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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Editorial welcoming a new editor-in-chief

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 785
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 960 - 963
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 964 - 974
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Robust backstepping control for slew maneuver using nonlinear tracking function

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 822 - 829
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The backstepping control method provides useful control logic, especially for a cascaded system. Because spacecraft dynamics and kinematics form a cascaded system, the spacecraft slew maneuver problem can be solved using the backstepping control method. However, the simple linear backstepping controller may result in poor design: sluggish motion, trivial nonlinear term cancellation, and excessive control input. To overcome these defects, an effective backstepping control method using a nonlinear tracking function is proposed. The proposed backstepping control method is based on the redesign of the Lyapunov function and careful gain selections. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical simulations including parameter uncertainties are performed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed backstepping controller can achieve the slew maneuver with shorter settling time and smaller peak control torque than existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Two antennas GPS-aided INS for attitude determination

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 905 - 918
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a navigation system incorporating inertial and two-antenna carrier phase differential global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The major objective is to demonstrate full attitude determination even for a nonaccelerating vehicle. The motivating application for this project is vehicle control. Therefore, the system is designed to operate reliably whether or not GPS measurements are available. The navigation system estimates vehicle position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, and angular rates at 150 Hz with accuracy (standard deviation) of 1.5 cm, 0.8 cm/s, 2.2 cm/s/s, 0.03 deg (pitch and roll), 0.1 deg (yaw), and 0.1 deg/s using a 1.01 m baseline between antennas. The navigation state vector is processed to produce a control state vector at 30 Hz. The control demonstrations involve basic trajectory following as well as trajectory relative maneuvering (i.e., tracking sinusoidal perturbations and performing lane changes). During experimental testing, a magnetic system was available to provide a ground truth reference. The demonstrated accuracy is sufficient for control of vehicles in an automated highway system. Other possible applications include precision farming, aircraft and satellite control, and control or guidance of automated mining or highway maintenance vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • An H-infinity-based control design methodology dedicated to the active control of vehicle longitudinal oscillations

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 948 - 956
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the problem of active damping of vehicle oscillations. A complete methodology based on an H∞ optimization is presented. Several dedicated analysis tools are used in order to analyze the behavior of the closed-loop system. Two tuning parameters allow the design of a controller managing the compromise between performance (in terms of oscillation attenuation and limit cycles) and robustness. Finally, a feedforward component is designed in order to improve the performance without changing the robustness properties or the controller complexity. Simulation results obtained with an experimentally validated model show the efficiency of the resulting controller. View full abstract»

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  • Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 839 - 849
    Cited by:  Papers (223)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a near-optimal power management strategy. The design procedure starts by defining a cost function, such as minimizing a combination of fuel consumption and selected emission species over a driving cycle. Dynamic programming (DP) is then utilized to find the optimal control actions including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and motor while subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Through analysis of the behavior of DP control actions, near-optimal rules are extracted, which, unlike DP control signals, are implementable. The performance of this power management control strategy is studied by using the hybrid vehicle model HE-VESIM developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan. A tradeoff study between fuel economy and emissions was performed. It was found that significant emission reduction could be achieved at the expense of a small increase in fuel consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous online identification of rational dynamics and time delay: a correlation-based approach

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 957 - 959
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new algorithm for simultaneous identification of a rational dynamic and an unknown or varying time delay is suggested in this communication. The proposed method is based on integration of two interacting estimation modules: First, a pseudo-pure delay system is obtained by filtering the input and output of the system. The time-delay is then identified via correlation technique. The rational dynamics is identified via standard recursive least-squares identification. An experimental study is included to illustrate the merits of this algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Zero- and low-bias control designs for active magnetic bearings

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 889 - 904
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present several nonlinear control designs for a single one-degree-of-freedom (1-DOF) active magnetic bearing (AMB). The primary control objective is to globally asymptotically stabilize the mechanical states of an AMB while reducing the AMB power losses. This suggests operation with zero- or low-bias (ZB/LB) flux. We derive a flux-based model for an AMB using a generalized complementary flux condition. This condition is imposed both for ZB and LB operations. A convenient model structure results, in which the ZB mode is a special case of the more general LB mode of operation. We next derive control laws for LB and ZB AMB operation. The control designs borrow ideas from the theory of control Lyapunov functions (clfs) and passivity. The performance of each proposed control design is evaluated via numerical simulations with a high-fidelity AMB model. Implementation issues are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A soft computing approach to fuzzy sky-hook control of semiactive suspension

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 786 - 798
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB)  

    This paper describes a soft computing approach to control a semiactive sky-hook suspension system. The fuzzy controller has been optimized by means of a genetic algorithm and implemented using a dedicated hardware device. After a preliminary study on a quarter car, a seven degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) model was implemented and used for controller simulation and optimization. The proposed control system takes the vehicle heave into account, improving the opposing requirements of comfort and drivability. The following conditions were optimized: drivability over random test roads, sine-wave holes, and sleeper-plates at different speeds. Fuzzy control makes it possible to change the characteristic parameters of the sky-hook suspension in an optimal way according to the different road conditions. The number of fuzzy controller inputs is kept as small as possible, avoiding the use of expensive sensors that increase the overall cost of the system. The proposed system is also easily applicable to existing commercial suspension systems. In addition to the comfort features, the fuzzy controller allows a reduction in load fluctuation, abnormal behavior and tire consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Fuel-efficient rudder and propeller control allocation for marine craft: experiments with a model ship

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 850 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1195 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We derived a control allocation algorithm for low-speed marine craft using propellers and rudders. Active use of rudders has advantages in a low-speed operation by decreasing the need for propeller power and fuel. However, at low speed, a rudder is effective only for positive thrust. This complicates the thrust allocation problem which can no longer be solved by convex quadratic programming. In fact, the existence of local minima introduces discontinuities in the commanded thruster signals even if the desired control force is continuous. Discontinuous signals cause excessive wear on the thruster system and must be avoided. This paper suggests an analytic, 2-norm optimal method that can ensure continuity of the solutions. Being analytic, however, its limitation is the capability of handling only configurations where one single thrust device is subject to sector constraints at a time. Experiments with a model ship illustrate the potential for fuel saving. For this particular vessel, the energy consumption was halved. An output feedback tracking control law with integral action was simultaneously derived and analyzed. Semiglobal ship controllers like this one rely on the yaw rate being bounded, and an admittedly conservative method for determining this upper bound was proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and H control for switched linear parameter-varying missile autopilot

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 830 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB)  

    This paper presents a new method for designing a gain-scheduled missile autopilot. The nonlinear missile dynamics are modeled as a switched linear parameter-varying (SLPV) system, as is also common for many hybrid system models. A gain-scheduled autopilot for the SLPV system is then designed using a new synthesis technique that is based on a nonsmooth dissipation framework. The proposed algorithm extends previously published Lyapunov-based LPV approaches in three important ways: the SLPV system can provide a more accurate model of the missile dynamics; the nonsmooth Lyapunov function used in the synthesis is a more general class of Lyapunov functions; and the gridding technique typically used to solve the synthesis can be eliminated from the problem. As a result, the new approach yields a reliable gain-scheduled autopilot with better performance than the LPV controllers available in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Indirect stator flux-oriented output feedback control of a doubly fed induction machine

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 875 - 888
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new indirect stator flux field-oriented output feedback control for doubly fed induction machine is presented. It assures global exponential torque tracking and stabilization of the stator-side power factor at unity level, provided that electric machine physical constraints are satisfied. Based on the inner torque control system, a speed tracking controller, with load torque compensation is designed using passivity approach. In contrast to existing solutions, the stator voltage vector oriented reference frame is adopted in order to improve robustness properties with respect to induction machine parameters variation. To achieve smooth connection of electric machine to the line grid a synchronization algorithm is developed for excitation stage of the doubly fed induction machine operation. The solution proposed requires measurements of line voltages, rotor currents, rotor position and speed. Intensive experimental studies demonstrate high dynamic performance capabilities of the control algorithm proposed. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental comparison of several PWM controllers for a single-phase AC-DC converter

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 940 - 947
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An experimental comparative study of various controllers for a class of ac-dc converters, known as power factor precompensators (PFP) is presented. The control objective is to robustly regulate the output voltage to a desired constant level in the presence of variations in the load, while retaining a unit power factor at the input, i.e., the input current should follow in frequency and in phase the input voltage. Several control schemes are presented and compared via experiments. View full abstract»

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  • On the use of flexural wave propagation experiments for identification of complex modulus

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 863 - 874
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the nonparametric estimation of the frequency dependent complex modulus of a viscoelastic material. The strains due to flexural wave propagation in a bar specimen are registered at different cross sections. The time domain data is transformed into frequency domain using discrete Fourier transform and a nonlinear least squares algorithm is then employed to estimate the complex modulus at each frequency. Inherent numerical problems due to associated ill-conditioned matrices are treated with special care. An analysis of the quality of the nonlinear least squares estimate is also carried out. The validity of the theoretical results are confirmed by numerical studies and experimental tests. View full abstract»

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  • Gain-scheduled wheel slip control in automotive brake systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 799 - 811
    Cited by:  Papers (59)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1203 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wheel slip controller is developed and experimentally tested in a car equipped with electromechanical brake actuators and a brake-by-wire system. A gain scheduling approach is taken, where the vehicle speed is viewed as a slowly time-varying parameter and the model is linearized about the nominal wheel slip. Gain matrices for the different operating conditions are designed using an LQR approach. The stability and robustness of the controller are studied via Lyapunov theory, frequency analysis, and experiments using a test vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • PID controller tuning using Bode's integrals

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 812 - 821
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method for PID controller tuning based on Bode's integrals is proposed. It is shown that the derivatives of amplitude and phase of a plant model with respect to frequency can be approximated by Bode's integrals without any model of the plant. This information can be used to design a PID controller for slope adjustment of the Nyquist diagram and improve the closed-loop performance. Besides, the derivatives can be also employed to estimate the gradient and the Hessian of a frequency criterion in an iterative PID controller tuning method. The frequency criterion is defined as the sum of squared errors between the desired and measured gain margin, phase margin and crossover frequency. The method benefits from specific feedback relay tests to determine the gain margin, the phase margin and the crossover frequency of the closed-loop system. Simulation examples and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness and the simplicity of the proposed method to design and tune the PID controllers. View full abstract»

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  • Time-optimal control of a single-DOF mechanical system considering actuator dynamics

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 919 - 932
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider time-optimal control of a single degree-of-freedom (DOF) mechanical system in which a linear brushless dc motor (BLDCM) is used as the actuator. The time-optimal solution is obtained in feedback form via three-dimensional (3-D) state-space analysis. In its derivation, we take into full account the actuator dynamics as well as the physical limitations on current, voltage, and jerk. We also improve the well-known s-curve motion profiling so that both the actuator dynamics and the physical limitations are taken into full account. Through some experimental results, we demonstrate that the time-optimal motion profiling still can provide faster trajectories for motion planning than the improved s-curve motion profiling. View full abstract»

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  • A family of switching control strategies for the reduction of torque ripple in DTC

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 933 - 939
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we are interested in design of switching control strategies which, as in the case of classical direct torque control (DTC), aim to directly regulate two outputs: torque and flux amplitude. A criterion in terms of the error and/or the prediction in one-step-ahead on these outputs is proposed to design the switching sequence. As a result, a control vector, i.e., the switch position, is directly selected without the requirement of an auxiliary space vector or other modulation technique. We consider two criteria: quadratic and absolute value. Finally, experimental results implementing these two approaches are presented, and compared with the classical DTC. View full abstract»

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Editor-in-Chief
Thomas Parisini
Professor
Dept. of Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Engineering
University of Trieste
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