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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 0_2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Design and assembly of miniature zirconia oxygen sensors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Zirconia oxygen sensors are highly selective solid-state devices used for many applications, including combustion control for better fuel economy and lower emissions. Stabilized zirconia electrolyte meets the device requirements of adequate ionic conductivity at elevated temperature, chemical stability, and suitable mechanical properties. The device is assembled such that one or two enclosed volumes are obtained. It may be operated in a number of modes: some require the internal volume to be sealed fully, and others necessitate the provision of a diffusion barrier, usually a small hole (30-100 μm in diameter), to connect the internal volume with the external sample gas. The design and fabrication of these devices must meet the practical requirements of their modes of operation. The choice of the dimensions of the sensor, its materials and their processing is critical in making a reliable device; these details are scarce in the literature. The paper gives a detailed description of the design and assembly of these sensors from pre-conditioned components. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS monolithic metal-oxide sensor system comprising a microhotplate and associated circuitry

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A gas sensor system fabricated in industrial CMOS technology is presented, which includes, for the first time, a microhotplate and the necessary driving and control circuitry on a single chip. Post-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication steps, such as micromachining of the membrane structure, the deposition of noble metal on the electrodes, and the processing of the sensitive metal-oxide layer, have been developed to be fully compatible with the industrial CMOS process. Temperatures up to 350°C were reached on the hotplates using a low-voltage power supply (5 V). A symmetric hotplate design with a temperature homogeneity of better than 2% in the heated area was realized. The integrated temperature controller regulates the membrane temperature with a resolution of ±0.3°C in the tracking mode. The temperature increase on the bulk chip owing to heat transfer through the membrane is less than 2% of the respective membrane operation temperature (6°C at 350°C membrane temperature). The gas sensing performance of the sensor was assessed by test measurements with carbon monoxide (CO). The gas tests evidenced a limit of detection of less than 5 ppm CO. View full abstract»

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  • SnO2 RGTO UV activation for CO monitoring

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 17 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present recent results regarding the activation of sensors with high density power light of energy in the range of the energy gap of the semiconductor. We report the measurements registered for tin-oxide rheotaxial growth and thermal oxidation deposited layers using CO as a target gas. The influence of doping on the activated gas-sensing properties has been investigated. We have found the value of the incident power corresponding to the best gas-sensing performances (response enhancement and kinetics). The comparison between dark and irradiation condition is presented for the different kind of layers tested. View full abstract»

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  • An optical-fiber sensor for use in water systems utilizing digital signal processing techniques and artificial neural network pattern recognition

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 21 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optical-fiber sensor is reported which is capable of detecting ethanol in water. A single optical-fiber sensor was incorporated into a 1-km length of 62.5-μm core diameter polymer-clad silica optical fiber. In order to maximize sensitivity, a U-bend configuration was used for the sensor where the cladding was removed and the core exposed directly to the fluid under test. The sensor was interrogated using optical time domain reflectrometry, as it is intended to extend this work to multiple sensors on a single fiber. In this investigation, the sensor was exposed to air, water, and alcohol. The signal processing technique has been designed to optimize the neural network adopted in the existing sensor system. In this investigation, a discrete Fourier transform, using a fast Fourier transform algorithm, is chosen and its application leads to an improvement in efficiency of the neural network i.e., minimizing the computing resources. Using the Stuttgart neural network simulator, a feed-forward three-layer neural network was constructed with the number of input nodes corresponding to the number of points required to represent the sensor frequency domain response. View full abstract»

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  • Energy extraction for a self-energized pressure sensor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    With the prolific use of sensors for manufacturing process monitoring, proper power supply and installation scheme has assumed an increasingly central role. Cable-based sensor powering, while commonly used on the factory floor, faces various real-world constraints. It is desirable that the power required by the sensors be "extracted" from the process being monitored itself to enable "self-energized" sensing. Such a novel design for a wireless pressure sensor for injection molding process monitoring is presented in this paper. The focus is on the energy extraction mechanism from the pressure transients exerted by the polymer melt during the injection molding process to power a piezoelectric signal transmitter, which digitally reconstructs the polymer melt pressure profile. An analytical model examining the energy conversion mechanism due to interactions between the mechanical strain and the electric field developed within the energy extraction device is first established. Using a coupled-field analysis, a numerical model is then developed to evaluate the electromechanical properties dependent upon the geometric effects of the energy extraction device. The two models are then compared with experimental results obtained from a functional prototype to evaluate the relevance of the assumptions made and the modeling accuracy. Preliminary experimental results describing the integration of the energy extraction device with the ultrasonic transmitter and the subsequent transmission of pressure information acoustically through a block of steel are also presented. The presented design introduces a new generation of self-energized sensors that can be employed for the condition monitoring of a wide range of high-energy manufacturing processes. View full abstract»

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  • Range sensing with a Scheimpflug camera and a CMOS sensor/processor chip

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 36 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)  

    An image-based range-sensing technique is presented. The technique is originally considered for highway collision avoidance applications, but its generality makes it suitable for application in robotics, manufacturing, and metrology, as well. It relies on depth from focus but, unlike conventional techniques, it extracts range with a single unmodulated Scheimpflug camera in continuous time. The range extraction algorithm is memoryless and simple enough to be implemented on the same chip with photosensors. The technique deploys a sensor plane that is tilted at a nonorthogonal angle with respect to the optical axis of the lens and the optical axis intersects the sensor plane at the focal point. This optical arrangement creates a focusable object plane in an orientation parallel to the optical axis and, thus, enables range sensing along the same axis. This paper elaborates on the details of focus sensing on the tilted sensor plane, describes the CMOS sensor/processor chip designed and prototyped for this application, and presents experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement in sensitivity and selectivity of InP-based gas sensors: pseudo-Schottky diodes with palladium metallizations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 45 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The possibility of using single resistive n-type InP semiconductor gas sensors to perform accurate measurements of ozone or nitrogen dioxide concentration in air comes up against their low sensitivity and the inability to discriminate between the influence of each gas on the sensors without any exterior apparatus. To improve these two fundamental aspects of gas sensors, the sensitive n-InP layers have been included in more complex devices, called pseudo-Schottky diodes. Made by successive evaporation of metallic thin layers on p-InP substrates, their Schottky metallization schemes (Pd/Ge/Pd) satisfy a double objective: the creation of the necessary n-InP gas sensitive layer by activation of Ge dopants and the ozone catalytic conversion by palladium layers. Comparisons between the sensing performances of the two gas sensors (resistive and Schottky diode-type ones) show that sensitivity of the laters is largely higher than that of single resistive gas sensors. On the other hand, a good selectivity toward ozone is achieved with Pd/Ge/Pd/p-InP gas sensors, resulting from different reaction kinetics between O3 or NO2 and the sensitive layer. These differences can be attributed to the palladium metallization catalytic activity. View full abstract»

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  • High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 52 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low relative humidity (RH) sensor based on overlay on side-polished fiber is presented. The evanescent field from a single-mode optical fiber is coupled to a TiO2 waveguide overlay. The transmission response exhibits sharp resonances whose central wavelengths are linearly shifted with RH. This behavior is due to the porous columnar nanostructure of the TiO2 film. The water is adsorbed in the pores of the nanostructure changing the refractive index of the layer and causing a shift of the wavelength resonances. The response of the sensor is determined by the shape and size of the pores. The optical fiber evanescent field sensor developed has a linear response and high sensitivity (0.5 nm/% RH) for low RH (RH∼0%-15%) at 26.1°C±0.6°C. The lack of hysteresis in the adsorption-desorption cycle has been checked. The development of a sensor with tailored response is envisaged using properly techniques to control the porosity of the material. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of endoluminal loop radiofrequency coils for gastrointestinal wall MR imaging

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 57 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the optimization of endoluminal planar coils for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of gastrointestinal walls. For maximizing the coil performances, electromagnetic parameters of planar rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils were simulated using the finite element method. The eddy currents were fully computed to determine the electromagnetic losses in both wires and surrounding environment. Geometric parameters of the coils (length, conductive layer section, number of layers, and turns number) were varied. Based on simulations, five loop RF coil prototypes with planar geometry were designed to fit in a 5-mm inner diameter catheter. In the immediate vicinity of single-loop coils, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases with the length of the coil, whereas penetration depth increases with it. The double-loop coil offers a greater penetration depth in comparison to the same length single-loop coil. The multilayer coil preserves the RF field B1 by inducing a reduction in the electrical resistance of the conductor, therefore resulting in an increase in SNR. Experimental verifications were performed on a 1.5 T clinical scanner. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with that of MR experiments. Developed prototypes provided a dramatic increase in SNR at the region of interest. View full abstract»

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  • Computational fluid dynamic model of diffusion and convection processes in electrochemical sensor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    Electrochemical amperometric transducers monitor the electric current through the electrochemical cell and measure, with high sensitivity, the concentration of biological or chemical species. The present study examined the physical phenomena of mass transfer in the vicinity of an electrochemical sensor operating in flow conditions using a theoretical model. A three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the electrochemical cell with computational fluid dynamic simulations of time-dependent convection and diffusion are used. The study focused mainly on the contribution of the convection, while migration due to ion movement by the electric field and kinetics limitations due to enzyme activity have been neglected. The concentration of the electroactive species from a thin layer close to the electrode is calculated by numerical simulations. This calculated concentration has been compared with the concentration obtained from the electric current measured by an amperometric experimental system. Comparison between the simulations and experimental patterns shows good agreement. Only a short delay at the onset of the measured experimental concentration was observed, compared to the simulation data. The source for the small disagreements could be connected to the manual procedures of the incomplete bubble removal in the experimental setup and to the migration effect that was neglected in the model assumptions. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Pd/InGaP Schottky diodes hydrogen sensors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pd/InGaP hydrogen sensors based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) and metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes have been fabricated and systematically studied. The effects of hydrogen adsorption on device performances such as the current-voltage characteristics, barrier height variation, hydrogen coverage, and heat of adsorption are investigated. The studied devices exhibit very wide hydrogen concentration detection regimes and remarkable hydrogen-sensing properties. Particularly, an extremely low hydrogen concentration of 15 ppm H2/air at room temperature can be detected. In addition, under the presence of oxide layers in the studied MOS device structure, the enhancements of barrier height and high-temperature operating capability are observed. The initial heat of adsorption for Pd/oxide and Pd/semiconductor interface are calculated as 355 and 65.9 meV/atom, respectively. Furthermore, the considerably short response times are found in studied devices. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic characteristics of vibratory gyroscopes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 80 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although there have been test results on microgyroscope dynamic characteristics, quantitative results relating the dynamic properties to microgyro design and operating parameters are not yet available. In this paper, we study the dynamic characteristics of a vibrating wheel microgyroscope. In vibratory microgyroscopes, the mechanical structure is driven into oscillatory motion. Consequently, the angular velocity input to the sensor is multiplied by the periodic driven motion. In order to recover the angular velocity input from the sensor responses, a demodulation must by carried out. Therefore, the differential equation governing the gyro input and output is not time invariant. The frequency response for the time-variant linear system is obtained through the demodulated and low-pass filtered steady-state output to sinusoidal excitations. With further assumptions of large Q value and close frequency match between the driven mode and sense mode, we obtain a time invariant model for the microgyroscope which is much simpler to use in the design of the microgyroscopes. View full abstract»

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  • Location information-aided task-oriented self-organization of ad-hoc sensor systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 85 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel task-oriented self-organization algorithm that accounts for mostly location-dependent tasks and heterogeneous sensors inherent in dense ad-hoc sensor systems is proposed. It forms a sensor group for an announced task by sequentially selecting the best matched sensors using a leader election algorithm and a residual task calculation algorithm. To improve the associated communication overhead, the sensor node location information is used in task broadcasting, thus confining the algorithm implementation to a dynamically maintained contributor group which comprises of those sensors which may contribute to the task. Sensor localization is based on a refinement of an algorithm in which utilizes only the neighborhood information of each sensor node corresponding to its each preset radio transmission power level. The proposed self-organization algorithm and how various system parameters affect its performance are examined via extensive simulations. In a densely deployed sensor system, when the refined localization scheme is demonstrated to achieve very good localization, the proposed self-organization algorithm consistently yields a sensor group that covers the announced task. View full abstract»

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  • A novel resolver-to-360° linearized converter

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 96 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel and simple resolver-to-dc converter is presented. It is shown that by appropriate processing of the sine and cosine resolver signals, the proposed converter may produce an output voltage proportional to the shaft angle. A dedicated compensation method is applied to produce an almost perfectly linear output. This enables determination of the angle with reasonable accuracy without a processor and/or a look-up table. The tests carried out under various operating conditions are satisfactory and in good agreement with theory. This paper gives the theoretical analysis, the computer simulation, the full circuit details, and experimental results of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Tri-axial sensors and actuators made of a single piezoelectric cylindrical shell

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 102 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromechanical transducers for sensing and actuating disturbances or vibrations have been used in many fields of applications. There have been transducers of different configuration developed for the unidirectional transduction. This paper demonstrates a single element transducer for tri-axial components made of a piezoelectric cylindrical shell. The separation of the tri-axial transductions is achieved by devising a proper electrode arrangement. The structure and the fundamental idea are first presented, and then the numerical analysis by means of the finite element modeling follows, and their characteristics and behaviors are then experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental noise limit of piezoelectric accelerometer

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 108 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since significant progress is achieved in the development of piezoelectric (PE) accelerometers for small signal applications nowadays (for example, piezoelectric seismic vibration sensors), the question about the fundamental noise limit of these sensors becomes vital. The noise of the PE transducer is the fundamental noise limit of the PE accelerometer and should be taken into account if the noise of the electronics is small enough. The two noise sources of PE transducer, the mechanical-thermal noise of the damped mechanical harmonic oscillator and the electrical-thermal noise of the PE element's material, are analyzed in this paper. The equation of the total fundamental noise limit of the PE accelerometer is presented. This equation can be used for the calculation of the fundamental noise limit of PE accelerometers if their parameters are known or can be obtained by measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Microbolometers on a flexible substrate for infrared detection

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 112 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Uncooled semiconducting YBaCuO infrared microbolometers have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate formed by spin-coating a silicon wafer with a release layer. The wafer was used as a carrier for the flexible substrate during fabrication. The finished microbolometers on the flexible substrate showed a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) TCR =(1/R)(dR/dT) of -3.03% K-1, at room temperature, which is comparable to the TCR values observed for semiconducting YBaCuO microbolometers fabricated directly on Si. In order to provide protection and better mechanical integrity, some of the devices were encapsulated. The microbolometers attained a responsivity and detectivity as high as 3.5×103 V/W and 1×107 cm·Hz12//W, respectively, at 2.88 μA of current bias. The responsivity and detectivity of the encapsulated microbolometers, on the other hand, were 1.6×103 V/W and 4.9×106 cm·Hz12//W, respectively at 1 μA of current bias. Spin-coated liquid polyimide solved two major problems previously encountered with the solid polyimide sheets when used as a flexible substrate. First, flatness of the flexible substrate was maintained with no air bubbles. Second, the thermal expansion of the flexible substrate during the fabrication process due to thermal cycling was minimal. All measurements reported in this paper, were taken prior to releasing the flexible substrate from the Si wafer containing the finished microbolometers. View full abstract»

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  • Sensors for harsh environments by direct-write thermal spray

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 118 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-temperature thermocouple sensors for harsh environments have been fabricated using thermal spray technology with excellent performance demonstrated. Concepts for strain sensors fabricated with thermal spray technology are also being developed. This work reports on functional high-temperature thermocouples and strain gauge concepts fabricated using thermal spray processing. View full abstract»

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  • A novel logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with high output voltage swing and in-pixel fixed-pattern noise reduction

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 122 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel logarithmic response CMOS image sensor fabricated by 0.25-μm CMOS logic process is proposed. The new cell has an output voltage swing of 1 V in the targeted illumination range, which makes it less susceptible to noises in the readout system. Furthermore, the proposed new cell with in-pixel CDS control drastically reduces the fixed pattern noise in logarithmic mode CMOS APS. Comparing with a conventional pixel, a reduction of 10 times in fixed-pattern noise is demonstrated in the new logarithmic response CMOS image sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporation of fiber-optic sensors in concrete specimens: testing and evaluation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 127 - 134
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As series of tests has been carried out on the performance of several fiber-optic temperature sensors, operating on the fluorescence lifetime principle using neodymium-doped fiber and configured into ruggedized temperature probes, mounted in a number of different concrete samples. The aim has been to evaluate the performance of probes fitted into concrete specimens to simulate the conditions experienced in structures used in civil applications, such as bridges and dams. A key feature of the investigation was observing the integrity of the sensors under investigation while obtaining temperature data from the device. The results show the sensors operated well from below room temperature to beyond 300°C, preserving their integrity under adverse test conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Design, optimization, and performance analysis of new photodiode structures for CMOS active-pixel-sensor (APS) imager applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 135 - 144
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dark current in the active-pixel-sensor (APS) cell of a CMOS imager is known to be mainly generated in the regions of bird's beak after the local oxidation of silicon process as well as the surface damage caused by the implantation of high doping concentration. Furthermore, shallow and deep pn-junctions can improve the photo-sensitivity for light of short and long wavelengths, respectively. In this paper, two new photodiode structures using p-substrate and lightly-doped sensor implant SN- as pn-junction photodiode with the regions of bird's beak embraced by SN- and p-field implants, respectively, are proposed and analyzed to reduce dark current and enhance the overall spectral response. 5 μm×5 μm APS cells fabricated in a 0.35-μm single-poly-triple-metal (1P3M) 3.3-V CMOS process are designed by using the proposed photodiode structures. As shown from the experimental results, the two proposed photodiode structures of 5 μm×5 μm APS cells have lower dark currents of 30.6 mV/s and 35.2 mV/s at the reverse-biased voltage of 2 V and higher spectral response, as compared to the conventional structure and other photodiode structures. Thus, the two proposed new photodiode structures can be applied to CMOS imager systems with small pixel size, high resolution, and high quality. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS smart pixel for active 3-D vision applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 145 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A CMOS smart pixel aimed at three-dimensional vision applications is introduced. It is suitable for scannerless laser ranging systems which employ the indirect time-of-flight measuring technique to recover distance information. The pixel is operated with trains of light pulses generated by an external source to illuminate the scene and contains most of the processing electronics to perform signal accumulation and noise reduction operations. The smart pixel architecture includes an N-well photodiode plus a self-biasing voltage amplifier and a switched-capacitor fully differential stage. The pixel is fabricated in standard CMOS 0.6 μm technology and measures 180×160 μm2 (including the photodiode) with a fill factor of 14%. Electrooptical test results confirm the smart pixel functionality in a range of distance from 3 m to 9 m, and the accuracy achieved for preliminary distance measurements is 15 cm. Both the accuracy and the extension of the range of distance are supposed to be improved by reducing setup and environmental noise contributions that limit the pixel performance. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.