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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • An improved analysis of semiconductor laser dynamics under strong optical feedback

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1265 - 1274
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an improved theoretical model to analyze dynamics and operation of semiconductor lasers under optical feedback (OFB). The model is applicable for arbitrary strength of OFB ranging from weak to very strong. The model has been applied to investigate the dynamics and operation of lasers over wide ranges of OFB and injection current. An improved set of modified rate equations of lasers operating under OFB were proposed. We introduced a theoretical model to determine the power emitted from both the laser back facet and external reflector. The results showed that the operation of semiconductor lasers is classified into continuous wave, chaotic, and pulsing operations, depending on the operating conditions. The light versus current characteristics were examined in the operating regions of the classified operations. Under strong OFB, we predicted for the first time pulsing operation of lasers at injection currents well above the threshold. We observed the pulsing operation in experiments in good correspondence with the simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance 1200-nm InGaAs and 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum-well lasers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1220 - 1227
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the characteristics of high-performance strain-compensated MOCVD-grown 1200-nm InGaAs and 1300-nm InGaAsN quantum-well (QW) lasers using AsH3 and U-Dimethylhydrazine as the group V precursors. The design of the InGaAsN QW active region utilizes an In-content of approximately 40%, which requires only approximately 0.5% N-content to realize emission wavelengths up to 1315-nm. Threshold current densities of only 65-90 A/cm2 were realized for InGaAs QW lasers, with emission wavelength of 1170-1233 nm. Room-temperature threshold and transparency current densities of 210 and 75-80 A/cm2, respectively, have been realized for InGaAsN QW lasers with emission wavelength of 1300-nm. Despite the utilization of the highly-strained InGaAsN QW, double-QW lasers have been realized with excellent lasing performance. View full abstract»

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  • A widely tunable high-speed transmitter using an integrated SGDBR laser-semiconductor optical amplifier and Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1113 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The first integrated sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SGDBR) laser-semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder modulator transmitter is presented. Devices have 3 dB bandwidth ranging from 13-18 GHz corresponding to electrodes lengths that range between 200-300 μm long. This corresponds to a Vpi of 4.8-6.2 V. View full abstract»

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  • High temperature continuous-wave operation of 1.3- and 1.55-μm VCSELs with InP/air-gap DBRs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1415 - 1421
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB)  

    We demonstrate novel electrically pumped 1.3- and 1.55-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with two InP/air-gap distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The active regions comprise conventional InGaAsP multiple quantum wells. A tunnel junction is placed between the active region and the top DBR to convert electrons into holes, thus minimizing the use of p-type material in the structure to reduce the free-carrier loss and achieve current confinement. The whole structure was grown in a single growth run by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). For both 1.3and 1.55-μm emission wavelengths, air-gap DBR VCSELs exhibit room-temperature continuous wavelength (CW) threshold current density as low as 1.1 kA/cm2, differential quantum efficiency greater than 30%, and CW operation up to 85°C. The single-mode output power was 1.6 mW from a 1.3 μm VCSEL with a 6.3-μm aperture and 1.1 mW from a 1.55 μm VCSEL with a 5.7-μm aperture under room temperature CW operation. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1367 - 1373
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wavelength engineering of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) on a nonplanar substrate enables us to realize a multiwavelength VCSEL array. We are able to control the wavelength of both a cavity resonance and the gain peak of an active region, depending on patterned shapes. A main limiting factor in expanding the wavelength span in arrays is the offset between the gain peak and the resonant wavelength. In order to overcome this offset, we optimized a gain-cavity detuning to extend the wavelength span. A wavelength span of over 100 nm was obtained from a fabricated 12-channel array. The output power is over 1 mW, and threshold current is 0.65 ± 0.2 mA. We carried out the compensation of the threshold current-density variation by the precise control of oxide apertures in each element. In addition, we proposed a growth-pressure control in epitaxial growth on a patterned substrate for further extension of the lasing wavelength span. We demonstrated a 0.96-1.16-μm multiple-wavelength VCSEL array with highly strained GaInAs-GaAs QWs exhibiting a record wavelength span of 192 nm. These technologies would enable low-cost wideband wavelength division multiplexing data links. View full abstract»

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  • Tuning range extension by active mode-locking of external cavity laser including a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1118 - 1123
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate electrical wavelength tuning by mode locking of an external cavity laser (ECL) with linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG). The configuration consists of a laser chip providing the gain coupled to an LCFBG with a large chip rate of 10 or 55 nm/cm providing the counter-reaction for laser oscillation. The laser chirp is electrically modulated by a sinusoidal signal in such a way that the ECL is mode locked. By changing the modulation frequency, a wavelength tuning range of 27 nm is achieved with the 10 nm/cm LCFBG, and a partial tuning range over 41 nm is demonstrated with the 55-nm/cm LCFBG. The output pulse stream at a specific mode-locking frequency and a corresponding wavelength is obtained for both positively and negatively chirped grating. A time bandwidth product reduction is measured in the case of negatively chirp grating when compared with positively chirp grating. A simple general law between the laser parameters is given (locking frequency, tuning range, and FBG chirp value). The parameters for a 40-nm tunable source modulated at 10 GHz are given. This simple tuning mechanism is very well adapted for a structure that requires accurate wavelength monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • Self-consistent calculation of current self-distribution effect in GaAs-AlGaAs oxide-confined VCSELs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1422 - 1430
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-dimensional electrical-thermal-optical numerical solver is applied to model GaAs-AlGaAs-based top-emitting oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with GaAs multiple-quantum-well active region. Continuous-wave mode of operation is simulated over a range of voltages, covering the subthreshold spontaneous emission and lasing emission. The effect of self-distribution of electrical current is demonstrated for the first time in self-consistent electrical-thermal-optical simulation of VCSELs. View full abstract»

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  • Injection locking of VCSELs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1386 - 1393
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Injection locking has been actively researched for its possibility to improve laser performance for both digital and analog applications. When a modulated follower laser (also termed "slave" laser) is locked to the master laser, its nonlinear distortion and frequency chirp may be reduced. As well, the resonance frequency can increase to several times higher than its free running case. In this paper, we show that the frequency response (S21) of an injection-locked laser is similar to a parasitic-limited laser with a high resonance frequency. The S21 was studied experimentally and the condition to achieve a flat, enhanced frequency response was identified. For analog applications, a record 112 dB-Hz23/, single-tone third harmonic spur-free dynamic range of a 1.55-μm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) was demonstrated. An improvement was attained for a wide-injection parameter space. In a 50-km 2.5-Gb/s digital link, a 2-dB power penalty reduction at 10-9 bit error rate was also demonstrated. As a novel application, an injection-locked uncooled tunable VCSEL was shown to have a reasonable modulation performance in a wide abient temperature range. The VCSEL was locked to a designated wavelength and the injection compensated the temperature-induced performance degradation. This concept can be extremely attractive for low-cost dense wavelength division muliplexed transmitters. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of semiconductor laser gain media by the segmented contact method

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1275 - 1282
    Cited by:  Papers (68)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe methods for analysis of edge-emitted amplified spontaneous emission spectra measured as a function of the pumped stripe length. We show that both the modal gain and the unamplified spontaneous emission spectra can be extracted from the data, and we describe a means of calibrating the spontaneous emission in real units, without requiring the carrier populations to be described by Fermi functions. The gain and emission spectra can be determined for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations and by summing the recombination currents for each polarization the total radiative current can be measured. This enables the overall internal radiative quantum efficiency to be calculated. Once the calibration factor is known the internal stimulated recombination rate at the facet can also be estimated. The experiment can be configured to give a measurement of the passive modal absorption of the gain medium. The internal optical mode loss can be determined from the long-wavelength region of the gain spectrum or the modal absorption spectrum. In summary, we show that measurements of amplified spontaneous emission spectra provide a full characterization of the gain medium. View full abstract»

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  • Multistage bipolar cascade vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1406 - 1414
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an overview over our research on bipolar cascade vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 980 nm wavelength, including the scaling properties and the influence of design variations on laser performance as well as strategies for GaAs Esaki junction optimization. We experimentally demonstrate high-performance two- and three-stage devices, the latter of which with 130% differential quantum efficiency. The derived analytical expressions for the scaling behavior are confirmed by measurement data and show a significant improvement in the steady-state as well as the dynamic performance with respect to active region stacking. From the investigated design variations, the influence of oxide apertures and active region spacing on laser performance is clearly extracted and reveals that current spreading is present in the cavity and can lead to severe limitations in optical performance. The GaAs tunnel diodes have been optimized with respect to the donor concentration and the additional incorporation of an In0.1Ga0.9As layer on the n++-side, leading to a zero-bias specific resistance of about 1·10-4 Ωcm2. View full abstract»

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  • Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1325 - 1332
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors describe a straightforward experimental technique for measuring the facet temperature of a semiconductor laser under high-power operation by analyzing the laser emission itself. By applying this technique to 1-mm-long 980-nm lasers with 6- and 9-μm-wide tapers, they measure a large increase in facet temperature under both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed operation. Under CW operation, the facet temperature increases from ∼25°C at low currents to over 140°C at 500 mA. From pulsed measurements they observe a sharper rise in facet temperature as a function of current (∼400°C at 500mA) when compared with the CW measurements. This difference is caused by self-heating which limits the output power and hence facet temperature under CW operation. Under pulsed operation the maximum measured facet temperature was in excess of 1000°C for a current of 1000 mA. Above this current, both lasers underwent catastrophic optical damage (COD). These results show a striking increase in facet temperature under high-power operation consistent with the facet melting at COD. This is made possible by measuring the laser under pulsed operation. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of spurious intensity modulation in frequency-modulated semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1294 - 1299
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown theoretically that spurious intensity modulation afflicting most frequency-modulated semiconductor lasers can be effectively suppressed by proper design of the cavity incorporating distributed Bragg mirror and modulator section. View full abstract»

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  • Carrier-confined vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers for higher gain and efficiency

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1374 - 1385
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) are interesting devices because of their small form factor, potential low manufacturing cost, high coupling efficiency to optical fiber, and polarization-independent gain. In this paper, we present an overview of the properties of VCSOAs, as well as emerging applications for this new class of devices. We present general design rules and analyze how the mirror reflectivity affects the properties of the VCSOA. Experimental results of carrier-confined, optically pumped VCSOAs operating at 1.3-μm wavelength are presented. The devices were fabricated by wafer bonding high-quality AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) to an InGaAsP/InP active region. A carrier-confining structure was formed on the active region before the top mirror was bonded to the sample. These VCSOAs show the highest fiber-to-fiber gain (17 dB) and the lowest noise figure (6.1 dB) of any long-wavelength VCSOAs to date. VCSOAs should find applications as low-cost, single-channel amplifiers, amplifying filters, amplifying switches or modulators, as well as in two-dimensional array applications such as optical interconnects. We demonstrate the use of VCSOAs for optical preamplification at 10 Gb/s. Using an 11-dB gain VCSOA, the sensitivity of a regular p-i-n detector was increased by 7 dB resulting in a receiver sensitivity of -26.2 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional photonic crystal confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1439 - 1445
    Cited by:  Papers (66)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The two-dimensional photonic crystal (2-D PhC) structure has been investigated as a method for lateral mode control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The 2-D PhC structures were designed using an equivalent index model developed for photonic crystal fibers combined with a plane wave expansion method. The etching depth dependence of the PhC structure was incorporated for the first time to design practical devices. 2-D PhC-confined VCSELs are demonstrated to operate in single PhC-confined mode using either a single- or seven-point defect. View full abstract»

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  • All-optical regeneration using a side-mode injection-locked semiconductor laser

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1283 - 1287
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and demonstrate all-optical regenerations using a side-mode injection-locked or a two-side-mode injection-locked semiconductor laser. We found that these techniques can decrease the effect of relaxation oscillation both in simulation and experiment. By using a two-side mode-injection-locked semiconductor laser, we could regenerate a 5 Gb/s signal distorted by the chromatic dispersion of a 20-km-long standard single mode fiber. View full abstract»

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  • No density pinning in VCSELs due to hole burning at saturation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1431 - 1438
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (730 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Theoretical two-dimensional (2-D) analysis and simulations address hole-burning effects and demonstrate that the cross-section averaged carrier density increases continuously with applied bias, rising above the lasing threshold, even as Nth(T) increases with temperature. There is no "density pinning" at the threshold value corresponding to the device temperature T, contrary to the usual one-dimensional (1-D) theory conclusion. It is conjectured that there is no bias voltage pinning at the junction and the voltage-current relation exhibits modified diode law behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of intraband relaxation on the performance of a quantum-dot laser

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1308 - 1314
    Cited by:  Papers (59)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (365 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Measurements on 1.3-μm quantum-dot lasers are presented that reveal a number of interesting effects. 1) At high bias, a second lasing line appears, corresponding to the excited state transition. 2) The linewidth enhancement factor increases dramatically above threshold. 3) The modulation performance is degraded when the second lasing line appears. A comprehensive numerical model is developed to explain this behavior. We attribute it to incomplete gain clamping above threshold. This is caused by a combination of the finite intraband relaxation time and the limited density of states. View full abstract»

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  • High-power high-efficiency 660-nm laser diodes for DVD-R/RW

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1260 - 1264
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A kink mechanism in 660-nm laser diodes (LDs) has been studied experimentally. The experiments revealed that the main origin of the kink is a refractive index change due to heat generation in the stripe portion, and the kink power can be increased by improving the temperature characteristics of the LD. A newly developed LD, based on this result, shows stable lateral mode operation up to 190 mW at 80°C. This is the highest power recorded among narrow stripe LDs with a wavelength of 660 nm. This LD is suitable for the next generation of high-speed (8x-) DVD-R/RW drives necessitating 140 mW class LDs. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs broad-area diode lasers with impurity-free intermixed active region

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1333 - 1339
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (353 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Broad-area InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs double-quantum-well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructure lasers with as-grown and intermixed active regions were fabricated and characterized. An impurity-free vacancy diffusion method was used to intermix the quantum wells. Light-current characteristics of both types of lasers were used to extract information about the effects of intermixing process on threshold current density, internal optical loss, internal quantum efficiency, material gain, etc. Comparison between these parameters indicates comparable device performance, even though intermixing involved annealing at 1000°C which resulted in a 42-nm wavelength blueshift. View full abstract»

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  • High-pressure studies of recombination mechanisms in 1.3-μm GaInNAs quantum-well lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1196 - 1201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pressure dependence of the components of the recombination current at threshold in 1.3-μm GaInNAs single quantum-well lasers is presented using for the first time high-pressure spontaneous emission measurements up to 13 kbar. It is shown that, above 6 kbar, the rapid increase of the threshold current with increasing pressure is associated with the unusual increase of the Auger-related nonradiative recombination current, while the defect-related monomolecular nonradiative recombination current is almost constant. Theoretical calculations show that the increase of the Auger current can be attributed to a large increase in the threshold carrier density with pressure, which is mainly due to the increase in the electron effective mass arising from the enhanced level-anticrossing between the GaInNAs conduction band and the nitrogen level. View full abstract»

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  • Very low threshold current density of 1.3-μm-range GaInNAsSb-GaNAs3 and 5 QWs lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1209 - 1213
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dependence of the threshold current density on the number of wells for 1.3-μm-range edge emitting lasers using GaInNAsSb novel material, at which the incorporation of the small amount of Sb make the two-dimensional growth condition wide, is studied. The lowest record ever reported for the threshold current density per well (Jth A/cm2/well@L=900 μm) for 3 QWs lasers was achieved. GaInNAs-based 5 QWs lasers with the very low threshold current density per well of 160 A/cm2 were successfully grown for the first time. Therefore, no significant deterioration of Jth is observed even though the number of wells increased up to 5. Since Jth of 5 QWs doesn't increased rapidly compared to SQW and 3 QWs as decreasing the cavity length, it is considered that lower Jth can be obtained by utilizing 5 QWs in devices such VCSELs which use short cavity length. View full abstract»

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  • The role of Auger recombination in InAs 1.3-μm quantum-dot lasers investigated using high hydrostatic pressure

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1300 - 1307
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    InAs quantum-dot (QD) lasers were investigated in the temperature range 20-300 K and under hydrostatic pressure in the range of 0-12 kbar at room temperature. The results indicate that Auger recombination is very important in 1.3-μm QD lasers at room temperature and it is, therefore, the possible cause of the relatively low characteristic temperature observed, of T0=41K. In the 980-nm QD lasers where T0=110-130 K, radiative recombination dominates. The laser emission photon energy Elas increases linearly with pressure p at 10.1 and 8.3 meV/kbar for 980 nm and 1.3-μm QD lasers, respectively. For the 980-nm QD lasers the threshold current increases with pressure at a rate proportional to the square of the photon energy E2las. However, the threshold current of the 1.3-μm QD laser decreases by 26% over a 12-kbar pressure range. This demonstrates the presence of a nonradiative recombination contribution to the threshold current, which decreases with increasing pressure. The authors show that this nonradiative contribution is Auger recombination. The results are discussed in the framework of a theoretical model based on the electronic structure and radiative recombination calculations carried out using an 8×8 k·p Hamiltonian. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity and scattering in a monolithic heterodyned laser biochemical sensor

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1124 - 1131
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss the sensitivity of a novel biochemical sensor based on the heterodyne detection of the optical frequency shift between two monolithically integrated frequency-tunable lasers. A hundred-fold improvement may be obtained by replacing the traditional ridge waveguide structure with a quasisymmetrically clad channel waveguide, which we demonstrate in a simple coupled-cavity sensor. In most cases, the optical scattering from biomolecules bound to such a waveguide will be negligible. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental analysis of 1.3-μm InGaAsN/GaAs lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1228 - 1238
    Cited by:  Papers (69)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental analysis of 1.3-μm InGaAsN/GaAs lasers. After introducing the 10-band k · p Hamiltonian which predicts transition energies observed experimentally, we employ it to investigate laser properties of ideal and real InGaAsN/GaAs laser devices. Our calculations show that the addition of N reduces the peak gain and differential gain at fixed carrier density, although the gain saturation value and the peak gain as a function of radiative current density are largely unchanged due to the incorporation of N. The gain characteristics are optimized by including the minimum amount of nitrogen necessary to prevent strain relaxation at the given well thickness. The measured spontaneous emission and gain characteristics of real devices are well described by the theoretical model. Our analysis shows that the threshold current is dominated by nonradiative, defect-related recombination. Elimination of these losses would enable laser characteristics comparable with the best InGaAsP/InP-based lasers with the added advantages provided by the GaAs system that are important for vertical integration. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of GaInAsP/InP photonic Crystal lasers by ICP etching and control of resonant mode in point and line composite defects

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1347 - 1354
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We theoretically and experimentally investigated lasing and resonant characteristics in photonic crystal lasers with point defects and/or point and line composite defects. The finite-difference time domain simulation showed that various resonant modes can occur in arbitrary defect geometries. A GaInAsP airbridge photonic crystal slab with a lattice constant of ∼0.42 μm, a hole diameter of ∼0.25 μm, a sidewall angle of ∼90°, and a sidewall roughness of ∼10 nm, was fabricated by Cl2/Xe inductively coupled plasma etching, in which ions and radicals were balanced by optimizing the gas pressure and the bias voltage. The room temperature pulsed lasing was observed with a threshold irradiated power of 1.4 mW by photopumping. The possibility of the continuous-wave (CW) lasing was also discussed with the estimation of the thermal resistance. The mode control in some composite defects was confirmed from resonant photoluminescence peaks under CW condition. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Luke F. Lester
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University