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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1694 - 1695
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author Index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1903 - 1914
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1914 - 1947
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Time-to-voltage converter for on-chip jitter measurement

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1738 - 1748
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1242 KB)  

    In this paper, we present the concept and design of a time-to-voltage converter (TVC), and demonstrate its application to on-chip phase-locked loop (PLL) jitter measurement. The TVC operates in an analog, continuous mode without using a sampling clock. It compares the signal under measurement with a reference signal by charging and discharging a capacitor. First, the low-frequency reference signal charges the capacitor in one cycle. Then, the jitter signal discharges the same capacitor repeatedly until the voltage on the capacitor falls below a threshold. The number of times the jitter signal needs to discharge the capacitor is recorded on a binary counter. We demonstrated that a 160-ps injected jitter is successfully measured by the proposed TVC with a 2-MHz reference signal. We also demonstrated the successful measurement of a 14-ps average PLL jitter, without jitter injection. An 8% measurement error is found in both experiments, using four-bit counters. Finally, we analyze the relations between design parameters and show trade-offs between measurement resolution and measurement time. View full abstract»

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  • SPaRe: selective partial replication for concurrent fault-detection in FSMs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1729 - 1737
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss SPaRe: selective partial replication, a methodology for concurrent fault detection in finite state machine (FSMs). The proposed method is similar to duplication, wherein a replica of the circuit acts as a predictor that immediately detects errors by comparison to the original FSM. However, instead of duplicating the FSM, SPaRe selects a few prediction functions which only partially replicate it. Selection is guided by the objective of minimizing the incurred hardware overhead without compromising the ability to detect all faults, yet possibly introducing fault-detection latency. SPaRe is nonintrusive and does not interfere with the encoding and implementation of the original FSM. Experimental results indicate that SPaRe achieves significant hardware overhead reduction over both duplication and test vector logic replication (TVLR), a previously reported concurrent fault-detection method. Moreover, as compared to TVLR, SPaRe also reduces the average fault-detection latency for detecting all permanent faults. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and analysis of soft-test/repair for CCD-based digital X-ray systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1713 - 1721
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern X-ray imaging systems evolve toward digitization for reduced cost, faster time-to-diagnosis, and improved diagnostic confidence. For the digital X-ray systems, charge coupled device (CCD) technology is commonly used to detect and digitize optical X-ray image. This paper presents a novel soft-test/repair approach to overcome the defective pixel problem in CCD-based digital X-ray systems through theoretical modeling and analysis of the test/repair process. There are two possible solutions to cope with the defective pixel problem in CCDs: one is the hard-repair approach and another is the proposed soft-test/repair approach. Hard-repair approach employs a high-yield, expensive reparable CCD to minimize the impact of hard defects on the CCD, which occur in the form of noise propagated through A/D converter to the frame memory. Therefore, less work is needed to filter and correct the image at the end-user level while it maybe exceedingly expensive to practice. On the other hand, the proposed soft-test/repair approach is to detect and tolerate defective pixels at the digitized image level; thereby, it is inexpensive to practice and on-line repair can be done for noninterrupted service. It tests the images to detect the detective pixels and filter noise at the frame memory level and caches them in a flash memory in the controller for future repair. The controller cache keeps accumulating all the noise coordinates and preprocesses the incoming image data from the A/D converter by repairing them. The proposed soft-test/repair approach is particularly devised to facilitate hardware level implementation ultimately for real-time telediagnosis. Parametric simulation results demonstrate the speed and virtual yield enhancement by using the proposed approach; thereby highly reliable, yet inexpensive, soft-test/repair of CCD-based digital X-ray systems can be ultimately realized. View full abstract»

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  • Diode laser phase noise influence on the ultimate performance of its frequency stabilization to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer fringe

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1846 - 1853
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a detailed investigation on the effect of semiconductor laser phase noise on the achievable frequency stability when locked to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer fringe. We show that the modulation-demodulation operation produces in the presence of laser phase noise two kinds of excess noise, which could be much above the shot noise limit, namely: conversion noise (PM-to-AM) and intermodulation noise. We show that in typical stabilization conditions, the frequency stability of the locked laser is limited by the intermodulation excess noise. This effect, reported initially in the microwave domain, can be considerably reduced by a convenient choice of the modulation frequency. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a phenomenon is reported in the optical domain. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy rule interpolation for multidimensional input spaces in determining d50c of hydrocyclones

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1865 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fuzzy rule-based systems have been very popular in many engineering applications. In mineral engineering, fuzzy rules are normally constructed using some fuzzy rule extraction techniques to establish the determination model in predicting the d50c of hydrocyclones. However, when generating fuzzy rules from the available information, it may result in a sparse fuzzy rule base. The use of more than one input variable is also common in hydrocyclone data analysis. This paper examines the application of fuzzy interpolation to resolve the problems using sparse fuzzy rule bases, and to perform analysis of fuzzy interpolation in multidimensional input spaces. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical calculation of the impedance of lossy power/ground planes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1886 - 1891
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power and ground planes are required to have low impedance over a wide range of frequencies. Parallel ground and power planes in multilayer printed-circuit boards exhibit multiple resonances, which increase the impedance. Dissipative loading of the radial transmission line structure of the planes reduces the resonance peaks. The dissipative loads can be realized by resistors distributed on the surface or the edges of plain pairs and lossy dielectric material can be applied for distributed loading, and the characterization of the impedance by simulation is very important during the design phase. Measurement results are compared with analytical solutions and simulation results. Furthermore, in this paper, a new algorithm is given for the more efficient calculation of the impedance of power distribution structures. View full abstract»

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  • The design of reliable devices for mission-critical applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1703 - 1712
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mission-critical applications require that any failure that may lead to erroneous behavior and computation is detected and signaled as soon as possible in order not to jeopardize the entire system. Totally self-checking (TSC) systems are designed to be able to autonomously detect faults when they occur during normal circuit operation. Based on the adopted TSC design strategy and the goal pursued during circuit realization (e.g., area minimization), the circuit, although TSC, may not promptly detect the fault depending on the actual number of input configurations that serve as test vectors for each fault in the network. If such a number is limited, although TSC it may be improbable that the fault is detected once it occurs, causing detection and aliasing problems. The paper presents a design methodology, based on a circuit re-design approach and an evaluation function, for improving a TSC circuit promptness in detecting faults' occurrence, a property we will refer to as TSC quality. View full abstract»

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  • An embryonic approach to reliable digital instrumentation based on evolvable hardware

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1696 - 1702
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Embryonics encompasses the capability of self-repair and self-replication in systems. This paper presents a technique based on reconfigurable hardware coupled with a novel backpropagation algorithm for reconfiguration, together referred to as evolvable hardware (EHW), for ensuring reliability in digital instrumentation. The backpropagation evolution is much faster than genetic learning techniques. It uses the dynamic restructuring capabilities of EHW to detect faults in digital systems and reconfigures the hardware to repair or adapt to the error in real-time. An example application is presented of a robust BCD to a seven-segment decoder driving a digital display. The results obtained are quite interesting and promise quick and low cost embryonic schemes for reliability in digital instrumentation. View full abstract»

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  • Helmet-mounted display image quality evaluation system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1838 - 1845
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality evaluation system for HMDs. In earlier work, a framework was proposed for an HMD system called the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS), used with the U.S. Army's Apache helicopter. This paper describes prototype development and interface design and summarizes bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs). The prototype consists of hardware (cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different-size apertures are mounted in parallel on a rack facing an HDU holder. A handle allows users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern is then captured. Sensors detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU is angled correctly in relation to the camera. Algorithms detect HDU features captured by the two cameras, including focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of grayshades. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicates that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future directions include development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature specifications as the number of inspection samples increases. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of position offset in hard disk drive using dual frequency servo bursts

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1870 - 1880
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new scheme for encoding position information in hard disk drives (HDDs). Modern HDDs use embedded servo patterns where the servo sectors containing information related to the location of the tracks are placed interleaved with the data blocks. Reduced length of the servo sector, therefore, means availability of more space for storage of data. The scheme of dual-frequency servo burst used in this paper enables more than 50% reduction in the length of the servo bursts that encode the position error sensing signal (PES). Different methods suitable for decoding PES from the samples of these servo bursts are also discussed, and a detection technique based on the concepts of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is proposed. High sensitivity and flexibility of the digital PES allows the tracks to be placed closer which, is required to meet the demands of future generation HDDs. The dual frequency servo bursts are written on a 2.5-in disk to create tracks at a spacing of 10 μ-in, and the PES is decoded from the samples of the burst waveforms using DFT-based algorithms. The linearity of the decoded position offset proves the effectiveness of the proposed encoding method and the decoding algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental evaluation of a bandwidth allocation scheme for foundation fieldbus

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1787 - 1791
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1507 KB)  

    Operation of the data link layer of the foundation fieldbus is based on scheduling and token-passing disciplines. This paper presents a network design for the foundation fieldbus protocol using a bandwidth allocation scheme. Fieldbus traffic consists of periodic data and sporadically generated time-critical and time-available data. The bandwidth allocation scheme schedules the transmission of periodic data. Time-critical and time-available data are transmitted via a token-passing service. The validity of this bandwidth allocation scheme was determined using an experimental model of a network system. The results obtained from the model show that the proposed scheme restricted the delay of both periodic and time-critical data to a pre-specified bound. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme also fully utilized the bandwidth resources of the network system. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of mobile phone antennas including effect of environment using two methods

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1859 - 1864
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance evaluation of a mobile terminal antenna can be done by measurements on test routes or by calculations using measured direction-of-arrival distributions and the measured or calculated radiation pattern of the antenna. Measurements on test routes require a lot of effort with completed prototypes, and, therefore, a reliable calculation-based evaluation method would be useful. In this paper, the results of these two types of evaluation methods are compared for the mean effective gain of six different terminal antennas in four environments at 2.15 GHz. The results of the two evaluation methods coincide well, as the mean and the standard deviation of the difference between the relative received powers are -0.2 dB and 0.8 dB, respectively. No significant difference in the coincidence is found between different environments or antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Self-checking design, implementation, and measurement of a controller for track-side railway systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1722 - 1728
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a case study of field programmable gate array (FPGA)-implemented self-checking circuits. In particular, we propose the design, implementation and experimental measurements of the Transmission and Reception Blocks of a Track-side Control System for railway applications. Our scheme is designed to feature on-line testing ability with respect to possible functional errors affecting the received and transmitted words, as well as with respect to a wide set of possible internal faults, representative of the most likely faults for FPGA-implemented systems. It negligibly impacts system's performance and features a more compact structure with respect to its alternative design making a massive use of the duplicate and compare technique. A prototype has been implemented, whose correct operation has been verified by means of post-layout simulations and experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of the finite memory length of a recorder in evaluating its frequency response from step response

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1898 - 1902
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    The length of the record containing the step response of a system affects the estimate of the frequency response obtained from it by the discrete Fourier transform algorithms. An evaluation of the error due to the record truncation is presented in a theoretical case. The amplitude of this error is particularly significant when a small aberration (of the order of a few percent) of the response is considered. A criterion of obtaining the frequency response of a system based on two or more records of the step response acquired with different sampling frequencies is presented. The quantification of the errors in this estimate is discussed, in particular for the low-frequency sampled records. The method is applied to experimental data to estimate the frequency response of an oscilloscope. View full abstract»

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  • Proving the usefulness of a three-port nonlinear vectorial network analyzer through mixer measurements

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1834 - 1837
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-port nonlinear vectorial network analyzer (NVNA) is presented. This new measurement instrument allows designers to measure for the first time the full nonlinear three-port behavior for any arbitrary mixer. The usefulness of the three-port NVNA is proven on amplitude and phase calibrated three-port measurements of a microwave mixer. View full abstract»

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  • A feasible noise estimation algorithm for resource-limited sensor systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1854 - 1858
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault tolerance and self-checking capabilities are key features of modern smart sensors, which often require the integration of additional signal processing facilities. In high-volume production areas such as automotive applications, however, optimized controllers are employed that typically have only limited computing resources. This paper examines several algorithms to assess the noise in a quasi-closed loop measurement channel under the assumption that the stimulus can be held constant during noise measurement. Starting from the definition of standard deviation, we propose several modifications and obtain an easy-to-implement algorithm relying entirely on addition and shift operations. Numerical experiments based on simulated and measured noise verify the practicability of the approach. The proposed algorithm has already been successfully implemented in a capacitive angular speed sensor system for automotive applications. View full abstract»

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  • NIST-NPL interlaboratory pulse measurement comparison

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1825 - 1833
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A comparison of the pulse parameter values obtained from the pulse measurement services of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, and the National Physical Laboratory, U.K., was performed. The comparison was based on the pulse parameters of amplitude, transition duration, overshoot, and undershoot (preshoot). The parameter comparison was applied to raw (measured) waveforms, corrected waveforms (if applicable), and reconstructed waveforms. The results of the comparison show that the pulse parameter values for both national laboratories are within published uncertainties. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of audio radar signals using radial basis function neural networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1771 - 1779
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4595 KB)  

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are used to classify real-life audio radar signals that are collected by a ground surveillance radar mounted on a tank. Currently, a human operator is required to operate the radar system to discern among signals bouncing off tanks, vehicles, planes, and so on. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of using a neural network to perform this target recognition task, with the aim of reducing the number of personnel required in a tank. Different signal classification methods in the neural net literature are considered. The first method employs a linear autoregressive (AR) model to extract linear features of the audio data, and then perform classification on these features, i.e, the AR coefficients. AR coefficient estimations based on least squares and higher order statistics are considered in this study. The second approach uses nonlinear predictors to model the audio data and then classifies the signals according to the prediction errors. The real-life audio radar data set used here was collected by an AN/PPS-15 ground surveillance radar and consists of 13 different target classes, which include men marching, a man walking, airplanes, a man crawling, and boats, etc. It is found that each classification method has some classes which are difficult to classify. Overall, the AR feature extraction approach is most effective and has a correct classification rate of 88% for the training data and 67% for data not used for training. View full abstract»

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  • Design and characterization of a fast CMOS multiple linear array imager for nanosecond light pulse detections

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1892 - 1897
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active pixel sensors (APS) technology offers performance competitive with charge-coupled device technology, and it offers advantages in on-chip functionality, system power reduction, cost, and miniaturization. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a fast CMOS APS imager for high-speed laser detections, which can replace streak cameras. It produces intensity information as a function of one spatial dimension and time (I=f(x,t)) from a pixel array with two spatial dimensions. The time information is obtained for the first prototype camera by delaying successively the integration phase for each pixel of the same row. The different noise sources of the APS sensors, such as shot noise due to the photo sensor, thermal noise, and flicker noise due to the readout transistors, and the photon shot noise are presented in order to determine the fundamental limits of the image sensor. The first prototype fast MOS imager (FAMOSI) consists of 64×64 active pixels. The simulation and experimental results show that a conversion gain of 6.73±0.25 μ V/e- has been obtained with a noise level of 87±3 e- rms. The power consumption of the chip is 25 mW at 50 frames/s. The time resolution is 0.8 ns for this new concept camera. View full abstract»

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  • A few methods for fitting circles to data

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1881 - 1885
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Five methods are discussed to fit circles to data. Two of the methods are shown to be highly sensitive to measurement error. The other three are shown to be quite stable in this regard. Of the stable methods, two have the advantage of having closed form solutions. A positive aspect of all of these models is that they are coordinate free in the sense that the same estimating circles are produced no matter where the axes of the coordinate system are located nor how they are oriented. A natural extension to fitting spheres to points in 3-space is also given. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of sensor accuracy in the case of a variable surface reflectance gradient for active laser range finders

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1799 - 1808
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In active laser range finders, the computation of the (x, y, z) coordinates of each point of a scene can be performed using the detected centroid p~ of the image spot on the sensor. When the reflectance of the scene under analysis is uniform, the intensity profile of the image spot is a Gaussian and its centroid is correctly detected assuming an accurate peak position detector. However, when a change of reflectance occurs on the scene, the intensity profile of the image spot is no longer Gaussian. This change introduces a deviation Δp on the detected centroid p~, which will lead to erroneous (x, y, z) coordinates. This paper presents two heuristic models to improve the sensor accuracy in the case of a variable surface reflectance gradient. Simulation results are presented to show the quality of the correction and the resulting accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Chaotic pulse position modulation to improve the efficiency of sonar sensors

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1809 - 1814
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1785 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrasonic devices are widely used in robotics as exteroceptive sensors for ranging measurements. Robotic applications often involve a large number of sonars operating concurrently, giving rise to the phenomenon of crosstalk. In this work, the problem of improving performance of ultrasonic devices in the presence of crosstalk and noise is addressed. In order for each device to discriminate its own echo, chaos is exploited to create unique firing sequences. In particular, the firing scheme described in this work is inspired to a modulation scheme used in chaotic communications, called chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM). The evaluation of the time of flight is performed by a detection filter. The experimental setup consists of a Polaroid 600 electrostatic transducer driven by a continuous CPPM modulator. Experimental results confirm the suitability of the approach. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703