By Topic

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Issue 4 • Date Aug. 1991

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Automatic clutter-canceler for microwave life-detection systems

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):747 - 750
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)

    A microprocessor-controlled automatic clutter-cancellation subsystem, consisting of a programmable microwave attenuator and a programmable microwave phase-shifter controlled by a microprocessor-based control unit, has been developed for a microwave life-detection system (L-band 2 GHz or X-band 10 GHz). This system can remotely sense breathing and heartbeat movements of living subjects. This automa... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 100-1000 MHz field strength standard for an anechoic chamber

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):736 - 741
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    A 100-1000 MHz range field strength standard using a short broadband dipole antenna has been developed for use in an anechoic chamber. The broad bandwidth of the standard antenna reduces calibration time and reduces the calibration differences which occur when the standard antennas must be changed for broadband calibration. The enclosure of the system in the anechoic chamber eliminates the interac... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An ultrasonic ranging system for structural vibration measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):764 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)

    An ultrasonic ranging system (URS) that can be used to measure vibratory displacements in structures is described. A pair of ultrasonic transducers is used in a transmit-receive mode to acquire the motion of a point on a flexible structure. The structure's oscillating motion modulates the phase angle between the transmitted and received acoustic signals. A simple phase detector and low-pass filter... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Impedance and attenuation profile estimation of multilayered material from reflected ultrasound

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):787 - 791
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)

    Time-domain and spectral shift methods for determining the attenuation and impedance profiles of multilayered structures are presented. The time-domain technique utilizes two-sided interrogation to measure attenuation and acoustic impedance for individual layers separately under the assumption of a narrowband incident wave. This method is based solely on peak amplitude ratios of successive time-do... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A polyconductor beam detector

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):720 - 726
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)

    A sensor circuit for the purpose of thermal detection and power measurement of incident microwave and laser beams due to accidental or targeted exposure is described. In this sensor, a polyconductor device acts as a microwave or optical beam absorber. The basic feature of the polyconductor is that its terminal resistance in the transition region can vary by many orders of magnitude with small chan... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Bandwidth from a large excursion of Gaussian noise

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):688 - 693
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    Some statistics properties of large excursions of Gaussian processes are presented, along with exact asymptotic formulas for calculating the root-mean-square (RMS) bandwidths of the underlying wideband or narrowband Gaussian processes in terms of the excursion level, height, and duration. The measured trajectory of a large excursion is used to illustrate the method. A somewhat similar phenomenon o... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Common mode rejection ratio for cascaded differential amplifier stages

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):677 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)

    A simple equation for calculating the total common mode rejection ratio, CMRRT, for cascaded differential amplifier stages is given, and it is applied to several typical cases in instrumentation circuits. Two factors for each stage, C and D, are defined, and it is shown that, in general, CMRRT can be calculated by adding the reciprocals of the equivalent CMR... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improved calibration of a large open-ended coaxial probe for dielectric measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):742 - 746
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    An improved method for calibrating an open-ended coaxial sensor is proposed. The calibration utilizes the measurements of an open, a short, and a short-cavity. These terminations are inexpensive to make and result in a calibration that depends only on the geometry of the sensor. The short-cavity is modeled by waveguide modal techniques and the theoretical reflection coefficient determined to any a... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Implementation of a real-time mobile channel simulator using a DSP chip

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):709 - 714
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    The problem of implementing a real-time channel simulator that can be used to test mobile communications equipment in the laboratory is considered. The objective of the design is to replicate the statistical characteristics of the multipath fading environment on a single-chip, fixed-point 16-b digital signal processor (DSP). The simulator design permits the user to select the simulation parameters... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Outline of a low-cost prototype system to display three-dimensional images

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):792 - 793
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    The authors provide an introduction to a system which should allow real-world images to be displayed in three-dimensional space with very little viewing angle restriction. The prototype system has been named the cathode ray sphere (CRS). The CRS uses conventional electron guns (with electrostatic deflection) which are positioned radially around, and fire electron beams at, a rotating glass plate. ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new approach to the Fourier analysis of periodic signals for the minimization of the phase errors

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):694 - 698
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    The methods used to reduce the errors in the determination of the harmonic phase of periodic signals by means of digital techniques are considered. The authors first briefly review the theory of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in order to discuss the genesis of the phase errors. They then give evidence that this approach has no general validity. An original method to minimize these phase erro... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single op-amp sinusoidal oscillators suitable for generation of very low frequencies

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):777 - 779
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)

    The authors present some op-amp-based single-element controlled sinusoidal oscillator structures which can generate very low frequencies (VLF). In contrast to earlier VLF oscillators which have large frequency of the oscillations sensitivities and/or require two to five op-amps, the proposed circuits make it possible to generate VLF oscillations in a minimally sensitive manner while requiring only... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Microprocessor-based controller for plasma position in a tokamak

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):715 - 719
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    A high-speed microprocessor-based controller and its application to the plasma position in the STOR-M (Saskatchewan torus-medium) tokamak is described. An adaptive control procedure based on a high-speed digital signal processor has been used to improve the controller performance. The fundamental functions of this system are the plasma dynamics modeling, the controller adjustment based on paramete... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):727 - 731
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Digital signal processing techniques for high accuracy ultrasonic range measurements

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):759 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (54)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    Several digital signal processing (DSP) methods are analyzed and compared with respect to the expected errors for an ultrasonic range measurement arrangement. These include L1, L2 norms and correlation with different approaches for envelope extraction. The influence of different factors such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sampling frequency, and digitizing resolution on measurem... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Common mode rejection ratio in differential amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):669 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential amplifier (DA) using a single operational amplifier and an instrumentation amplifier (IA) using three operational amplifiers is analyzed, and the complete equations are derived for the case when op amps have finite differential and common mode gains. Amplitude and phase measurements support the theoretical predictions. It is concluded that, ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A real-time C-V measurement circuit for MOS capacitors under current stressing

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):775 - 777
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)

    A real-time C-V measurement circuit for MOS capacitors which are under constant current stress is presented. For this system, the MOS device is kept current-stressed and its stressed C-V characteristics can be measured instantaneously when desired. The charge filling information on oxide traps and surface states can be obtained in real time during the stressing ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The measurement of equivalent source match

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):782 - 784
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)

    A method for measuring the source match of leveled sources that involves measuring the S-parameters of the device used to sample the output power is discussed. It is shown that it is possible to measure source match of a leveled source using a vector network analyzer. The mean difference between this system and the traditional slotted line/sliding short method is less than ±0.005. The metho... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design for testability techniques for CMOS combinational gates

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):703 - 708
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)

    The design of easily testable CMOS combinational circuits is discussed. Two CMOS structured design techniques are presented. The novelty of this approach is the complete fault detection of single- and multiple-line stuck-at, transistor stuck-open, and stuck-on faults for combinational circuits. The test algorithm requires only minimal modifications to detect a large number of bridging faults. Thes... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High accuracy magnetic measurements with the ASQ-81 scalar magnetometer

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):784 - 787
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)

    The Texas Instruments' ASQ-81 scalar magnetometer provides high-resolution total field magnetic measurements. It uses an optically pumped metastable helium gas detector that has a range of 23000 to 75000 gammas (1 gamma=1 nT) and a 0.016 gamma peak-to-peak noise level. The authors first discuss the theory of operation for the ASQ-81 helium, optically pumped, controlled-oscillator type scalar magne... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Accurate CMOS-based current conveyors

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):699 - 702
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)

    An integrable circuit technique for implementing both positive and negative second-generation current conveyors (CCII) is described. Since the proposed circuits consist of a differential pair, current sources, and current mirrors, the realization method can result in a fully integrated current conveyor. The realization method is suitable for fabrication in CMOS technology. The performance of the C... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The chirp-Z transform applied to adhesively bonded structures

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):751 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)

    A signal-processing technique based on the chirp-Z transform is presented to evaluate the echo signals of longitudinal ultrasonic transducers in contact with bonded materials. Both a simulated glass-glass interface of variable thickness and a realistic double lap bonded aluminum sample were tested. The observed frequency dips and peaks in the transducer spectrum from pulse-echo and through-transmi... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A simple analog division scheme

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):779 - 782
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)

    A technique for analog division of two voltage signals that offers high accuracy (0.5%) and relatively good response, especially when the numerator value is nearly constant, is presented. The proposed method is based on the relation of a signal's frequency to its period. The basic idea is to convert input voltage to frequency (through a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)) and then produce an outp... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Frequency de-aliased FFT analysis of step-like functions

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):773 - 775
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)

    The authors present a method for decreasing aliasing error in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of step-like functions. This technique substantially decreases the sole remaining significant error in the extended function FFT (EF-FFT) method and is implemented by multiplying the EF-FFT spectral results with a simple de-aliasing function based on a piecewise linear model for the shape of the original... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reducing the number of calibration standards for network analyzer calibration

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):732 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    Based on the set calibration standards for the 12-term error correction of network analyzers, a thru-match-short-open calibration method is described. It reduces the effort of connecting standards to the measurement ports. It is shown that a reduction in the number of different standards is possible by a reuse of standards. This leads to the thru-match-short technique combining a minimum of calibr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703