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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 111
  • Power-efficient and QoS-aware scheduling in Bluetooth scatternet for wireless PANs

    Page(s): 1067 - 1072
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a power-efficient and QoS (quality of service)-aware MAC (medium access control) scheduling algorithm for Bluetooth scatternet. If the inter-piconet scheduler in a bridge node between piconets operates simply by the round robin (RR) policy, a number of time slots may be wasted due to the guard time for piconet switching and the exchange of POLL-NULL packets. To overcome the link wastage problem in Bluetooth scatternet scheduling, several algorithms have been proposed. Although they can provide all of the links of a bridge node with fair service opportunities, they may cause waste of wireless resources since different Bluetooth devices may have various traffic characteristics. In addition, since Bluetooth devices are often required to operate under limited battery capacity, the number of unnecessary piconet switching has to be minimized for the power-efficient operation of a Bluetooth scatternet. Therefore, we propose a mechanism to support the power-efficient operation of a Bluetooth scatternet while guaranteeing various QoS requirements of Bluetooth devices. The proposed algorithm is compliant with the current Bluetooth specification, and we demonstrate its improved performance via simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Radio specifications of double conversion tuner for cable modem

    Page(s): 1272 - 1278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The radio specifications such as noise figure, phase noise, image rejection ratio, CTB, CSO, XMOD, power gain, and AGC range of the tuner for cable modem is analyzed based on DOCSIS and many reported materials. Using the analyzed radio specifications, the specific radio specifications are allocated for up and down converter of the DC tuner architecture and analyzed CTB and CSO requirement in depth. According to the linearity analysis for the DC tuner architecture, it is known that CTB and CSO value of -53dBc, which is commonly accepted by the field engineer, is over-specified. By the more reasonable selection of linearity target, it is possible to design DC tuner with better power efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Conservative staircase data broadcasting protocol for video on demand

    Page(s): 1073 - 1077
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using multiple channels to broadcast a popular video is common in near video on demand (NVOD) systems. There are various protocols that adopt this method. Among those protocols, the harmonic protocol and its derivative protocols have the best performance in reducing the viewer's waiting time under a given bandwidth. The staircase protocol is reported to have the lowest buffer requirement and disk I/O requirement to client end. However, two defects in staircase protocol that may cause video discontinuity at the client site are ignored. In this paper, we talked about these two defects and explained how they cause video discontinuity at the client site. Then, we presented the conservative staircase protocol. As its name implies, this protocol adopts a conservative bandwidth assignment to ensure the continuity of the video received. At last, we compared the performance of this protocol with that of the staircase protocol. The results showed that our protocol has a similar performance compared with the staircase protocol but with more practicability. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing facial animation parameters for MPEG-4

    Page(s): 1354 - 1359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for automatic optimization of FAPs (facial animation parameters) based on a face video sequence. An FAP optimizer unit compares a rendered face with the original face in the video sequence. The difference is iteratively minimized to produce an optimal set of FAPs. Unnecessary FAPs are eliminated and the search is partitioned to speed up the optimization process. Three different search techniques, steepest descent method, linear search method, and cyclic coordinates method are applied to derive an optimum. The FAPs are very accurate and the animation based on the FAPs is lifelike and truthful to the original video. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative channels for digital images delivery: multimedia messaging service technology enhancing picture messaging for mobile and Internet environments

    Page(s): 841 - 845
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new multimedia messaging service technology opens innovative channels for archives, museums, and other content providers towards downloadable contents with wider market horizons. The general attention is more and more focused on the end user who will be able to search and select images, videos and music from the content providers and send multimedia messages in a transparent way to other users or business subjects. Different display profiles have been analyzed and a process workflow has been built in order to guarantee the quality of the images and to generate the digital products automatically starting from an existing digital archive database. We are not discussing the characteristics of specific environments but the process and the problems concerning the digital archiving and delivering of images. View full abstract»

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  • A DCT-based MPEG-2 transparent scrambling algorithm

    Page(s): 1208 - 1213
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, several encryption algorithms have been proposed, which are applied to MPEG-2 video streams. These algorithms try to optimize the encryption process and improve encryption speed by exploiting the spatial and temporal properties of video retrieval and display process. As a new branch of encryption, transparent scrambling has its own merits and special prospects. A new transparent scrambling algorithm proposed in this paper performs an arbitrarily degraded view of decoded picture by encrypting in DCT domain. This technique is applicable to the broadcast systems such as DVB/ATSC, which use MPEG-2 as compression standard. View full abstract»

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  • Contrast enhancement using recursive mean-separate histogram equalization for scalable brightness preservation

    Page(s): 1301 - 1309
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Histogram equalization (HE) is widely used for contrast enhancement. However, it tends to change the brightness of an image and hence, not suitable for consumer electronic products, where preserving the original brightness is essential to avoid annoying artifacts. Bi-histogram equalization (BBHE) has been proposed and analyzed mathematically that it can preserve the original brightness to a certain extend. However, there are still cases that are not handled well by BBHE, as they require higher degree of preservation. This paper proposes a generalization of BBHE referred to as recursive mean-separate histogram equalization (RMSHE) to provide not only better but also scalable brightness preservation. BBHE separates the input image's histogram into two based on its mean before equalizing them independently. While the separation is done only once in BBHE, this paper proposes to perform the separation recursively; separate each new histogram further based on their respective mean. It is analyzed mathematically that the output image's mean brightness will converge to the input image's mean brightness as the number of recursive mean separation increases. Besides, the recursive nature of RMSHE also allows scalable brightness preservation, which is very useful in consumer electronics. Simulation results show that the cases which are not handled well by HE, BBHE and dualistic sub image histogram equalization (DSIHE), have been properly enhanced by RMSHE. View full abstract»

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  • Steganography in JPEG2000 compressed images

    Page(s): 824 - 832
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (819 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Information hiding in JPEG2000 compressed images is investigated in this research. The challenges of covert communication in this state-of-the-art image codec are analyzed and a steganographic scheme is then proposed to reliably embed high-volume data into the JPEG2000 bit-stream. A special mode of JPEG2000 is employed, and its usage and functions are explained and justified. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • New processing system for on-line video image retrieval utilizing DSP

    Page(s): 1408 - 1415
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Finding the designated video shots from the video stream within a short time is a big issue in the multimedia consumer electronic applications. To largely reduce the time needed to access the desired video shots, a new system for retrieving the specific shots was built utilizing the on-line motion detection with the DSP. The specific video shots could be retrieved at a reduced processing time by using the DSP because a series of motion vectors were generated in real time on the DSP using the on-line Y signal image frames. The start and stop frame codes resulting from the retrieval easily pick up only the designated video shots from the video stream. The processing time from the motion detection to the start and stop frame code generation was equivalent to 13 ms per frame. View full abstract»

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  • Peak-to-average power control for multiple-antenna HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE802.11a systems

    Page(s): 1078 - 1083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A combination of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signal processing with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is regarded as a promising solution for enhancing the performance of next generation wireless local area network (WLAN) systems. This paper evaluates the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) performance in a MIMO OFDM-based WLAN system using a space-time block code (STBC). The investigated PAR control schemes, which are originally based on the selective mapping (SLM) and partial transmit sequence (PTS) approaches, select the transmitted sequence with the lowest average PAR over all transmit antennas and retrieve the side information (SI) very accurately at the expense of a slight degradation of the PAR performance. The low probability of false SI can improve the overall detection performance of the MIMO-WLAN system encountered with erroneous SI compared to the ordinary SLM and PTS approaches, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Novel plasma display driver with low voltage/current device stresses

    Page(s): 1360 - 1366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new energy-recovery-sustain circuit suitable for a plasma display panel (PDP) application is proposed. The proposed circuit features the low device voltage/current stresses, and the inherent circulating current elimination characteristics, essential to design a power efficient and low cost plasma display driver circuit. The proposed circuit is demonstrated experimentally for driving a 42 inches plasma display panel. It is best suited in a low cost and power efficient plasma display. View full abstract»

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  • Impulsive noise suppression in OFDM-based communication systems

    Page(s): 944 - 948
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a technique used for terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T) and many other modern applications. The longer OFDM symbol duration provides an advantage in a presence of weak impulsive noise, because impulsive noise energy is spread among simultaneously transmitted OFDM sub-carriers. However, it has been recently recognized that this advantage turns into a disadvantage if the impulsive noise energy exceeds certain threshold. In this paper the algorithm for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM receivers is proposed and investigated. Whereas traditional methods for impulsive noise suppression are implemented in a time domain before OFDM demodulation, proposed algorithm compensates impulsive noise in a frequency domain after OFDM demodulation and channel equalization. The method is applied to DVB-T and its performance is studied by means of simulation. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive carrier synchronizer for M-QAM cable receiver

    Page(s): 983 - 989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital carrier recovery (CR) loop with an adaptive loop bandwidth for rapid carrier frequency offset acquisition and low steady-state jitter is proposed in this paper. In addition to the traditional CR functional blocks, the presented carrier synchronizer consists of a tracking-status detector and a loop bandwidth controller. The tracking-status detector monitors the frequency-estimate signals output from the frequency-tracking (integral) branch of the loop filter, detecting whether the frequency offset is locked or not. Then, by adjusting the loop bandwidth in response to the detected result, the convergence time of the acquisition-state and the carrier jitter in the steady-state can be reduced. The new scheme, implemented by FPGAs, has been successfully applied to a 256-QAM baseband digital receiver and also inter-operated with a commercial CMTS. The SNR performance can be improved up to 3 dB only at the expense of 3% hardware area of a Virtex-II-2000 FPGA for this proposed architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient error handling for video and still picture standards

    Page(s): 1391 - 1394
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes new methods for errors handling at the decoder side, when channel noise affects the transmission of the compressed stream. The proposed error detection techniques are applied to MPEG-4 standard video, but can be also used for general video and still picture standards in which inverse quantization clipping or resynchronization markers are present as MPEG-2, H263, H261, JPEG and JPEG2000. The improved error concealment techniques presented can be extended to all the standards in which reverse variable length coding is present. View full abstract»

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  • Track following control design for ODDs by employing repetitive two-degree-of-freedom control scheme

    Page(s): 1186 - 1195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radial track following of an optical disk drive (ODD) servomechanism is severely exposed to periodic disturbances induced by eccentric rotation of the disc. Such disturbances cause the tracking errors of a periodic nature and can be effectively rejected by employing a repetitive controller. In this paper, we propose a repetitive 2DOF control scheme for an ODD track-following servo system with uncertain plant parameters. The proposed repetitive controller is designed on the basis of the frequency domain analysis of the linear interval system and installed as a plug-in module in an existing track following servo system whose feedback compensator is designed independently of the repetitive controller. Simulative and experimental results showed that the proposed control scheme enables a significant improvement of the tracking accuracy of the radial servomechanism. View full abstract»

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  • A complementary clipping transform technique for the reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system

    Page(s): 922 - 926
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel transform technique is proposed for reducing the peak-to-average ratio (PAPR) of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. Large OFDM signals are replaced by small complementary signals according to the proposed method. It has a low SNR loss in bit error rate while achieving a significant reduction of PAPR. It is shown by computer simulations that the proposed method can outperform the well-known clipping filtering scheme and μ-law companding technique substantially. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach for rustle noise canceling in pen-type voice recorder

    Page(s): 1118 - 1124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach for rustle noise cancellation in pen-type voice recorder. Our objective it to enhance recorded speech signal corrupted by so-called rustle noise. The proposed method is based on the signal subspace approach. In general, a signal subspace-based approach has a better performance result than the one with a method in Fourier domain. In this paper, we estimate the subspace on each subband, and design the optimum subband filter to minimize the signal distribution while reducing residual noise. A saving on computational complexity is achieved by subband domain processing. Several experimental simulations and informal listening tests are performed with actual recorded speech and it shows that the proposed method provides better noise cancellation capability than other methods such as spectral subtraction and Wiener filtering method. View full abstract»

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  • A novel communication protocol for wireless short command

    Page(s): 1020 - 1027
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is an increasing demand for low-cost large-scale wireless protocol for control system. Currently adapted wireless protocols aim at high data rate applications and hence do not provide the most cost-effective solution. Hence we see that there is room to explore and optimize for an efficient protocol for consumer wireless automation control. In our protocol, we target at low-cost, robust, high efficiency and high security. The developed protocol has been embedded into low-cost micro-controllers and is ready to be applied to applications such as light switches, air-conditioners, curtains, audio and video systems, microwave ovens, washing machines as well as security systems. A wireless control system was implemented and an experiment was set up to test the performance. More than two hundred devices were tested. Analysis showed that, in most scenarios, a typical transmission delay of 80 ms per command was experienced. The protocol was found to be robust, simple-structured and yet efficient. It should be noted that the cost for the embedded solution is about USD2.00. The protocol is designed for interoperability and the completed protocol is ready to be plotted onto most consumer products. View full abstract»

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  • A unified transcoding approach to fast forward and reverse playback of compressed video

    Page(s): 1098 - 1105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a unified approach for realizing fast-forward and fast-reverse playback of a pre-coded video by generating a new and lower-bit rate video through video transcoding. To reduce the computational complexity, we develop fast algorithms to estimate the motion vectors required for transcoding the video. To accommodate changes due to frame-skipping and to sustain satisfactory coding efficiency, we adaptively alter the group-of-pictures structure of the transcoded video to suit for different playback speeds. Subjective tests are conducted to assess the perceived quality of video played back at various fast speeds. Experimental results and complexity analysis are presented in this paper to show the efficacy of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Modified bespoke data broadcasting scheme for popular videos

    Page(s): 1378 - 1382
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In bespoke data broadcasting scheme a considerable amount of buffer storage is saved at the cost of comparatively much less latency time. In this paper a modified form of the bespoke scheme has been proposed. In the modified bespoke scheme the buffer requirement is on average less than that in the bespoke scheme. Further, the modified bespoke scheme has better performance in regard to user's latency as well as disk transfer rate over the bespoke scheme for all values of bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A reliable power line carrier and wireless data concentrator for broadband energy information network

    Page(s): 1054 - 1060
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Designing reliable and flexible home energy controllers (HECs) is the pivotal part for energy information network system (ENIS). This paper presents a hybrid channel data concentrator for reliable Internet access control. The concentrator is composed of power line carrier (PLC) and wireless front-end modules, and an embedded system. The selection of either PLC or RF channel is based on a channel reliability level estimation method. To verify the reliability and robustness of the proposed system, line-spread and radial-spread test sites have been installed for link performance tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of deploying reliable PLC and wireless data concentrator for ENIS in areas of high or low population density residential apartments. View full abstract»

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  • Applying projection and B-spline to image authentication and remedy

    Page(s): 1234 - 1239
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many image authentication methods have been proposed, in recent years, to protect image authenticity and integrity, but most have ignored the dangers of counterfeit attack. In this paper, we propose a new image authentication method, using a vector projection technique, for safety and security in digital systems based on a PKI cryptographic framework. In this method, the vector projective square (VPS) pair of each block can be calculated by a vector projection technique, and we prove that an attacker cannot forge a counterfeit image with the same VPS pair as the original image. In addition to addressing counterfeit attacks, we also propose a new remedial algorithm which applying non-uniform B-spline to repair the modified image. This paper, therefore, has five goals: (1) to verify image authentication, (2) to verify the integrity of an image received, (3) to locate any parts that were illegally modified or counterfeited, (4) to provide security against counterfeit attacks and (5) to repair the illegally modified parts. View full abstract»

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  • QoP-driven scheduling for MPEG video decoding

    Page(s): 1341 - 1347
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPEG video decoding algorithm has been embedded into many consumer electronic products. In this paper, we demonstrate that the completion ratio (CR) does not represent well the quality of presentation (QoP) of MPEG video. We then propose a new QoP metric, which 1) is based on frame completion ratio but 2) differentiates firm and soft deadlines and also 3) considers the frame dependency. We show that, on a set of simulates MPEG movies; the proposed QoP metric measures the QoP of the movies much better than completion ratio. We then present a set of online scheduling algorithms that enhance QoP significantly, particularly for overloaded systems. View full abstract»

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  • New edge dependent deinterlacing algorithm based on horizontal edge pattern

    Page(s): 1508 - 1512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new deinterlacing algorithm, which is an edge dependent interpolation (EDI) algorithm based on a horizontal edge pattern. Generally, a conventional EDI algorithm has a visually better performance than any other deinterlacing algorithms using one field. However, it produces unpleasant results due to the failure of estimating edge direction. In order to exactly detect edge direction, we use not only simple difference but also edge patterns. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional approaches with respect to both objective and subjective criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Improved techniques for dual-bitstream MPEG video streaming with VCR functionalities

    Page(s): 1153 - 1160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new dual-bitstream technique for videocassette recording (VCR) functionality and a transcoding technique of the motion vectors (mvs) between dual bitstreams are introduced in this paper. In the dual-bitstream technique, a direct reference bitstream is proposed to replace the original reverse bitstream to reduce the required network bandwidth and decoder effort of VCR requests. The close formula of the average number of the transmitted frames for a random-access or fast-forward request is proved for the proposed dual-bitstream technique. In the transcoding technique, the mvs in the forward bitstream are first reused to generate the mvs in the reverse bitstream and the direct reference bitstream. If the obtained error is larger than a preset threshold, the mvs are refined step-by-step from the inner to the outer of a refinement window. The experimental results show that the PSNR degradation between the proposed transcoding technique and the full search technique is very little and only about 1% ∼ 6% computations re required. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583