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Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Editorial

    Page(s): 194 - 195
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Abstracts of forthcoming manuscripts

    Page(s): 196 - 197
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Page(s): 198 - 199
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Material characterization of fluorosilicone gels for automotive application

    Page(s): 200 - 204
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fluorosilicone gel is commonly used in die passivation. This paper studies the characteristics of fluorosilicone gel applied on the manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor die. The cure mechanism and material characterization of the three types of gels were analyzed using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and rheometer. The temperature and time relationships were derived for each material type. In the process of characterization, it was discovered that characterized material does not always behave as expected in the production confirmation run. It was found that the gel selected interacted with the thermoplastic packaging material hence leading to further findings of cure inhibitation. This paper concludes with the valuable lessons learnt from this material characterization project and explains the importance of these lessons learnt to actual manufacturing experience. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of infrared microscopy to IC and MEMS packaging

    Page(s): 232 - 238
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high sensitivity, infrared (IR) microscope operating in the wavelength range 800 to 2500 nm has been applied to a variety of packaging related issues. Applications can be divided into three categories. 1) For flip chip devices the advantage of the IR microscope is that most silicon is effectively transparent at wavelengths greater than 1100 nm. This enable defects such as voids, delamination cracks and corrosion to be investigated while the chip is mounted on the substrate. 2) The IR microscope enables thermal images of devices to be obtained with a temperature resolution of approximately 1 K and spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. 3) The transparency of silicon to IR radiation has proved particularly valuable for characterising micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices such as microphones, at various stages of packaging, e.g., after die bonding and wire bonding. View full abstract»

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  • Microdeformation analysis of packages and interconnects to improve finite element models for reliability assessments

    Page(s): 239 - 244
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality of mechanical modeling is of essential influence on the success of finite element analysis (FEA) and of subsequent studies of failure mechanisms. Missing knowledge about time and temperature dependent material behavior often leads to uncertainties in constitutive material description of rather complex structures like filled underfills or organic substrates. Micro deformation measurement methods help to overcome the problem by supplying displacement and strain fields comparable with FEA results. MicroDAC is an established versatile measurement tool for local and global deformation analyzes on thermally or mechanically stressed specimens. The paper presents the basics of the microDAC concept and different kinds of measurements on chip scale packages (CSP) and on flip chip assemblies to illustrate the application to integrated circuit (IC) packaging. A modified microDAC algorithm has been used to determine coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) at small sized material samples and materials of anisotropic CTEs. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the influence of post-mould cure and additives on the viscoelastic properties of a low stress epoxy mould compound

    Page(s): 211 - 215
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    This work investigates the influence of post mould cure (PMC) duration on the viscoelastic properties of a low stress, epoxy mould compound. Results show glass transition increases while modulus measured at room temperature decreases with increasing PMC duration. Glass transition typically increases with increasing PMC as cross-linking density increases. Modulus is not expected to decrease with increased cross-link density. It is postulated that progressive attachment of silicone particles to the cross-link network of the encapsulant is active during PMC. The net effect of the attachment of silicone particles to the cross-linked network and increased cross-link density as a result of residual cure is a decrease in modulus with increasing post mould cure. View full abstract»

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  • An optimization study of underfill dispensing volume

    Page(s): 205 - 210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The underfill dispensing volume has been modeled and verified through both experiments and application of statistical technique. The model established is capable of estimating the operating range of the dispensing volume of a defined flip chip assembly and is targeted to reduce wastage as well whilst fulfilling the reliability requirement. The model has taken into consideration the reliability factor, e.g., presence of fillet; manufacturing tolerance of bumps size and standoff variation. In this study, the actual volume for flip chip assemblies prepared in a controlled manner, so that fillets were seen on all sides, was compared with the recommended underfill volume. It was found that the model tended to yield a higher volume and it is concluded that this variation is related to the over estimation of the fillet element in the formulation. For reliability assessment, these flip chip assemblies were examined under C-mode SAM and no voids were found. These flip chip assemblies also passed electrical testing after 500 cycles of air to air thermal cycles and therefore are proven to meet the reliability requirement. View full abstract»

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  • Warpage in plastic packages: effects of process conditions, geometry and materials

    Page(s): 245 - 252
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    The effects of several important parameters, including processing conditions, package geometry and materials, are specifically studied on the occurrence of warpage and coplanarity for a plastic package. Special emphasis is placed on the evaluation of moulding compound properties and optimal processing conditions that can effectively minimize warpage. It is found that moulding compounds requiring a low moulding temperature and having a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can significantly reduce warpage. The elastic modulus was found to be inversely proportional to warpage, indicating the modulus should be kept as high as possible. The post-mould curing is essential to reducing warpage as it increases the glass transition temperature, but lowers the thermal shrinkage. A cross-shaped die paddle against a full square paddle, a thick die attach and a large die size are also favorable to reducing warpage. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring wire bonding via time-frequency analysis of horn vibration

    Page(s): 216 - 220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a technique is developed to monitor a wire-bonding process. Vibration of the horn of a bonder is picked up by a piezoelectric material patch attaching on the surface of the horn and analyzed by joint time-frequency analysis. With neural network, features extracted from the time-frequency distributions of the horn vibration are then exploited for classifying bonding machine setting and predicting bond quality. The results demonstrate the advantages of the time-frequency analysis of horn vibration in monitoring wire bonding. View full abstract»

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  • A method of the measurement of moisture in IC packages using microwaves

    Page(s): 228 - 231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method to measure the moisture content of integrated circuit (IC) packages is demonstrated. The moisture contained in the encapsulant resin was determined by using microwaves. The microwave signal was transmitted into the encapsulant resin and reflected at the surface of the chip pad. The amplitude and phase of the reflection coefficient of the microwave signal, which varied with the moisture content of the encapsulant resin, were measured in order to determine the moisture content. A preliminary experiment was carried out, and the calibration equation was developed. The present technique indicates the possibility of determining the moisture content directly without drying and weighing IC packages. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic evaluation of the silicon/copper interfaces in IC packaging

    Page(s): 221 - 227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The silicon die and copper lead-frame in integrated circuit (IC) packaging are bonded using a die attach adhesive, and the quality of the adhesive interface is a critical issue in the reliability testing of IC packaging and during the manufacturing process. Common defects such as cracks and delamination can be detected using the C-mode ultrasonic microscopic method with sufficient confidence. However, a weak interface due to weak adhesion and poor cohesion has often gone undetected and may become a potential defect at a later stage. There is a desire to study the interface quality quantitatively, so that any potentially defective area can be evaluated and identified early. This paper describes work in evaluating the quality of the interfaces that typically exist in IC packages by using longitudinal ultrasonic wave propagation with contact transducers. An interface spring model is used to predict the ultrasonic reflection coefficient relationship with varying interfacial spring constants. Experimental results of normal incidence reflection coefficients are obtained from the two-layered specimen bonded with die attach adhesive under varying conditioning process that simulates the degrading of the interface. Good qualitative agreement between the measurement and the prediction is obtained, and shows that the reflection coefficient depends strongly on the interface quality. The study demonstrates that the quantification of the interface quality is possible, using the reflection coefficient as a criterion. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing addresses design for manufacturability, cost and process modeling, process control and automation, factory analysis and improvement, information systems, statistical methods, environmentally friendly processing, and computer-integrated manufacturing for the production of electronic assemblies and products.

 

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Wayne Johnson
Auburn University