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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Mirror synthesis in a mechatronic system for superficial defect detection

    Page(s): 309 - 317
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the problem of defect detection on highly reflective surfaces making use of vision systems. A new mechatronic system has been developed, based on a nonflat mirror. According to the method described in this paper, the light rays emitted from a source hit a suitably designed nonflat mirror, and are reflected so as to illuminate the curved surface under investigation. The path of the light rays from the source of light to the mirror and then to the object surface is mathematically traced making use of the optical geometry laws. After the reflection on the object surface, the light rays are collected by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and elaborated by a vision system, which manages to detect the surface defects as shadows of various shape and size within the picture. Simulations have been carried out in order to provide the optimal mirror shape. Moreover, a prototype of the mechatronic system, including the synthesized mirror, has been built to perform some experimental tests to validate the method. The results, reported in the paper, definitively show the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostriction enhancement of solid-state capacitance sensing

    Page(s): 318 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the performance of a solid-state capacitance sensor that extends classical modeling to incorporate an electrostriction model of isotropic linear elastic dielectrics. A capacitance sensor which incorporates an elastic dielectric layer between the electrodes exhibits higher sensitivity and is more robust than its air-gap or vacuum-gap counterparts. Sensors with polyester and urethane polymer dielectric layers are tested for the response to normal loads and are compared with air-gap setups of same geometry. Experimental data suggest that the solid-state sensor has linear response in loads range up to six orders of magnitude and demonstrates a two to three times stronger output signal than air-gap designs. Potential for future development and application of solid capacitance sensors is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Development and control of a low-cost linear variable-reluctance motor for precision manufacturing automation

    Page(s): 326 - 333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most advanced manufacturing processes require precise linear-position control for material transfer, packaging, assembly, and electrical wiring. To achieve precise linear motion, most of these high-performance manufacturing machines use X-Y sliding tables with permanent-magnet rotary motors and rotary-to-linear couplers. Though this method is the most widely used, it has disadvantages of low accuracy, complex mechanical adjustments, high cost, and low reliability. This paper describes the use of the variable-reluctance-driving principle to construct a novel linear direct-drive actuator system for high-performance position control in manufacturing automation. The proposed actuator has a very simple structure and it can be manufactured easily. There is no need for magnets and no limitation on the traveling distance. The actuator is extremely robust and can be used in hostile environment. A novel control method, using cascade control and the force-linearization technique, is developed and implemented for precision position control of the actuator. Experimental results of the motion system indicate that the system has fast responses with good accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Large travel ultra precision x-y-&thetas; motion control of a magnetic-suspension stage

    Page(s): 334 - 341
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an indirect adaptive-control approach and its implementation for realizing large travel ultra precision x-y-theta motion control of a magnetic-suspension stage, which is actuated by ten electromagnets and is capable of six-degrees-of-freedom motion. Feedback linearization of the nonlinear force relationship of the electromagnet in terms of the coil current and the air gap is implemented. Due to modeling errors, perfect feedback linearization is not possible, and parameter variations of the feedback-linearized system are demonstrated through closed-loop system identification. Each axis of the feedback-linearized system is then modeled as a double integrator having gain value depending on the position of the stage and subjected to a disturbance. For the purpose of large travel x-y-theta motion control, an indirect adaptive-control algorithm is designed and implemented for each axis of the feedback-linearized system. The developed control algorithm consists of three procedures: a) real-time parameter estimation; b) model cancellation; and c) nominal linear control. Experimental results demonstrate that the indirect adaptive controllers have superior tracking ability when compared to constant gain robust linear H controllers. View full abstract»

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  • Novel active connector for modular robotic systems

    Page(s): 342 - 351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (935 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel concept for an active connector for electrical and mechanical connection of components of a robotic or electromechanical system called active connector for robotic systems (ACOR). ACOR consists of a plug and a receptacle that contain a plurality of flexible lamellae that serve as the connection/disconnection mechanism. A shape-memory-alloy actuator is used to move the lamellae endpoint and control in this way the connector engagement and disengagement. ACOR can transmit axial and shear forces and torque. The connector can be controlled from both the plug and/or the receptacle side. So, in the case of a module failure, it can be disassembled by sending signals to its neighbors. ACOR allows fully automatic operation, manual operation, and manual and automatic emergency access from the outside. There are two novel characteristics of ACOR, compared to other active connectors found in literature. First, it allows disconnection from either side of the connection, plug or receptacle, regardless of the power situation on the other side. Second, it has a very simple design since it is composed of a very small number of parts and components. In this paper, we present, in detail, the mechanical design, the analytical models for calculation of the transmitted forces/torques, and the SMA actuator force requirements, and the experimental prototype that was built to demonstrate the concept of the connector. View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid systems approach toward modeling and dynamical simulation of dextrous manipulation

    Page(s): 352 - 361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach toward comprehensive discrete-continuous modeling and accurate dynamical simulation of dextrous manipulation. The resulting hybrid-state model integrates time-driven mechanical features of manipulation systems as well as their discrete-event aspects resulting from varying contact situations. It can easily be embedded into sophisticated simulation environments. A MATLAB implementation serves us as a tool for mechatronic control design for grasping systems. Results from dynamical simulations of a four-fingered hand grasping and manipulating an object demonstrate the efficiency and high accuracy of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • The reduction of stick-slip friction in hydraulic actuators

    Page(s): 362 - 371
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The stick-slip friction phenomenon is observed near zero relative velocity, during the transition from static to dynamic friction, when static friction is greater than dynamic friction. This nonlinear change in friction force over a small change in velocity results in difficulties in achieving accurate and repeatable position control. In some cases, the actuator position controller reaches a limit cycle (hunting effect). Friction compensation at low speeds has traditionally been approached through various control techniques. This paper proposes an alternative solution, namely, friction avoidance. By rotating the piston and rod, the Stribeck region of the friction-velocity curve is avoided and the axial friction opposing the piston movement is approximately linearized. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate this approach. View full abstract»

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  • CAD-guided sensor planning for dimensional inspection in automotive manufacturing

    Page(s): 372 - 380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the vision-sensor-planning problem in part-dimensional inspection of automotive parts. First, a CAD-guided camera-planning system is developed, which utilizes the CAD information of inspected parts and a camera model to plan camera viewpoints. A recursive algorithm, which combines two existing vision-sensor-planning approaches, is developed to find feasible viewpoints. Second, to improve the performance of the eye-in-hand robot and reduce the computational cost of the robot placement problem, a new approach is developed to integrate the kinematics constraint into vision sensor planning. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our vision-sensor-planning system. View full abstract»

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  • Neurofuzzy control of modular and reconfigurable robots

    Page(s): 381 - 389
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, the concept of modular and reconfigurable robotics emerged as a means for flexible and versatile automation. This concept allows for the execution of many complex tasks that cannot be performed by fixed-configuration manipulators. Nevertheless, reconfigurable robots introduce a challenging level of complexity to the problem of design of controllers that can handle a wide range of robot configurations with reliable performance. This paper addresses the position control of modular and reconfigurable robots. We develop a practical intelligent-control architecture that can be easily used in the presence of dynamic parameter uncertainty and unmodeled disturbances. The architecture requires no a priori knowledge of the system-dynamics parameters. Adaptive control is provided using fuzzy gain tuning of proportional-integral-derivative parameters in the presence of external disturbances. The architecture also provides learning control using feedforward neural networks. Moreover, the architecture has the capability of updating the adaptive control under reconfigurability. Experiments on a modular robot test bed are reported to validate the effectiveness of the control methodology. View full abstract»

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  • A behavior-based mobile robot with a visual landmark-recognition system

    Page(s): 390 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (654 KB)  

    In this paper, based on behavior-based artificial intelligence we have built a fully autonomous mobile robot. Several modules are developed for the mobile robot to implement different levels of competences and behaviors, where each module itself generates behaviors. New modules can be easily added to the robot system to improve in the competence without changing any existing modules. A vision-based landmark recognition system for robot navigation is developed as the highest layer in the subsumption architecture. A genetic-algorithm-based search method for pattern recognition of digital images is proposed and implemented to recognize artificial landmarks by searching all the predefined patterns. The vision layer is capable of generating the desired behaviors corresponding to various landmarks. A combination of eight ultrasonic sensors is designed to implement obstacle-avoidance behaviors through a set of fuzzy rules. The effectiveness of this behavior-based mobile robot is demonstrated by experimental studies. View full abstract»

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  • Pipe inspection using a laser-based transducer and automated analysis techniques

    Page(s): 401 - 409
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new sensing methodology for the automated inspection of pipes. Standard inspection systems, as they are for example used in waste pipes and drains, are based on closed-circuit television cameras which are mounted on remotely controlled platforms and connected to remote video recording facilities. Two of the main disadvantages of such camera-based inspection systems are: 1) the poor quality of the acquired images due to difficult lighting conditions and 2) the susceptibility to error during the offline video assessment conducted by human operators. The objective of this research is to overcome these disadvantages and to create an intelligent sensing approach for improved and automated pipe-condition assessment. This approach makes use of a low-cost lighting profiler and a camera which acquires images of the light projections on the pipe wall. A novel method for extracting and analyzing intensity variations in the acquired images is introduced. The image data analysis is based on differential processing leading to highly-noise tolerant algorithms, particularly well suited for the detection of small faults in harsh environments. With the subsequent application of artificial neural networks, the system is capable of recognizing defective areas with a high success rate. Experiments in a range of waste pipes with different diameters and material properties have been conducted and test results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design of incremental fuzzy PI controllers for a gas-turbine plant

    Page(s): 410 - 414
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, incremental fuzzy proportional integral (PI) speed and temperature controllers for a heavy-duty gas-turbine plant are presented. To improve performance, an analysis of incremental fuzzy PI control is provided, and new fuzzy control rules are proposed. In applying the fuzzy PI control to a gas-turbine plant, all gains are optimized by an adaptive genetic algorithm. We show the performance improvement of the proposed controller compared with conventional PI controller via simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Application of fast Haar transform and concurrent learning to tool-breakage detection in milling

    Page(s): 414 - 417
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an effective monitoring approach for manufacturing processing by combining the in-place fast Haar transform and concurrent learning is described and applied to detect tool flute breakage during end milling by sensing the feed-motor current signatures. The application procedure and the effectiveness of the proposed method have been delineated by case studies; the results indicate that the proposed approach possesses an excellent potential application to tool breakage detection in milling. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear coupling control laws for an underactuated overhead crane system

    Page(s): 418 - 423
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the regulation control problem for an underactuated overhead crane system. Motivated by recent passivity-based controllers for underactuated systems, we design several controllers that asymptotically regulate the planar gantry position and the payload angle. Specifically, utilizing LaSalle's invariant set theorem, we first illustrate how a simple proportional-derivative (PD) controller can be utilized to asymptotically regulate the overhead crane system. Motivated by the desire to achieve improved transient performance, we then present two nonlinear controllers that increase the coupling between the planar gantry position and the payload angle. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the improved performance of the nonlinear controllers over the simple PD controller. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr