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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1  Part 1 • Date Jan. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

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  • Editorial

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  • A temperature-dependent nonlinear analytic model for AlGaN-GaN HEMTs on SiC

    Page(s): 2 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A temperature-dependent large-signal model for continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed-mode operation is presented and applied to aluminum gallium nitride, gallium nitride (AlGaN-GaN) high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on silicon-carbide (SiC) substrates. The model includes thermal, RF dispersion, and bias-dependent capacitance model elements, and is suitable for application with a harmonic-balance simulator. Temperature- and bias-dependent on-wafer pulsed I-V and S-parameter measurements from 27°C to 200°C are used to examine trapping and thermal effects, and to determine temperature- and bias-dependent parameterized model coefficients for the nonlinear model. Large-signal measurement and model results are presented for 2 × 0.35 μm × 125 μm and 12 × 0.35 μm × 125 μm GaN HEMTs fabricated on SiC. The nonlinear model shows good agreement with measured CW power sweep data at an elevated temperature of 150°C under more than 5-W power dissipation, and with measured pulsed load-pull data. View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical block boundary-element method (HBBEM): a fast field solver for 3-D capacitance extraction

    Page(s): 10 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As feature size decrease, fast and accurate parasitic capacitance extraction has become increasingly critical for verification and analysis in very large scale integration design. In this paper, a fast hierarchical-block boundary-element method based on the boundary-element method (BEM) is presented for three-dimensional (3-D) capacitance extraction, which can give out the global capacitance matrix directly. It assigns the global computation of 3-D domain into local computation in BEM blocks by hierarchical partition 3-D structure. The boundary capacitance matrix (BCM) is computed in the BEM block using all the known conditions. Reuse technology can decrease the running time. After merging the BCMs of all BEM blocks, the global capacitance matrix for a given set of conductors can be computed. Numerical results show that this global hierarchical approach can get very high speed in 3-D computation with equal accuracy as the 3-D field solver. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple scattering among vias in planar waveguides using preconditioned SMCG method

    Page(s): 20 - 28
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    Full-wave modeling for cylindrical vias in planar waveguides is formulated using Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. Recently, a sparse-matrix canonical-grid method based on fast Fourier transform and an iterative algorithm was proposed to solve a large-scale via problem. In this paper, we further improve computational efficiency by a preconditioning scheme based on the dominant information contained in the near field. We also discuss two methods-the sparse-matrix LU decomposition and sparse matrix iterative methods-for constructing the preconditioner, providing the tradeoffs between CPU time and memory. Results show an order of magnitude improvement over the nonpreconditioned case on the convergence rate. As an example, for 20 000 vias simulation, the solution time (per excitation and per frequency) is approximately 13 s per iteration, and 75 min to reach convergence in 320 iterations with memory requirements of 560 MB on a single Pentium 2.4-GHz processor machine. Numerical simulations are illustrated for physical problems such as ball-grid array and large-scale randomly distributed vias, where we have observed the shielding effects of the terminated vias that reduce the coupling between vias. View full abstract»

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  • Microreplicated RF toroidal inductor

    Page(s): 29 - 37
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    This paper reports on the modeling and fabrication of a truly three-dimensional high-quality-factor toroidal inductor using polymer replication processes. The critical dimensions are in the micrometer range, and the applied manufacturing method is based on polymer replication. Electrical measurements show that the inductor with an inductance of 6.0 nH exhibits a peak quality factor of 50 at a frequency of 3 GHz. Model verified by the measurement results shows that further improvement is still possible. Furthermore, the applied manufacturing technique can be extended to become a flexible packaging platform. View full abstract»

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  • New low-distortion band-switching techniques for SAW antenna duplexers used in ultra-wide-band cellular phone

    Page(s): 38 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new low-distortion band-switching technique for a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) antenna duplexer used in ultra-wide-band cellular-phone systems has been developed. Both a transmitter (Tx) portion and a receiver (Rx) portion of the duplexer consist of not only wide-band SAW bandpass filters (BPFs), but also band-rejection SAW filters (BRFs) whose rejection bands can be shifted by switching circuits. The spurious-response sensitivity caused by the third-order nonlinear distortion of the switching circuits was dramatically improved by the new above configurations, i.e., the combination of BPFs and BRFs. The developed duplexer for the 900-MHz Japanese cdmaOne system has a size of 10 × 8 × 2 mm. It also has frequency characteristics of equivalent transmitted/received frequency bands as wide as 38 MHz and the guard band as narrow as 17 MHz. The insertion losses in both the low and high bands of the Tx portion are less than 2 dB, and those of the Rx portion are less than 3.3 dB. The other required specifications, e.g., attenuation at harmonic frequencies, attenuation at the image frequency, etc. are also satisfied. View full abstract»

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  • Some fundamental characteristics of the one-dimensional alternate-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain method

    Page(s): 46 - 52
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    Some fundamental characteristics are investigated for the alternate-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method in the one-dimensional case, such as growth and dissipation, numerical dispersion, and a time-step size limit. It is shown that this two sub-step method alternates dissipation and growth that exactly compensate and, thus, is unconditionally stable. The numerical dispersion error is larger than for Yee's method and there is an "intrinsic temporal numerical dispersion" accuracy limit at zero mesh size, which is the highest accuracy one can obtain with a meaningful time-step size. Also, it is shown that, for some combinations of time step and mesh size, the ADI-FDTD method does not propagate a wave. There is a minimum numerical velocity limited by the mesh density, and the wave attenuates for time-step sizes larger than an "ADI limit." Thus, the time-step size does have an upper bound, which is smaller than the Nyquist limit. The results of numerical experiments are shown to agree well with the theoretical prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Computation with a parallel FDTD system of human-body effect on electromagnetic absorption for portable telephones

    Page(s): 53 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using our recently implemented parallel finite-difference time-domain computation system on Linux-based personal computers, we investigated the human-body effect on the peak specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head for portable telephones. Taking into account the whole human body, we found that there was a difference within 5.3% for the 1- and 10-g averaged spatial peak SARs and a difference within 19% for the SAR in the brain and eyes compared to the isolated head model. Moreover, in most realistic-use positions, we found that the SAR was slightly decreased due to the body effect. These results further support the rationale of using an isolated human-head model in the SAR evaluation for portable telephones. View full abstract»

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  • RF MEMS switches with enhanced power-handling capabilities

    Page(s): 59 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the experimental and theoretical characterization of RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches for high-power applications. First, we investigate the problem of self-actuation due to high RF power and we demonstrate switches that do not self-actuate or catastrophically fail with a measured RF power of up to 5.5 W. Second, the problem of switch stiction to the down state as a function of the applied RF power is also theoretically and experimentally studied. Finally, a novel switch design with a top electrode is introduced and its advantages related to RF power-handling capabilities are presented. By applying this technology, we demonstrate hot-switching measurements with a maximum power of 0.8 W. Our results, backed by theory and measurements, illustrate that careful design can significantly improve the power-handling capabilities of RF MEMS switches. View full abstract»

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  • Computing cavity resonances using eigenvalues displacement

    Page(s): 69 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The numerical discretization of the field inside a cavity by means of edge elements results in a generalized algebraic eigenvalues problem that contains several undesired eigenvalues. This occurrence prevents the effective use of iterative eigensolvers. To overcome this difficulty, a complementary eigenproblem has been proposed in the literature. This paper extends this method by introducing a family of algebraically built complementary eigenproblems, and determines, by numerical experiments and heuristics, which complementary eigenproblems are best suited for the preconditioned inverse iteration eigensolver and the Lanczos method. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontact measurement of moisture in layered dielectrics from microwave reflection spectroscopy using an inverse technique

    Page(s): 76 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a microwave-based measurement mechanism, which realizes a totally noncontact assessment of the moisture contents in layered materials. An inverse technique is used to obtain the properties of layered materials from the measurement of reflection of plane electromagnetic waves. The technique is based upon a nonlinear least squares method. Although a generalized method is presented for multilayered dielectrics the experimental results are obtained, for simplicity, for a single layer backed by metal surface. The reflection coefficients measured at X -band are analyzed according to the model to match with the results from Fresnel's equations to obtain thickness and permittivity. The convergence rate depends upon the level of noise present in the measured reflection coefficients. The effect of various types of error measures upon the convergence of iteration is also discussed. The results obtained for acrylic sheets and moist medium density fiber board are excellent. Determination of an empirical dispersion relationship for moist material from this technique is also discussed. The proposed technique has proven to be very useful in modeling noisy data for reflections from a single layer of dielectric backed by a metal surface, where most of the noniterative techniques fail. The technique can be equally useful in finding the inverse of a variety of electromagnetic problems. View full abstract»

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  • Design of parallel-coupled microstrip filters with suppression of spurious resonances using substrate suspension

    Page(s): 83 - 89
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    Substrate suspension is used to suppress the spurious response of microstrip bandpass filters at twice the passband frequency (2fo). It is known that a proper height of substrate suspension can be used to equalize the even- and odd-mode phase velocities for coupled microstrip lines. In this paper, this property is applied to design the coupled stages of a parallel-coupled line filter so that the spurious response at 2fo can be completely suppressed. The individual image impedance for each coupled stage is changed accordingly. Required filter design formulas are derived for a series of coupled stages having different image impedances. Several filters made on a substrate of relative high dielectric constant are designed and fabricated. The measured results show that a rejection level of better than -40 dB to the spurious resonance at 2fo can be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient analysis of shielded single and multiple coupled microstrip lines with the nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) technique

    Page(s): 90 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) technique is incorporated into the spectral-domain approach for the analysis of shielded single and multiple coupled microstrip lines. Each of the spectral-domain Green's functions is decomposed into an asymptotic part and a remaining part. At the interface of layered dielectrics with conducting strips, the product of a basis function and an associated Green's function constitutes an expansion E-field. The inverse Fourier transform (IFT) of the expansion E-field is its spatial distribution all over the interface. We take this advantage to match the final boundary conditions on all the conducting strips simultaneously. As a result, if all the strips are at one interface, the number of operations required in this method is proportional to N, but not to N2, where N is the number of the strips. The IFT of the asymptotic part of each expansion E-field can be obtained analytically, and that of the remaining part can be quickly processed by the NUFFT. The Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature is used to accelerate the computations of the integrals resulted from the Galerkin's procedure. The proposed method is also applied to investigate the dispersion characteristics of coupled lines with finite metallization thickness and of coupled lines at different levels. A convergence analysis of the results is presented and a comparison of used CPU time is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturized superconducting filter realized by using dual-mode and stepped resonators

    Page(s): 97 - 104
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    In this paper, the design principles of a new miniaturized superconducting planar filter configuration is presented. The configuration is based on the combined use of dual-mode cross-slotted patch resonators and stepped resonators. Four-pole filters exhibiting a quasi-elliptical response and with operating frequencies in K-, L-, and C-bands have been designed as a test vehicle of the new configuration. The analyzed topology exhibits a high degree of miniaturization, requiring less than 50% of the area occupied by filters based on dual-mode or hairpin resonators. The physical origin of the transmission zeros is discussed, deriving equivalent-circuit descriptions that are capable of reproducing the measured frequency response. In order to confirm the validity of the introduced design principles, experimental performances on an exemplary L-band filter, realized using a YBCO film deposited on an MgO substrate and exhibiting a 3% fractional bandwidth, are presented. The measured frequency response obtained at T = 77 K agrees well with the simulations, presenting an insertion loss of 0.1 dB and a power handling of 34 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Circuit models for constant impedance micromachined lines on dielectric transitions

    Page(s): 105 - 111
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    Constant impedance microstrip lines printed across nonuniform thickness substrates are studied. Accurate LC models are described to predict the discontinuity effect for dielectric step changes greater than 200 μm at the boundary interface. A variety of step or taper transition combinations in the conductor and dielectric are considered. When compared to full-wave simulations, the successfully modeled designs have return and insertion losses within 3 and 0.33 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A high-efficiency linear RF power amplifier with a power-tracking dynamically adaptive buck-boost supply

    Page(s): 112 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy efficiency of RF transceivers is critical and paramount for longer battery life in portable devices, which is improved by operating the power amplifiers (PAs) with higher efficiency. In this paper, the applicability of dynamic-converter-supplied RF PAs' efficiency-enhancement schemes is compared and evaluated for code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The tradeoffs involved in designing switching converters with wide bandwidth (BW) and high efficiency over Wide loading conditions are considered. Given the highly variable nature of the batteries (e.g., 2.7-4.2 V for Li ion), to operate the systems at their peak performance levels, even when the battery is close to fully discharged, and to achieve higher average efficiency, a power-trucking dynamically adaptive noninverting buck-boost converter-supplied PA topology is proposed. To demonstrate the validity of the scheme, a prototype system was designed and tested using a 915-MHz carrier frequency with a 1.25-MHz baseband BW CDMA signal. The supply voltage for the PA (operating in a class-A/class-AB configuration) is adjusted dynamically from 0.5 to 3.6 V, depending on the input RF power from a 3.0-V input supply, which can vary from 2.4 to 3.4 V. The dynamic-supply PA meets the adjacent-channel power-ratio requirements of CDMA, IS-95 specifications, and the overall error vector magnitude remains less than 6% throughout its output power range from -50 to 27 dBm. The weighted average efficiency of the dynamically adaptive system (6.78%) is 4.43 times compared to the fixed supply PA efficiency (1.53%), which translates to a 88% increase in battery life, assuming that the PA consumes 20% of the total transceiver power. View full abstract»

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  • New closed-form expressions for the prediction of multitone intermodulation distortion in fifth-order nonlinear RF circuits/systems

    Page(s): 121 - 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a rigorous analytic approach for the prediction of the in-band and out-of-band intermodulation distortion of fifth-order memoryless nonlinear RF circuits/systems modeled using a Taylor series and driven by phase-aligned or random phase multitone excitation. Nonlinear distortion figures-of-merit such as intermodulation ratio (IMR), adjacent channel power ratio, co-channel power ratio, and noise-to-power ratio, as well as the output power density can be straightforward computed using newly developed closed-form expressions. Simulation results of output power density obtained using the developed expressions for an L-band commercial amplifier demonstrates the time efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach when compared to averaged data obtained using numerical simulators such as Agilent ADS. The comparison of the computed nonlinearity figures-of-merit with those previously published shows the importance of considering the fifth order when modeling nonlinear RF circuits/systems. The proposed analytical approach explicitly highlights the dependency of the normalized figures-of-merit relative to the standard two-tone Mm (IMR2) to the input power and to the coefficients of the Taylor model contrary to third-order-based approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Directional filters on coupled nonuniform TEM transmission lines

    Page(s): 133 - 138
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    The problems of synthesizing harmonic filters on coupled nonuniform TEM transmission lines have been solved. Two formulations of the synthesis problems with the application of Chebyshev approximation criterion over the passband have been considered. In the first formulation, the coupling region length was fixed, while in the second one, it was included into the varied parameters. Experimental investigation of the harmonic filter was carried out. A general analysis of the results obtained is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A novel configuration of temperature compensation in the resonant cavities

    Page(s): 139 - 143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The temperature characteristics of resonant cavities have been studied. A novel temperature compensation method is proposed, in which a dielectric sphere is used for field perturbation. Analytical results are presented to determine the maximum and quasi-linear regions of operation in the cavity. The proposed method is successfully demonstrated by measurements on a fabricated triple-mode filter, which is equipped with the proposed temperature-compensation method. View full abstract»

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  • Microstrip phase shifter using ground-plane reconfiguration

    Page(s): 144 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new reconfigurable microstrip structure is presented where line impedance can be actively controlled to induce phase shift on a transmission-line signal. Micromachining is used to fabricate thin-film copper membranes in the ground plane below the transmission line. Actuation of these membranes enables control of transmission-line to ground-plane spacing and, thus, the line capacitance. The performance of this reconfigurable microstrip transmission line as a phase shifter is investigated between 5-32 GHz for a variety of membrane geometries. A phase shift of up to -32.1° at 15.00 GHz is achieved by actuating an array of five 4.3-mm-diameter membranes beneath a 30-Ω microstrip line. A single 10.0-mm-diameter membrane achieved a phase shift of -25.57° at 15.05 GHz on a 50-Ω line, while a 10.4-mm membrane achieved a phase shift of -55.5° at 14.25 GHz on a 30-Ω line. Both single and multiple series ground-plane membranes are possible, and they can be activated with discrete or continuous control signals, individually or together. Discrete and continuous phased array beam steering are, therefore, feasible. View full abstract»

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  • A gain-controllable wide-band low-noise amplifier in low-cost 0.8-μm Si BiCMOS technology

    Page(s): 154 - 160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-noise amplifier (LNA) implemented in a low-cost Si-BiCMOS 0.8-μm process is presented. It utilizes current conveyors as building blocks. The principle and design methodology are presented, followed by results obtained from simulations. A brief technology and measurement technique description is then made, leading up to the measurement results obtained. The performance is compared with some other LNA realizations. The potentialities of the LNA are finally touched upon, with particular regard to future communications systems. The gain of the LNA is controllable, in the range of 0-20 dB, by varying the dc bias current. Negative decibel gains can also be obtained, making it an attenuator circuit. Using a ±1.5 V supply, and at a measured gain of 14 dB, the LNA has measured -3 dB bandwidth of dc to 1.9 GHz, |ZIN| = 50 Ω, |S11| = -21 dB, and a simulated noise figure = 3.3 dB, input P1dB = -33 dBm, and consumes only 3.8 mA. A judicious tradeoff between the decibel gain and bandwidth yields -3 dB bandwidths of up to 5.5 GHz, while in the -10-dB cutoff specified for ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems, passbands greater than 10 GHz are enabled. The LNA occupies 0.24 mm2 of chip area, including pads. The prospective applications range from current global system for mobile communications, code division multiple access, and multiband systems, to the upcoming UWB. View full abstract»

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  • Functional waveguide mode transformers

    Page(s): 161 - 169
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    Field transformers having irregular scattering elements in a rectangular waveguide are introduced as a means to achieve frequency-dependent mode conversion, mode-selective reflection, multiple mode conversion, and phase shifting. A stepwise wall profile provides for a large number of degrees of freedom and also induces large evanescent field content. A multiresolution optimization strategy allows good convergence during synthesis. The resulting structures are compact, with dimension of a few wavelengths, and can have functionality not achievable through periodic means. In some cases, more than one solution can be found that have different spectral characteristics, a result of the large number of degrees of freedom and the constraint set. This structure class may prove useful in microwave sources where multiple or higher order modes are excited, in waveguide transitions, in frequency-dependent switching, and as phase-shifting elements. View full abstract»

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  • General formulation of unconditionally stable ADI-FDTD method in linear dispersive media

    Page(s): 170 - 174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The unconditionally stable alternating-direction-implicit-finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is used to model wave propagation in dispersive media. A formulation is presented by introducing the Z-transform method into the ADI-FDTD scheme to handle the frequency-dependent features of the media. This formulation is applicable to arbitrary dispersive media, and can be easily coded. Numerical results are compared to those based on the conventional FDTD method to show the efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Dominique Schreurs
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Jenshan Lin
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