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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement Society Information

    Page(s): 0_2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 2 - 3
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  • Dynamic strain measurement using an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor and an arrayed waveguide grating device

    Page(s): 4 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we demonstrate an interrogation system, based on an arrayed waveguide grating, capable of monitoring dynamic strain in a cantilever beam at frequencies up to 5 kHz (limited by the actuator) with a similar precision to resistive strain gauges. View full abstract»

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  • A novel fiber-optic pressure sensor operated at 1300-nm wavelength

    Page(s): 10 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we discuss a particular topology of a fiber-optic pressure transducer, developed recently at the Laboratory of the Photonics Research Center, University of Quebec en Outaouais. The sensor, which is an extension of our previous polarimetric configuration, was designed to operate using typical telecommunications components at the wavelength of 1300 nm. The pressure sensor is temperature compensated in an innovative way and has no polarizer between the LD and the sensor. The absolute accuracy of this sensor can be less than 1% in a wide range of temperatures, and including all types of metrological errors such as hysteresis and unrepeatability. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement and system impact of multipath interference from dispersion compensating fiber modules

    Page(s): 15 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dispersion compensating modules (DCM) are key components in long distance and high-speed fiber-optic transmission systems. However, many types of DCMs exhibit multipath interference (MPI) that acts as noise in transmission and degrades the bit error rate of the system. Further, MPI generated in DCMs is mostly due to forward scattering and mostly of the coherent type. This type of MPI cannot be correctly measured using conventional measurement techniques that use electrical spectrum analysis to measure post-detection noise. We demonstrate an accurate and simple method of MPI measurement using a swept wavelength system apparatus. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this measurement method and show system results of Q penalty due to MPI from concatenated DCMs. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a portable fiber-optic current sensor for power systems monitoring

    Page(s): 24 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a portable fiber-optic current sensor (FOCS), based on the Faraday effect, with a magnetic concentrator. Both the optical sensing head and electronic processing block are illustrated. A detailed experimental study to confirm the performance of the device is also reported. According to the measured values of ac rms current up to 1 kA, a calibration procedure was performed. The paper provides an analysis of the results obtained for various conductor displacements within the concentrator. The well-known temperature dependence of the Faraday current sensor and its influence on the measurement accuracy are tested by means of a special double-layer thermal insulated chamber. The calibrated and characterized FOCS is applied for harmonic analysis of the current. The results clearly illustrate the nature of the sensing process and demonstrate odd-order harmonics presence, as predicted by the mathematical model. The paper indicates that the developed device is suitable for the power systems monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring global earthquake-induced demands using vision-based sensors

    Page(s): 31 - 36
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    A vision-based approach is evaluated for its applicability as a new sensing technology for measuring earthquake-induced motions. The approach evaluated in this paper is advantageous since it requires very limited physical attachment to the structure of interest, is high-speed, high-resolution, and does not introduce additional mass or otherwise modify the properties of the structure. A demonstration experiment is described in which four digital high-speed, high-resolution, charge-coupled-device cameras outfitted with red light-emitting diodes are used to track 21 reflective (nearly) mass less spherical elements discretely mounted on a scale five-story steel frame structure. The structure is mounted on a large bi-axial shake table and subjected to different earthquake motions. A total of eleven conventional (wired) transducers [linear variable displacement transducers and accelerometers] are also discretely mounted on the structure, providing a unique comparison with the vision-based approach. Results from these experiments show that the nonintrusive vision-based approach is extremely promising in terms of its ability to capture inter-story drift, floor level velocities, and accelerations, provided proper post-processing of the dynamic data occurs. View full abstract»

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  • Use of scanned detection in optical position encoders

    Page(s): 37 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of scanning detection in optical noncontact position sensing is proposed, and a prototype is implemented, using optical scanning of pseudorandom binary sequences printed in bar-code format. Light from a vibrating fiber tip is imaged onto the printed code using a GRIN (graded index) lens, and the reflected light detected via the same lens, resulting in a single scanner module. Improved flexibility and signal processing possibilities are obtained compared to conventional diode array optical code readers. Performance limitations of scanning position encoders are analyzed and discussed. Suggestions for implementation using microoptoelectromechanical systems are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Limiting sensitivity of a differential absorption spectrometer with direct detection in the 2ν3 and ν2+2ν3 vibration bands [methane detection applications]

    Page(s): 45 - 50
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    A differential absorption spectrometer, for methane detection, using tunable laser diodes in the 1.33-μm and 1.66-μm bands, has been studied. The spectral scanning is carried out by current modulation of the laser diode. We analyzed the performance with a multimode Fabry-Perot laser diode in the ν2+2ν3 band of methane and a monomode laser diode in the 2ν3 band. The theoretical results are validated by several experiments. To determine the sensitivity limit of the sensor, we have examined the influence of the noise sources. A sensitivity of 10 ppm·m was obtained in the 2ν3 band. The main limiting factors are the relative intensity noise of the laser, optical interferences, and quantization noise. We also analyzed the influence of the temperature on the laser diode emission spectra and the methane absorption spectra. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontact speckle-based velocity sensor [laser Doppler vibrometer]

    Page(s): 51 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laser light illuminating a rough surface generates speckle phenomena in the space around the surface. In this paper, the authors propose a noncontact laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensor, using the speckle phenomena, for the assessment of target velocity and displacement at low vibration frequencies. The sensor is realized using few optical components in a very simple optical configuration. The methodology for the experimental and analytical determination of the sensor sensitivity is reported, and two speckle-processing algorithms have been used to appraise the best cross-correlation function for target velocity measurement. The algorithms are based on binary correlation and fast Fourier transform analysis. Experimental results coming from the comparison of both the proposed techniques are reported. Moreover, results obtained with the proposed speckle sensor have been compared with reference measurement systems. Results show that this noncontact sensor is characterized by a reduced optical complexity and low cost. It appears to be particularly suitable for use in the analysis of low velocity rough surfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Multichannel Raman gas analyzer: the data acquisition and control system. Measurement improvement with blue laser light

    Page(s): 58 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the data acquisition and control system of a multichannel Raman effect-based gas analysis device is presented, together with the improvements achieved in measurement of gas concentration sensitivities as a result of the operation of the system with a new blue laser-light source. The multichannel Raman gas sensor (MRGS) is based on the linear Raman scattering effect and uses photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) in the photon-counting mode of operation. An embedded microcontroller-based data acquisition and control (MDAC) system collects, digitizes, processes, and stores in real time the data from six photon-counting modules and the accompanying sensors, along with an overall system control through appropriate actuators. Recent advances in the development of solid-state laser sources have enabled the use of a new, state-of-the-art, blue laser for the excitation of the Raman effect. Using this blue laser source, improvements in the sensitivities in measurements of concentration for all tested gases (SO2, CO2, CO, NO2, C6H6, and N2) have been substantiated, compared with the green laser source previously used and reported in a related article. View full abstract»

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  • Chromatic dispersion measurement using a multiwavelength frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser

    Page(s): 67 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the realization of a fiber laser source emitting simultaneously over 17 wavelengths spread over the whole C-band. An acoustooptic frequency shifter is placed in the laser ring cavity to suppress the cross-gain saturation effects of the erbium-doped fiber. The emitted wavelengths are fixed by a set of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). A power uniformity reaching 6 dB is achieved by inscribing the FBGs while monitoring the laser output. We demonstrate the reliability of this laser as a source for characterization of optical components and networks by the measurement of optical fiber chromatic dispersion. The measurement is performed over the whole telecommunication C-band (1530-1560 nm) using the time-of-flight method. We perform the measurement on three different fibers with different levels of dispersion, namely a standard fiber, a nonzero dispersion shifted fiber, and a dispersion compensating fiber. The results are compared with measurements obtained using a standard network analyzer. The agreement between the two methods is better than ±1%, thus proving the suitability of the developed laser source for this application. View full abstract»

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  • Realization of an on-line fiber-optic bending loss measurement system

    Page(s): 72 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an on-line bending loss measurement system is studied and realized. To avoid complicated calculation of fiber bending loss, we propose a simplified theoretical model for on-line evaluation. A specific fiber adaptor is developed for light signal feeding and picking up through a free space optical fiber coupling technique. Relevant factors, including free space fiber misalignment, are considered. The signal-to-noise ratio of the whole system is improved by optimizing the spatial perturbation length of the fiber and the deformation of the bending fiber. The use of an on-line monitoring technique for measuring the bending loss of optical fibers is presented in this paper. With this technique, manufacturing efficiency can be improved, and the cost of maintaining fiber quality control can be reduced. View full abstract»

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  • The analysis of the transmission-type optical smoke detector threshold sensitivity to the high rate temperature variations

    Page(s): 80 - 85
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    Reliability of the transmission-type optical smoke detectors is limited by the high sensitivity of optical components to parasitic effects, especially to contamination and temperature. Influences of the high rate temperature variations cannot be eliminated by filtering, as their spectral range partially overlaps with the spectral range of a smoke absorption index. Hence, sensitivity to these effects has to be eliminated through the mutual cancellation of the corresponding components of the output signal. First determining the temperature dependence of the light source and the receiver in the generalized block diagram of the transmission-type optical smoke detector, transfer functions are derived, specifying the detector output signal as a function of the temperature variations of the blocks considered. Using the second-order thermal model for the thermal system of the optoelectronic diodes, an expression is given for the steady-state solution of the difference of the source and the receiver diode junction temperatures, when the ambient temperature is a ramp function of time. On the basis of the thermal system analysis, a block diagram is shown to be equivalent to RC low-pass (LP) filters that model the pn junction temperature dependence on ambient temperature. For the completed block diagram, with the help of the expressions derived, an analysis is performed to establish how to eliminate the detector threshold sensitivity to ambient temperature variations, or to adjust it to realize a multicriteria fire detector. View full abstract»

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  • Reflectometric measurements of polarization properties in optical-fiber links

    Page(s): 86 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polarization sensitive reflectometric measurements are effective tools for the characterization of polarization properties of optical-fiber links. These techniques show two advantages compared with the standard ones: they can perform measurements using only one fiber end (both for transmission and for reception of the probe signal) and, most important, they can characterize the local evolution of the polarization properties of the fiber link. Reflectometric measurements of differential group delay and fiber birefringence have been already successfully performed. More recently, the possibility of measuring, also, polarization dependent loss has been theoretically explored. In this paper the theory and main applications of polarization sensitive reflectometric techniques are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • A double-laser diode onboard sensor for velocity measurements

    Page(s): 95 - 101
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    In this paper, we validate the feasibility of an onboard velocity sensor using the self-mixing effect. Roughness of the target surface, wet target surface, noncontrolled changes of incident angle, and speed vector vertical components have been considered during this development. A first prototype has been designed with an automotive application so to illustrate this feasibility. This low-cost and low-clutter prototype presents an interesting basic performance (σ≈0.22%). In order to improve the accuracy as well as the robustness of the system, a double-laser diode sensor has then been tested successfully (σ≈0.038%) by removing the influence of the pitching and the pumping effects. View full abstract»

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  • Design and stability analysis of a CMOS feedback laser driver

    Page(s): 102 - 108
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    A feedback laser driver circuit has been developed to control the average optical output power of a double heterostructure CW laser diode and also to operate with a wideband amplitude modulation. The average light power monitoring is realized by measuring the photoelectric current of a photodiode integrated inside the package of the laser diode. Safety features, including transient signal suppression, protect the laser against excessive light power. To obtain responses that are not out of the absolute maximum ratings of the laser diode light power, a study of the feedback loop stability is necessary. Two transconductance structures, using inverting and noninverting circuits are compared using the dominant pole compensation method. Then, the more stable driver circuit is analyzed and integrated using CMOS technology. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time tracking of time-varying velocity using a self-mixing laser diode

    Page(s): 109 - 115
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    A new method is proposed for estimating the time-varying velocity of a moving target with a low-cost laser sensor using optical feedback interferometry. A new algorithm is proposed to track velocity variations from real-time analysis of the output signal of a self-mixing laser diode. This signal is strongly corrupted by a multiplicative noise caused by the speckle effect, which occurs very often with noncooperative targets used in many industrial applications. The proposed signal processing method is based on a second order adaptive linear predictor filter, which enables us to track the digital instantaneous Doppler frequency, which is proportional to the velocity. A model of the laser diode output signal is proposed, and it is shown that the sensor and its associated algorithm have a global first-order lowpass transfer function with a cutoff frequency expressed as a function of the speckle perturbations, the signal to noise ratio and the mean Doppler frequency. Numerical as well as experimental results illustrate the properties of this sensor. View full abstract»

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  • A fast CMOS optical position sensor with high subpixel resolution

    Page(s): 116 - 123
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    This paper describes a novel architecture for an optical position sensor which has been implemented on a single chip using standard digital CMOS technology. The prototype device consists of 20×20 active pixels and two row and column parallel processing units with corresponding digital decoding logic. The image contour is extracted by means of distributed peak-detection, implemented at pixel level, followed by a digital extraction of the beam centroid position executed at row and column level. The sensor chip achieves up to 3000 frames/s with a position accuracy of 0.013 pixel and a total power consumption of 15 mW at 5 V. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-fast optical spectrum analyzer for DWDM applications

    Page(s): 124 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dense wavelength division multiplexing optical networks use tunable devices such as distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes. These optical sources require a precise wavelength calibration according to the ITU grid, even with aged components. Some specific optical spectrum analyzers are commercially available. Unfortunately, measurements using those systems are generally relatively slow. We present and discuss in this paper a fast spectral measurement system that can easily be implemented in a laser diode package. View full abstract»

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  • Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber [directional bend sensors]

    Page(s): 130 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Long period gratings (LPGs) were written into a D-shaped single-mode fiber. These LPGs were subjected to a range of curvatures, and it was found that as curvature increased, there was increasingly strong coupling to certain higher order cladding modes without the usual splitting of the LPGs stopbands. A bend-induced stopband yielded a spectral sensitivity of 12.55 nm·m for curvature and 2.2×10-2 nm°C-1 for temperature. It was also found that the wavelength separation between adjacent bend-induced stopbands varied linearly as a function of curvature. Blue and red wavelength shifts of the stopbands were observed as the sensor was rotated around a fixed axis for a given curvature; thus, in principle, this sensor could be used to obtain bending and orientational information. The behavior of the stopbands was successfully modeled using a finite element approach. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength modulation technique for intra-cavity absorption gas sensor

    Page(s): 136 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    Wavelength modulation spectroscopy by the use of a tunable optical filter was applied to an intra-cavity fiber laser gas sensor. The optimum pump power and the modulation amplitude that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio were found. A minimum detectable gas (C2H2) concentration of 1000 ppm was experimentally achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Dedicated temperature sensing with c-axis oriented single-crystal ruby (Cr3+:Al2O3) fibers: temperature and strain dependences of R-line fluorescence

    Page(s): 140 - 154
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    Single-crystal fibers of ruby (Cr3+:Al2O3) with approximately 0.1 wt.% Cr3+ have been produced by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique. The fluorescence emissions of the R1 and R2 lines were studied as functions of temperature and strain. Fluorescence decay lifetime measurements indicate that these fibers may be suitable for thermometric applications up to 973 K while strain measurements show only a very weak dependence. Similarly, characterization of the R-line shifts also show a weak strain sensitivity and an appreciably larger change with temperature. One fiber sample has been tested to destruction to demonstrate this weak strain dependence. Single-crystal ruby fibers are, thus, found to be potential candidates for dedicated temperature sensing from room temperature to ∼923 K. View full abstract»

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  • The development of a portable spectrophotometer for noncontact color measurement

    Page(s): 155 - 162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A portable spectrophotometer for noncontact color measurement was developed to display spectral distribution and tristimulus values of a color simultaneously. It comprises electronic control circuits, control firmware, and an optical mechanism with a photo detector array. Essentially, a light beam is reflected or transmitted by a measured object into a device that disperses the light beam into its spectrum on a photo detector array. Then, the photo detector module generates a series of signals as functions of light intensity and produces their corresponding digital values reflecting light intensity. These digital data are processed by the electronic control circuits and control firmware to directly provide the spectral distribution and standard color values. The measured results of the developed system were also compared with those obtained by a similar instrument on the market. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703