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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 52
  • In memoriam: Kevin Francis Brennan

    Page(s): 2450 - 2451
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial: Optical networks

    Page(s): 2452 - 2454
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Ethernet-based passive optical local-area networks for fiber-to-the-desk application

    Page(s): 2534 - 2545
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    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Further reduction in overall cost is achieved through decreased network downtime, lower maintenance cost, extended geometrical spans, and larger headroom for future capacity increase. These optically transparent networks represent a novel approach for implementing fiber-to-the-desk. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength channel data rewrite using saturated SOA modulator for WDM networks with centralized light sources

    Page(s): 2546 - 2556
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    This paper describes a method for realizing the efficient utilization of wavelength resources in wavelength-division multiplexing networks with centralized light sources. Using a deeply saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) modulator located in a remote node (RN), we erase the data on a downstream signal with a low extinction ratio and modulate it with new data to generate an upstream signal. Thus, we use only one wavelength for bidirectional transmission between a center node and an RN, without placing lasers at the RN. In this paper, we analyze the data suppression characteristic of the SOA using a large signal model. We also estimate the bit error rate degradation in the presence of an unsuppressed downstream bit pattern in an upstream signal. We then report experimental results that confirm the basic characteristics of the wavelength channel data rewriter, which we constructed using a linear amplifier and an SOA. Finally, we provide the results of a data transmission experiment that we undertook using the data rewriter. View full abstract»

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  • Transparent ultra-long-haul DWDM networks with "broadcast-and-select" OADM/OXC architecture

    Page(s): 2661 - 2672
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    We describe an experimental realization of ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks with dynamically reconfigurable transparent optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) and optical cross-connects (OXCs). A simple new approach to dispersion management in ULH dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) transparent optical networks is proposed and implemented, which enables excellent transmission performance while avoiding dispersion compensation on a connection-by-connection basis. We demonstrate "broadcast-and-select" node architectures that take full advantage of this method. Our implementation of signal leveling ensures minimum variations of path-averaged power among the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) channels between the dynamic gain-equalizing nodes and results in uniform nonlinear and spontaneous-emission penalties across the WDM spectrum. We achieve 80×10.7-Gb/s DWDM networking over 4160 km (52 spans×80 km each) of all-Raman-amplified symmetric dispersion-managed fiber and 13 concatenated OADMs or 320×320 wavelength-port OXCs with 320-km node spacing. The WDM channels use 50-GHz grid in C band and the simple nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. The measured Q values exhibit more than a 1.8-dB margin over the forward-error correction threshold for 10-15 bit-error-rate operation. We compare these results with point-to-point transmission of 80×10-Gb/s NRZ WDM signals over 4160 km without OADM/OXC and provide detailed characterization of penalties due to optical signal-to-noise-ratio degradation, filter concatenation, and crosstalk. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity penalty calculation for burst-mode receivers using avalanche photodiodes

    Page(s): 2565 - 2575
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    This paper presents the sensitivity penalty for burst-mode receivers using avalanche photodiodes. The analysis takes into account detailed avalanche photodiode statistics, additive Gaussian noise, intersymbol interference and dc offsets in the receiver channel. The penalty has been calculated via comparison of bit-error rates (BERs), obtained using numerical integration, both in continuous- and burst-mode operation. Sensitivity penalties for burst-mode operation as a function of the mean avalanche gain are presented. The Gaussian approximation systematically underestimates the burst-mode penalty. It is shown that the penalty depends upon both the type of avalanche photodiode (APD) and the required BER. Optimum avalanche gains maximizing the sensitivity of the receiver are given. The influence of dc-offsets upon the sensitivity is studied. Furthermore, it is shown that the impulse response of the filters used to extract the decision threshold profoundly impacts the receiver performance. Finally, some important guidelines for the design of high sensitivity and wide dynamic range burst-mode receivers are given. View full abstract»

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  • Research of algebra congruent codes used in two-dimensional OCDMA system

    Page(s): 2557 - 2564
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    After summarizing the application of linear, quadratic, and hyperbolic operators in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system, a generalized algebraic congruent code is presented by its construction formula in three different categories: frequency-hop (FH), time-spread (TS), and FH-TS codes. On the discussion of those three codes' auto- and cross-correlations and their contribution to bit-error-rate (BER) performances, a novel two-dimensional optical CDMA (OCDMA) system is provided in which different types of codes are used to provide different types of service. Such an OCDMA system is very fit for the case that a small part of services are high bit rate or high quality of service, while a great amount of services are not. View full abstract»

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  • PNNI-based control plane for automatically switched optical networks

    Page(s): 2673 - 2682
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    Much effort has been spent on the definition of control plane protocols for automatically switched optical networks (ASON). Most of the proposals brought into the standardization for an International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Sector, Internet Engineering Task Force, and Optical Internetworking Forum are based on Internet protocol concepts. One such proposal is the generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS), an extension of the MPLS traffic engineering control plane model that includes nonpacket switched technologies (time, wavelength, and fiber switching). Recently, the potential use of private network-network interface (PNNI) in ASONs has been discussed as an alternative proposal by the standardization bodies. The goal of this paper is to appropriately adapt asynchronous transfer mode into an optical PNNI (O-PNNI) protocol that can be used as the control plane of ASONs. The paper also provides a critical viewpoint on the potential usage of either O-PNNI or GMPLS control plane and analyzes the pros and cons of each. The methodology adopted toward devising O-PNNI hinges on reviewing PNNI along with ASON recommendations in order to determine the set of PNNI features that require adaptation. Having identified these features we engineer and present appropriate solutions relating to routing, signaling and addressing aspects. View full abstract»

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  • Customer-controlled and -managed optical networks

    Page(s): 2804 - 2810
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    There is a growing trend for many large enterprises and other users to acquire their own dark fibers and/or point-to-point wavelengths in condominium network architectures. These customer-owned and -managed networks have necessitated the development of a new set of optical network management tools and protocols. These tools and protocols are based on the new Open Grid Services Architecture and other space-based distributed protocols such as Jini and JavaSpaces that will allow end users to independently manage their own portion of a condominium wide area optical network. Participants in such a network will be able to perform their own restoral and protection, optical add-drop multiplexing, or cross-connect to other users on a peer-to-peer basis without signaling or requesting service from a centrally managed entity. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of critical slowing down in a bistable S-SEED

    Page(s): 2883 - 2890
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    A simulation of S-SEED switching based upon experimental data is developed that includes the effect of critical slowing down. The simulation's accuracy is demonstrated by close agreement with the results from experimental S-SEED switching. The simulation is subsequently used to understand how the phenomenon of critical slowing down applies to switching of an S-SEED and how the effect on photonic analog-to-digital (A/D) converter performance may be minimized. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate alignment of ultradense WDM channels using the beat-frequency-locking method

    Page(s): 2891 - 2894
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    For the alignment of ultradense wavelength-division-multiplexing (UD-WDM) channels, we propose to use the beat-frequency-locking (BFL) method that can fix the channel frequencies very accurately using the beat-frequency signals between UD-WDM channels. Every UD-WDM channel is classified as an ordinary channel or as a reference channel. The ordinary channels are stabilized with respect to the reference channels through the BFL method. As a demonstration, we align 12.5-GHz-spaced nine UD-WDM channels within ±200 MHz channel spacing errors. View full abstract»

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  • Optical CDMA random access protocols with and without pretransmission coordination

    Page(s): 2455 - 2462
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    The link layer of an optical direct-detection code-division multiple-access (CDMA) packet network is considered. Two different protocols that need pretransmission coordination are proposed. A variation of the second protocol that does not need pretransmission coordination is discussed. Both system throughput and average packet delay are derived and investigated for two different receiver models: the correlation and chip-level receivers. Both multiple-access interference and the photodetector's shot noise are taken into account in the analysis. The case where the number of users exceeds the available number of CDMA codes is numerically investigated. Our results reveal that the proposed protocols yield competitive system throughputs when used with the correlation receivers. Further, significant improvement in the throughput is achieved when using chip-level receivers along with the second protocol. View full abstract»

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  • An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label-controlled arrayed waveguide packet router

    Page(s): 2617 - 2628
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    In this paper, we present a new concept of optical packet/burst switching suitable for generalized multiprotocol label switched (GMPLS)-based optical networks. In such networks, optical labeled switched paths are being established in a similar way as label-switched paths in MPLS. We use a wavelength label as well as an orthogonally modulated label, with respect to the payload modulation format, and which is encoded using either frequency-shift keying (FSK) or differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). Wavelength is used for switching in the node, whereas the orthogonal label defines the label-switched path. We present both simulation and experimental results to assess transmission performance of the proposed combined modulation scheme. In addition, we propose a suitable optical node architecture that can take advantage of this stacked label concept. Toward this, we use widely tunable wavelength converters to efficiently route IM/FSK (or IM/DPSK) optically labeled packets in an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG)-based node structure. We present performance simulation results in terms of packet loss ratio and internal block probability. Internal blocking is an inherent problem of AWG optical routers, and a specific wavelength assignment algorithm has been developed to minimize it. Finally, the feasibility of IM/FSK transmission is experimentally demonstrated over an 88-km single-mode fiber span, and novel aspects of FSK generation and detection techniques are presented. View full abstract»

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  • End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers

    Page(s): 2595 - 2604
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    This paper investigates contention resolution schemes for optical packet switching networks from an end-to-end perspective, where the combined exploitation of both core routers and edge routers are highlighted. For the optical-core network, we present the architecture of an optical router to achieve contention resolution in wavelength, time, and space domains. Complementing the solution involving only the core router intelligences, we propose performance enhancement schemes at the network edge, including a traffic-shaping function at the ingress edge and a proper dimensioning of the drop port number at the egress edge. Both schemes prove effective in reducing networkwide packet-loss rates. In particular, scalability performance simulations demonstrate that a considerably low packet-loss rate (0.0001% at load 0.6) is achieved in a 16-wavelength network by incorporating the performance enhancement schemes at the edge with the contention resolution schemes in the core. Further, we develop an field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)-based switch controller and integrate it with enabling optical devices to demonstrate the packet-by-packet contention resolution. Proof-of-principle experiments involving the prototype core router achieve an error-free low-latency contention resolution. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration and system analysis of the HORNET architecture

    Page(s): 2489 - 2498
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    The HORNET architecture is a packet-over-wavelength-division-multiplexing ring network that utilizes fast-tunable packet transmitters and wavelength routing to enable it to scale cost-effectively to ultrahigh capacities. In this paper, we present the HORNET architecture and a novel control-channel-based media access control protocol. The survivability of the architecture is demonstrated with an experimental laboratory testbed. Mathematical analysis of the architecture shows that the wavelength routed network can scale to relatively large sizes ranging between 30 and 50 nodes, depending on the component performance. This is true even for arrangements that do not contain high-power optical amplifiers in every node. View full abstract»

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  • Study of optical pulses-fiber gratings interaction by means of joint time-frequency signal representations

    Page(s): 2931 - 2941
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    In this paper, we carry out a systematic study on the interaction between ultrashort optical pulses and fiber Bragg grating structures operating in the linear regime. Our study is based on the joint time-frequency representation (spectrogram) of the reflection impulse response from the grating structures under analysis. By means of such a representation we get to visualize in a single image all the relevant information concerning the optical and dispersive behavior of the grating structures and more importantly, we obtain information on the pulse-grating interaction process, which otherwise is not accessible from any other method. Here, we analyze uniform and nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings. The effects of the apodization of the coupling coefficient and chirp of the grating period on the macroscopic optical properties of the considered gratings are investigated. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to more complicated in-fiber grating structures such as concatenated gratings, Fabry-Perot-like grating structures, and superimposed gratings. The results of our study indicate that the time-frequency methods constitute a powerful tool for the analysis and design of fiber Bragg grating structures. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of polarization dependence of optical low coherence reflectometry using an active Faraday rotator

    Page(s): 2916 - 2922
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    This paper analyzes the polarization dependence of the reflection signal from an optical low coherence reflectometer (OLCR) with an active Faraday rotator. I derive output signals from the OLCR at Faraday rotations of 0 and 90°, respectively, using unitary matrix representations of the states of polarization of the return and local oscillator lights. I investigate the polarization dependence of the reflection signal, defined as the sum of the two outputs, for different polarizer positions and show that polarization fading in the signal can be eliminated by placing the polarizer just before or after the Faraday rotator. View full abstract»

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  • Constraint-based design of optical transmission systems

    Page(s): 2499 - 2510
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    The last decade has witnessed wide-scale deployment of optical networks to support the growing data traffic. This success can be traced back to advances in optical transmission systems such as dense wavelength-division multiplexing, Raman amplification, etc., which allow a single fiber to carry several wavelengths very far, while sharing expensive equipment. However, these cutting-edge technologies require careful placement of amplifiers and other network elements to ensure error-free propagation of the signal and to minimize costs. In practice, it is common to use a set of constraints to ensure valid configurations for deployment. It is nontrivial to identify the optimal configuration under all but the simplest constraints. In this paper, we consider a set of constraints with varying flexibilities and present algorithms for efficiently computing the cost-optimal configuration under them. We also present experimental and theoretical results to evaluate the various constraints and algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications

    Page(s): 2723 - 2733
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    This paper investigates comprehensive operation and experimentation of an all-optical packet switching router with optical label swapping and reamplification and reshaping (2R) regeneration, capable of multihop operation and Internet protocol (IP)-client interoperability. In particular, the experiment demonstrates successful packet switching and transport up to 11 hops with 10-9 bit-error rate and error-free up to four hops. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the optical label switching (OLS) core router and edge routers working together to support IP-client-to-IP-client packet transport and switching across the optical label switching network. The edge router generates an optical label based on the IP header content of the packet and generates an optical label encoded packet, which subsequently ingresses into the OLS network. The optical label switching router (OLSR) forwards the packet with all-optical label swapping at each hop with 2R regeneration. The 2R regeneration leads to an experimentally measured negative penalty and a successful experimental demonstration of multihop cascaded OLSR operation with the edge routers interfacing with IP clients. The successful IP-client-to-IP-client packet forwarding via the edge routers and the cascaded multihop OLSR with all-optical label swapping indicate the viability of OLS in the scalable and transparent IP-over-optical Internet. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated-optic dispersion slope equalizer for N× several tens of Gb/s WDM transmission

    Page(s): 2463 - 2469
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    We report a dispersion slope equalizer on a planar lightwave circuit for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission. This device consists of an array of lattice-formed equalizers with different compensation values fabricated on one wafer and arrayed-waveguide gratings for wavelength multi/demultiplexing. We describe its configuration, operational principle, parameter design, fabrication, and measured characteristics in detail. N×20 and N×40 Gb/s slope equalizers were fabricated and their characteristics agreed well with designed values. We also report a reduction in the bias electrical power needed for thermooptic phase shifters in the equalizer array that we realized by employing a phase trimming technique normally used for optical switches. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI)-based digital optical circuits and their use in packet switching

    Page(s): 2629 - 2637
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    Digital optical logic circuits capable of performing bit-wise signal processing are critical building blocks for the realization of future high-speed packet-switched networks. In this paper, we present recent advances in all-optical processing circuits and examine the potential of their integration into a system environment. On this concept, we demonstrate serial all-optical Boolean AND/XOR logic at 20 Gb/s and a novel all-optical packet clock recovery circuit, with low capturing time, suitable for burst-mode traffic. The circuits use the semiconductor-based ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI) as the nonlinear switching element. We also present the integration of these circuits in a more complex unit that performs header and payload separation from short synchronous data packets at 10 Gb/s. Finally, we discuss a method to realize a novel packet scheduling switch architecture, which guarantees lossless communication for specific traffic burstiness constraints, using these logic units. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous label swapping and wavelength conversion of multiple independent WDM channels in an all-optical MPLS network using PPLN waveguides as wavelength converters

    Page(s): 2739 - 2745
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    This paper presents the demonstration of all-optical simultaneous label swapping and wavelength conversion of multiple independent wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) channels using periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides as wavelength converters. Label swapping is one of the required functions in the physical layer for efficient data flow control in the proposed multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks. The technique operates directly on the optical signal without optoelectronic (O/E) conversion; therefore, it is bit-rate, label length, and protocol/format independent. Experimental results are presented for the label swapping of distinct 8-b-long labels in a system with 2 WDM data channels at 10 Gb/s. There is a guard time of 400 ps between the payload and the label. The power penalty introduced by the method is less than 3 dB. This method can potentially accommodate 10 WDM channels simultaneously over the PPLN waveguide's ∼40 nm λ-shifting bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of all-optical mesh networks with path-based flooding

    Page(s): 2605 - 2616
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    The exponential growth of data traffic has led to substantial deployment of wavelength-division multiplexing networks. Reliability becomes increasingly important as the number of critical applications that depend on proper operation of these networks grows. Protection against failures of links or nodes can be achieved using a wide variety of approaches, which offer tradeoffs in terms of speed of recovery, cost of equipment, protection capacity, and management overhead. Optically transparent networks provide several advantages over optically opaque networks for supporting the growing communication demands, but suffer from several drawbacks that make direct application of the most capacity-efficient protection schemes difficult. In this paper, we introduce a flooding-based recovery scheme for optically transparent networks that provides 100% recovery from all single link and node failures in a capacity-efficient manner. In essence, this scheme applies the notion of active flooding of backup traffic introduced by generalized loopback to the problem of path protection. Our recovery scheme can achieve fast restoration (comparable to rings) with little data loss by using backup traffic flooding without the overhead of signaling and setup of intermediate cross-connects along the recovery path. We present simulation results for online provisioning of lightpaths with uniformly distributed traffic demands over optically transparent networks using our restoration scheme. The results show that the scheme offers an interesting tradeoff between capacity cost and recovery speed for all-optical networks. For five representative networks, the approach limits data loss to about 20 ms while using 14% less capacity relative to dedicated (1:1) mesh protection. Shared mesh protection (path protection) with a wavelength continuity constraint uses 19% less capacity with roughly 90 ms of data loss. View full abstract»

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  • Control and management protocols for survivable optical mesh networks

    Page(s): 2638 - 2651
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of online provisioning and restoration of sharable, restorable connections in a mesh-based optical network. First, we propose a new framework called distributed path selection with local information (DPLI) and discuss in detail a control and management protocol to set up and tear down connections and determine restoration capacity sharability in a distributed manner. Since only local information is maintained at each node, protocol scalability is not a big concern. Second, we discuss the important problem of the network's ability to quickly recover from element failures. We propose a new rapid restoration signaling that minimizes the service interruption time upon the occurrence of a failure in a network with preplanned restoration paths. The significant contribution of this new algorithm is that the connection restoration time is found to be independent of the restoration path length (i.e., eliminating the effect of the propagation delay), of the accumulation of the switch configuration time along the restoration path, and of the switch configuration waiting time at any particular node when multiple configuration requests arrive simultaneously. We evaluate through simulation experiments the effectiveness of the proposed protocols. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs