be derived from HTTP logs, examine it on real traffic, and demonstrate its applicability in selecting a set of proxies into a CSDS. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental study on the quality-of-service of video encoded sequences over an emulated rain-faded Satellite channel

    Page(s): 229 - 237
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video-coding techniques that are widely used in videoconferencing and streaming applications over the Internet may face degradation in performance when traversing satellite channels. The aim of the present paper is to provide objective measurements of the quality of video-encoded sequences for two of the most popular video coders in this setting [namely, H.261 and moving picture experts group (MPEG)-2], after transmission over faded satellite channels. In particular, the emphasis is on the Ka band, which is becoming an attractive alternative for commercial applications but is more prone to quality degradation than the currently widely used Ku band. In order to test the behavior of the coders in repeatable experimental conditions and over different data link platforms, two transmission chains have been implemented in the laboratory by careful emulation of the required environment. The data link layer has been based on HDLC-like and direct video broadcasting protocols, respectively. The experiments have been performed in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and by using fading patterns derived by real-world data. The results obtained highlight some often neglected aspects in the behavior of the coders under examination, both in relation to their comparative performance and to their adaptability to different underlying data link protocols. View full abstract»

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  • Fixed versus adaptive admission control in direct broadcast Satellite networks with return channel systems

    Page(s): 238 - 249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, as part of the adaptive resource allocation and management (ARAM) system (Alagoz, 2001), we propose an adaptive admission control strategy, which is aimed at combating link congestion and compromised channel conditions inherent in multimedia satellite networks. We present the performance comparisons of a traditional (fixed) admission control strategy versus the new adaptive admission control strategy for a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) network with return channel system (DBS-RCS). Performance comparisons are done using the ARAM simulator. The traffic mix in the simulator includes both available bit rate (ABR) traffic and variable bit rate (VBR) traffic. The dynamic channel conditions in the simulator reflect time variant error rates due to external effects such as rain. In order to maximize the resource utilization, both for fixed and adaptive approaches, assignment of the VBR services are determined based on the estimated statistical multiplexing and other system attributes, namely, video source, data transmission, and channel coding rates. In this paper, we focus on the admission control algorithms and assess their impact on quality-of-service (QoS) and forward link utilization of DBS-RCS. We show that the proposed adaptive admission control strategy is profoundly superior to the traditional admission control strategy with only a marginal decrease in QoS. Since the ARAM system has several parameters and strategies that play key roles in terms of the performance measures, their sensitivity analysis are also studied to verify the above foundations. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative hybrid optical/digital ultra-fast packet-switched processor for meshed satellite networks

    Page(s): 250 - 260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the architectural study of an innovative ultra-fast packet-switched transparent processor dealing efficiently with unicast and multicast applications. The proposed architecture aims at outperforming current packet processor architectures in terms of total throughput and efficiency. In order to cope with the limitations of today's on board processors, three new concepts are introduced: transparent burst switching, channel multiplexing, and bandwidth asymmetry . Some of these concepts are already well known in the field of optical terrestrial networks but need further improvements and adaptations to cope with the requirements of satellite processors and systems. Transparent burst switching is used to enhance the transparency of the processor: the packet payload is processed transparently and only the header is demodulated onboard. The channel multiplexing and bandwidth asymmetry techniques are used to consolidate bufferless switch architectures, which appear to be very attractive for increasing the overall throughput of switches. Finally, the paper introduces an innovative efficient and scalable hybrid optical/digital implementation of this processor. The focus here is on a satellite-switched code/time-division multiple-access type of system but the results and concepts provided in this paper can apply to other satellite-switched systems. View full abstract»

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  • Routing in ISL networks considering empirical IP traffic

    Page(s): 261 - 272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Next-generation satellite networks are expected to provide a variety of applications with diverse performance requirements, which will call for the development of adaptive routing procedures supporting different levels of services. In this paper, we propose traffic class dependent (TCD) routing, which has the potential to differentiate between traffic classes using different optimization criteria in route calculation. The performance of TCD routing is evaluated for different traffic scenarios using an empirical traffic source model derived from the real backbone Internet traffic trace and compared with results obtained with equivalent Poisson traffic as a reference point. In addition, TCD routing is compared with a simple single service routing procedure, which does not make any distinction between traffic classes. Performance analysis, in terms of average packet delay, normalized data throughput, and normalized link load, reveals improved routing resulting from traffic class differentiation, regardless of the traffic scenario considered. The performance measures based of aggregate traffic flow show no significant difference between routing of empirical and equivalent Poisson traffic. View full abstract»

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  • Routing strategies for maximizing throughput in LEO satellite networks

    Page(s): 273 - 286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops routing and scheduling algorithms for packet transmission in a low Earth orbit satellite network with a limited number of transmitters and buffer space. We consider a packet switching satellite network, where time is slotted and the transmission time of each packet is fixed and equal to one time slot. Packets arrive at each satellite independently with a some probability during each time slot; their destination satellite is uniformly distributed. With a limited number of transmitters and buffer space on-board each satellite, contention for transmission inevitably occurs as multiple packets arrive at a satellite. First, we establish the stability region of the system in terms of the maximum admissible packet arrival rate that can possibly be supported. We then consider three transmission scheduling schemes for resolving these contentions: random packet win, where the winning packet is chosen at random; oldest packet win, where the packet that has traveled the longest distance wins the contention; and shortest hops win (SHW), where the packet closest to its destination wins the contention. We evaluate the performance of each of the schemes in terms of throughput. For a system without a buffer, the SHW scheme attains the highest throughput. However, when even limited buffer space is available, all three schemes achieve about the same throughput performance. Moreover, even with a buffer size of just a few packets the achieved throughput is close to that of the infinite buffer case. View full abstract»

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  • Capacity dimensioning and routing for hybrid satellite and terrestrial systems

    Page(s): 287 - 299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Satellite network architecture plays an important role in the success of a satellite business. For future commercial broadband data satellite networks integrated with the terrestrial network, satellite network topology, link capacity, and routing have major impacts on the cost of the network and the amount of revenue the network can generate. To find the most cost-effective satellite network topology, we propose a unified mathematical framework using a two-stage stochastic programming formulation. The solution to the stochastic programming formulation gives optimal link capacities and an optimal routing strategy for different network topologies, taking into account uncertainties in long-term aggregate traffic statistic estimation. Using a simple satellite network example, we show the feasible topology regions for three different satellite topologies and show that, for some parameter values, the hybrid topology is more cost effective than nonhybrid topologies. In the limit of high traffic rejection cost, stochastic dimensioning reduces to static dimensioning. We study worst case static dimensioning for a general geosynchronous earth orbit satellite network and show the feasible topology regions, as well as effective cost comparisons for different topologies. We conclude with a discussion on network cost and architectural flexibility relating to satellite network design. View full abstract»

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  • Supporting IP/LEO satellite networks by handover-independent IP mobility management

    Page(s): 300 - 307
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks are capable of providing wireless connectivity to any part of the world while guaranteeing short propagation delays. There is a huge need for developing Internet protocol (IP) friendly networking technologies that aim to integrate emerging LEO satellite networks with the already existing terrestrial IP networks. LEO satellite networks are well characterized by frequent handover occurrences. These handovers largely affect mobility management in LEO satellite networks. Existing IP mobility management protocols, such as mobile IP, manage the location of mobile nodes on the basis of the network topology. Applying such mechanisms in LEO satellite networks will cause a binding update of mobile nodes upon every handover occurrence. Given the frequent occurrence of handovers in LEO satellite networks, a potentially large number of binding update requests will be generated and ultimately affects the scalability of mobility management. This paper argues a handover-independent mobility management scheme for LEO satellite networks. The proposed scheme purposes to exploit geographical location information to make the mobility management independent from handovers. This handover-independent management method reduces the number of update requests and eventually increases the system scalability. A detailed description of the actual implementation of the scheme is given. Through a mathematical analysis, the paper evaluates the required management cost and accordingly verifies the scalability of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of key management in secure satellite multicast

    Page(s): 308 - 319
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Security is an important concern in today's information age and particularly so in satellite systems, where eavesdropping can be easily performed. This paper addresses efficient key management for encrypted multicast traffic transmitted via satellite. We consider the topic of encrypting traffic in large multicast groups, where the group size and dynamics have a significant impact on the network load. We consider life cycle key management costs of a multicast connection, and show for a logical key hierarchy (LKH) how member preregistration and periodic admission reduces the initialization cost, and how the optimum outdegree of a hierarchical tree varies with the expected member volatility and rekey factor. This improves network utilization, but encryption at the network layer can pose problems on satellite links. We, therefore, propose and analyze an interworking solution between multilayer Internet protocol security (IPSEC) and LKH that also reduces key management traffic while enabling interworking with performance enhancing modules used on satellite links. View full abstract»

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  • PETRA: performance enhancing transport architecture for Satellite communications

    Page(s): 320 - 332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a performance enhancing transport architecture for the satellite environment. This solution improves the network transport performance by overcoming the limits imposed by a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP)-based stack suite, while maintaining the interfaces offered by it. This is an important issue since TCP/IP is widely used and most of the applications are based on it. The work starts from the state-of-the-art about the transport layer over satellite by distinguishing two alternative frameworks: the black box (BB) and the complete knowledge (CK) approaches. In the former, the network is considered as a "black box" and only modifications in the terminal tools are permitted. In the latter, the complete control of any network element is allowed so as a performance optimization procedure is possible. The proposed architecture [called Performance Enhancing Transport Architecture (PETRA)] is designed in all details using the second approach. PETRA uses network elements, called relay entities, to isolate the satellite portions in case of heterogeneous networks, while a transport layer protocol stack is used to optimize the transport of information over satellite links. A special satellite transport protocol, that is part of the transport layer protocol stack, is used over such links to perform error recovery. Simulation results show that the proposed framework significantly enhances throughput performance. View full abstract»

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  • Providing differentiated service to TCP flows over bandwidth on demand geostationary satellite networks

    Page(s): 333 - 347
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The elasticity of transmission control protocol (TCP) traffic complicates attempts to provide performance guarantees to TCP flows. The existence of different types of networks and environments on the connections' paths only aggravates this problem. In this paper, simulation is the primary means for investigating the specific problem in the context of bandwidth on demand (BoD) geostationary satellite networks. Proposed transport-layer options and mechanisms for TCP performance enhancement, studied in the single connection case or without taking into account the media access control (MAC)-shared nature of the satellite link, are evaluated within a BoD-aware satellite simulation environment. Available capabilities at MAC layer, enabling the provision of differentiated service to TCP flows, are demonstrated and the conditions under which they perform efficiently are investigated. The BoD scheduling algorithm and the policy regarding spare capacity distribution are two MAC-layer mechanisms that appear to be complementary in this context; the former is effective at high levels of traffic load, whereas the latter drives the differentiation at low traffic load. When coupled with transport layer mechanisms they can form distinct bearer services over the satellite network that increase the differentiation robustness against the TCP bias against connections with long round-trip times. We also explore the use of analytical, fixed-point methods to predict the performance at transport level and link level. The applicability of the approach is mainly limited by the lack of analytical models accounting for prioritization mechanisms at the MAC layer and the nonuniform distribution of traffic load among satellite terminals. View full abstract»

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  • TP-planet: a reliable transport protocol for interplanetary Internet

    Page(s): 348 - 361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Space exploration missions are crucial for acquisition of information about space and the Universe. The entire success of a mission is directly related to the satisfaction of its communications needs. For this goal, the challenges posed by the InterPlaNetary (IPN) Internet need to be addressed. Current transmission control protocols (TCPs) have very poor performance in the IPN Internet, which is characterized by extremely high propagation delays, link errors, asymmetrical bandwidth, and blackouts. The window-based congestion control, which injects a new packet into the network upon an ACK reception, is responsible for such performance degradation due to high propagation delay. Slow start algorithms of the existing TCPs further contribute to the performance degradation by wasting long time periods to reach the actual data rate. Moreover, wireless link errors amplify the problem by misleading the TCP source to unnecessarily throttle the congestion window. The recovery from erroneous window decrease takes a certain amount of time, which is proportional to the round-trip time (RTT) and further decreases the network performance. In this paper, a reliable transport protocol (TP-Planet) is presented for data traffic in the IPN Internet. It is intended to address the challenges and to achieve high throughput performance and reliable data transmission on deep-space links of the IPN Backbone Network. TP-Planet deploys a rate-based additive-increase multiplicative-decrease (AIMD) congestion control, whose AIMD parameters are tuned to help avoid throughput degradation. TP-Planet replaces the inefficient slow start algorithm with a novel Initial State algorithm, which allows the capture of link resources in a very fast and controlled manner. A new congestion detection and control mechanism is developed, which decouples congestion decisions from single packet losses in order to avoid the erroneous congestion decisions due to high link errors. In order to reduce the effects of blackout conditions on the throughput performance, TP-Planet incorporates the blackout state procedure into the protocol operation. The bandwidth asymmetry problem is addressed by the adoption of delayed selective acknowledgment (SACK). Simulation experiments show that the TP-Planet significantly impr- oves the throughput performance and addresses the challenges posed by the IPN Backbone Network. View full abstract»

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  • On-board satellite "split TCP" proxy

    Page(s): 362 - 370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several satellite systems currently in operation or under development claim to support broadband Internet applications. In these scenarios, transmission control protocol (TCP) plays a critical role. Unfortunately, when used with satellite links, TCP suffers from a number of well-known performance problems, especially for higher data rates and high altitude satellites with longer delays. In response to these difficulties, the satellite and Internet research communities have developed a large gamut of solutions ranging from architectural modifications to changes in the TCP protocol. Among these, one approach requiring minimal modifications involves splitting the TCP connection in two or more segments with one segment connecting terrestrial nodes across the satellite network. In this paper, we consider an evolution of this idea: placing a TCP proxy on board the satellite that further subdivides the end-to-end connection into separate TCP connections between ground and space. We focus upon the efficient use of buffer resources on board the satellite, while at the same time enhancing TCP performance. We evaluate two TCP protocol versions, TCP NewReno and TCP Westwood. We consider various geosynchronous earth orbit satellite scenarios, with and without the split proxy, and with different channel error conditions (random errors, shadowing, etc.). Using simulation, we show that an on-board proxy provides a number of distinct advantages and can enhance throughput up to threefold for both TCP New Reno and TCP Westwood, in some scenarios, with relatively modest on-board buffering requirements. The main contributions of this paper are: the on-board split proxy concept, the buffer management strategy, the use of a realistic "urban shadowing" model in the evaluation, and the extensive comparison of the recently announced TCP Westwood with the traditional TCP New Reno. View full abstract»

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  • An explicit and fair window adjustment method to enhance TCP efficiency and fairness over multihops Satellite networks

    Page(s): 371 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) is the most widely used transport protocol in today's Internet. Despite the fact that several mechanisms have been presented in recent literature to improve TCP, there remain some vexing attributes that impair TCPs performance. This paper addresses the issue of the efficiency and fairness of TCP in multihops satellite constellations. It mainly focuses on the effect of the change in flows count on TCP behavior. In case of a handover occurrence, a TCP sender may be forced to be sharing a new set of satellites with other users resulting in a change of flows count. This paper argues that the TCP rate of each flow should be dynamically adjusted to the available bandwidth when the number of flows that are competing for a single link, changes over time. An explicit and fair scheme is developed. The scheme matches the aggregate window size of all active TCP flows to the network pipe. At the same time, it provides all the active connections with feedbacks proportional to their round-trip time values so that the system converges to optimal efficiency and fairness. Feedbacks are signaled to TCP sources through the receiver's advertised window field in the TCP header of acknowledgments. Senders should accordingly regulate their sending rates. The proposed scheme is referred to as explicit and fair window adjustment (XFWA). Extensive simulation results show that the XFWA scheme substantially improves the system fairness, reduces the number of packet drops, and makes better utilization of the bottleneck link. View full abstract»

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  • TCP-Peachtree: a multicast transport protocol for satellite IP networks

    Page(s): 388 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a reliable multicast transport protocol TCP-Peachtree is proposed for satellite Internet protocol (IP) networks. In addition to the acknowledgment implosion and scalability problems in terrestrial wirelined networks, satellite multicasting has additional problems, i.e., different multicast topology, different type of congestion control problems, and low bandwidth feedback link. In TCP-Peachtree, the modified B+ tree logical hierarchical structure is used to form dynamic multicast groups. Local error recovery and acknowledgment (ACK) aggregations are performed within each subgroup and also via logical subgroups. In order to avoid the overall performance degradation caused by some worst receivers, a local relay scheme is designed. Two new algorithms, jump start and quick recovery, which are based on the usage of a type of low-priority segments called NIL segments, are proposed for congestion control. NIL segments are used to probe the availability of network resources and also for error recovery. The delayed selective acknowledgment (SACK) scheme is adopted to address the bandwidth asymmetry problems and a hold state is developed to address persistent fades. The simulation results show that the congestion control algorithms of TCP-Peachtree outperform the TCP-NewReno when combined with our hierarchical groups and improve the throughput performance during rain fades. It is also shown that TCP-Peachtree achieves fairness and is very highly scalability. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and analysis of TCP-like multicast congestion control in hybrid terrestrial/satellite IP networks

    Page(s): 401 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Given their broadcast nature, satellite communications are one natural engineering choice for multicast service deployment. In this paper, the throughput performance of transmission control protocol (TCP)-like multicast congestion control is analyzed in hybrid terrestrial/satellite networks. With this objective, an analytical framework based on Markov chains is introduced. The major advantage of the proposed analytical model is its scalability in that the number of states of the Markov chain modeling the system is independent of the number of receivers in the multicast session. This is a very important feature as simulation is unfeasible for large numbers of receivers. The framework is used to evaluate the impact of the long propagation delays, high bit-error rates, and channel asymmetry characterizing hybrid terrestrial/satellite communications. The performance results show that in certain cases, it is more convenient to divide the receivers in an appropriate number of groups and establish a different multicast session toward each of the above groups. Also, the convenience of an acknowledgment (ACK) flow reconstructor is shown. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient support of IP multicast in the next generation of GEO Satellites

    Page(s): 413 - 425
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    Satellites are expected to have an important role in providing the Internet protocol (IP) multicast service to complementing next-generation terrestrial networks. In this paper, we focus on the deployment of IP multicast over the next generation of digital video broadcasting-based geosynchronous earth orbit satellites supporting multiple spot beams and on-board switching technologies. We propose a new encapsulation scheme optimized for IP multicast, which has two distinct modes enabling two alternative on-board switching approaches: the self-switching and the label-switching. We also detail a set of mechanisms and protocols for ground stations, as well as for the on-board processor to allow an efficient multicast forwarding in this type of environment, while reducing the load of control and data messages in the satellite segment, and building efficient multicast delivery trees reaching only the spot beams containing at least one member of the corresponding multicast session. To integrate satellite links in the terrestrial Internet, we present satellite multicast adaptation protocol (SMAP), a protocol which is implemented in satellite stations to process incoming protocol independent multicast-sparse mode (PIM-SM) messages sent by terrestrial nodes to the satellite system. SMAP helps to update the tables required for the mapping between IP packets and MPEG-2 data segments, their switching on board the satellite, and their filtering at the satellite receivers. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Security in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Page(s): 426
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Differential and Noncoherent Wireless Communications

    Page(s): 427
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Wireless Overlay Networks Based on Mobile IPv6

    Page(s): 428
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Security in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Page(s): 429
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  • Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Information for authors

    Page(s): 430
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT