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Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Invariant image watermark using Zernike moments

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 766 - 775
    Cited by:  Papers (70)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper introduces a robust image watermark based on an invariant image feature vector. Normalized Zernike moments of an image are used as the vector. The watermark is generated by modifying the vector. The watermark signal is designed with Zernike moments. The signal is added to the cover image in the spatial domain after the reconstruction process. We extract the feature vector from the modified image and use it as the watermark. The watermark is detected by comparing the computed Zernike moments of the test image and the given watermark vector. Rotation invariance is achieved by taking the magnitude of the Zernike moments. An image normalization method is used for scale and translation invariance. The robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated and tested using Stirmark 3.1. The test results show that our watermark is robust with respect to geometrical distortions and compression. View full abstract»

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  • Texture-based watermarking of 3D video objects

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 853 - 866
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a novel framework for watermarking three-dimensional (3D) video objects via their texture information. Unlike classical algorithms dealing with 3D objects that operate on meshes in order to protect the object itself, the main goal of our work is to retrieve information originally hidden in the textured image of the object from resulting images or videos having used the 3D synthetic object, thus protecting the visual representations of the object. After developing the theory and practical details of this 3D object watermarking scheme, we present the results of several experiments carried out in various conditions, ranging from ideal conditions (e.g., known rendering parameters) to more realistic conditions (e.g, unknown rendering parameters, but estimated from a two-dimensional view) or within the context of attacks (e.g., mesh reduction). View full abstract»

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  • Digital watermarking of low bit-rate advanced simple profile MPEG-4 compressed video

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 787 - 800
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel MPEG-4 compressed domain video watermarking method is proposed and its performance is studied at video bit rates ranging from 128 to 768 kb/s. The spatial spread-spectrum watermark is embedded directly into compressed MPEG-4 bitstreams by modifying DCT coefficients. A synchronization template combats geometric attacks, such as cropping, scaling, and rotation. The method also features a gain control algorithm that adjusts the embedding strength of the watermark depending on local image characteristics, increasing watermark robustness or, equivalently, reducing the watermark's impact on visual quality. A drift compensator prevents the accumulation of watermark distortion and reduces watermark self-interference due to temporal prediction in inter-coded frames and AC/DC prediction in intra-coded frames. A bit-rate controller maintains the bit rate of the watermarked video within an acceptable limit. The watermark was evaluated and found to be robust against a variety of attacks, including transcoding, scaling, rotation, and noise reduction. View full abstract»

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  • Joint security and robustness enhancement for quantization based data embedding

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 831 - 841
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)  

    The paper studies joint security and robustness enhancement of quantization-based data embedding for multimedia authentication applications. We present an analysis showing that through a nontrivial run lookup table (LUT) that maps quantized multimedia features randomly to binary data, the probability of detection error can be considerably smaller than the traditional quantization embedding. We quantify the security strength of LUT embedding and enhance its robustness through distortion compensation. Introducing a joint security and capacity measure, we show that the proposed distortion-compensated LUT embedding provides joint enhancement of security and robustness over the traditional quantization embedding. View full abstract»

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  • Robust image watermarking based on generalized Radon transformations

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 732 - 745
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1110 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a novel watermarking scheme able to resist geometric attacks. The proposed method performs imperceptible watermarking of images in the spatial domain. To generate resistance to scaling and rotation attacks, two generalized Radon transformations of the image are introduced, while resistance to translation is accomplished through a localization of the watermarking method based on feature points of the image. The original image is not required for the detection process. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks including common geometric attacks. View full abstract»

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  • Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 890 - 896
    Cited by:  Papers (429)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reversible data embedding has drawn lots of interest recently. Being reversible, the original digital content can be completely restored. We present a novel reversible data-embedding method for digital images. We explore the redundancy in digital images to achieve very high embedding capacity, and keep the distortion low. View full abstract»

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  • Audio watermarking techniques using sinusoidal patterns based on pseudorandom sequences

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 801 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB)  

    The spread-spectrum watermarking (SSW) technology has become an important technique that is not only widely used for still image and video watermarking, but is also used for audio watermarking. However, some technical problems, such as requiring watermark shaping to reduce audible noise, have greatly limited its application. We present a novel audio watermarking scheme using SSW technology by which we can embed a watermark into an audio signal imperceptibly with robustness to a wide range of unintended and intended attacks. The watermark is represented by sinusoidal patterns consisting of sinusoids with phase-modulation by elements of a pseudorandom sequence. We have confirmed, theoretically and experimentally, that the sinusoidal patterns based on pseudorandom sequences have the same correlation properties as pseudorandom sequences. Compared with the traditional methods using pseudorandom sequences directly for watermarking, the sinusoidal patterns are more easily manipulated for watermark embedding and detection and do not require time-consuming watermark shaping. Both watermark embedding and detection are computationally inexpensive and watermark extraction is completed by blind detection. The effectiveness of the proposed method both in inaudibility and robustness were verified by the STEP 2001 test. View full abstract»

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  • A DWT-DFT composite watermarking scheme robust to both affine transform and JPEG compression

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 776 - 786
    Cited by:  Papers (76)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robustness is a crucially important issue in watermarking. Robustness against geometric distortion and JPEG compression at the same time with blind extraction remains especially challenging. A blind discrete wavelet transform-discrete Fourier transform (DWT-DFT) composite image watermarking algorithm that is robust against both affine transformation and JPEG compression is proposed. The algorithm improves robustness by using a new embedding strategy, watermark structure, 2D interleaving, and synchronization technique. A spread-spectrum-based informative watermark with a training sequence is embedded in the coefficients of the LL subband in the DWT domain while a template is embedded in the middle frequency components in the DFT domain. In watermark extraction, we first detect the template in a possibly corrupted watermarked image to obtain the parameters of an affine transform and convert the image back to its original shape. Then, we perform translation registration using the training sequence embedded in the DWT domain, and, finally, extract the informative watermark. Experimental work demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates a more robust watermark than other reported watermarking algorithms. Specifically it is robust simultaneously against almost all affine transform related testing functions in StirMark 3.1 and JPEG compression with quality factor as low as 10. While the approach is presented for gray-level images, it can also be applied to color images and video sequences. View full abstract»

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  • RST-invariant digital image watermarking based on log-polar mapping and phase correlation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 753 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on log-polar mapping (LPM) and phase correlation, the paper presents a novel digital image watermarking scheme that is invariant to rotation, scaling, and translation (RST). We embed a watermark in the LPMs of the Fourier magnitude spectrum of an original image, and use the phase correlation between the LPM of the original image and the LPM of the watermarked image to calculate the displacement of watermark positions in the LPM domain. The scheme preserves the image quality by avoiding computing the inverse log-polar mapping (ILPM), and produces smaller correlation coefficients for unwatermarked images by using phase correlation to avoid exhaustive search. The evaluations demonstrate that the scheme is invariant to rotation and translation, invariant to scaling when the scale is in a reasonable range, and very robust to JPEG compression. View full abstract»

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  • An ill-posed operator for secure image authentication

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 842 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many problems in science and technology are modeled by ill-posed operators and the main difficulty in obtaining accurate solutions is caused by the high instability of such operators. The paper introduces a new schema for secure image authentication. It is based on a rather unconventional approach - the extremely high sensitivity of ill-posed operators to any change in the input data is turned into a tool to achieve fragile watermarking for secure image verification. The ill-posed operator of concern is based on a highly ill-conditioned matrix interrelating the watermark and the original image. Authentication is achieved by solving the least squares problem associated with the underlying linear operator. Regarding general requirements for secure watermark-based authentication, analytical and practical aspects of the introduced technique are discussed. It is shown that the proposed authentication schema is highly secure while providing excellent tamper localization. Several experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique when it is subjected to different attacks, including vector quantization counterfeiting and cropping. View full abstract»

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  • Novel blind multiple watermarking technique for images

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 813 - 830
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three novel blind watermarking techniques are proposed to embed watermarks into digital images for different purposes. The watermarks are designed to be decoded or detected without the original images. The first one, called single watermark embedding (SWE), is used to embed a watermark bit sequence into digital images using two secret keys. The second technique, called multiple watermark embedding (MWE), extends SWE to embed multiple watermarks simultaneously in the same watermark space while minimizing the watermark (distortion) energy. The third technique, called iterative watermark embedding (IWE), embeds watermarks into JPEG-compressed images. The iterative approach of IWE can prevent the potential removal of a watermark in the JPEG recompression process. Experimental results show that embedded watermarks using the proposed techniques can give good image quality and are robust in varying degree to JPEG compression, low-pass filtering, noise contamination, and print-and-scan. View full abstract»

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  • A novel echo-hiding scheme with backward and forward kernels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 885 - 889
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)  

    The paper presents a novel echo-hiding method for audio watermarking. The method is quite different from previous echo-hiding methods since it presents a new echo kernel which introduces a forward kernel as well as a backward kernel. The new kernel, a combination of the backward and forward kernels, can enhance considerably the watermark detection rate. Thus, it is possible to reduce echo amplitude. The paper proves mathematically that the combination of kernels improves watermark performance. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is much better than previous echo-hiding schemes in terms of detection rate and imperceptibility. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid pixel-based data hiding and block-based watermarking for error-diffused halftone images

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 867 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4602 KB)  

    A low computational complexity noise-balanced error diffusion (NBEDF) technique is proposed for embedding watermarks into error-diffused images. The visual decoding pattern can be perceived when two or more similar NBEDF images are overlaid, even in a high activity region. Also, with the modified improved version of NBEDF, two halftone images can be made from two totally different gray-tone images, and still provide a clear and sharp visual decoding pattern. With self-decoding techniques, we can also decode the pattern with only one NBEDF image. However, the NBEDF method is not so robust to damage due to printing or other distortions. Thus, a kernels-alternated error diffusion (KAEDF) technique is proposed. By using them alternately in the halftone process, we find that two well-known kernels (Jarvis, J.F. et al., 1976; Stucki, P., 1981) are compatible. In the decoder, because the spectral distributions of Jarvis and Stucki kernels are different in the 2D fast Fourier transform domain, we use the cumulative squared Euclidean distance criterion to determine each cell in a watermarked halftone image belonging to either Jarvis or Stucki, and then decode the watermark. Furthermore, because the detailed textures of Jarvis and Stucki patterns are somewhat different in the spatial domain, the lookup table (LUT) technique is also used for fast decoding. From simulation results, the correct decoding rates for both techniques are high and extremely robust, even after printing and scanning processes. Finally, we extend the hybrid NBEDF and KAEDF algorithms to two color EDF halftone images, where 8 independent KAEDF watermarks and 16 NBEDF watermarks can be inserted and still achieve a high-quality result. View full abstract»

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  • A capacity estimation technique for JPEG-to-JPEG image watermarking

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 746 - 752
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    In JPEG-to-JPEG image watermarking (J2J), the input is a JPEG image file. After watermark embedding, the image is JPEG-compressed such that the output file is also a JPEG file. We use the human visual system (HVS) model to estimate the J2J data hiding capacity of JPEG images, or the maximum number of bits that can be embedded in JPEG-compressed images. A.B. Watson's HVS model (Proc. SPIE Human Vision, Visual Process., and Digital Display IV, p.202-16, 1993) is modified to estimate the just noticeable difference (JND) for DCT coefficients. The number of modifications to DCT coefficients is limited by JND in order to guarantee the invisibility of the watermark. Our capacity estimation method does not assume any specific watermarking method and thus would apply to any watermarking method in the J2J framework. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to the special issue on authentication, copyright protection, and information hiding

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 729 - 731
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The emphasis is focused on, but not limited to:
1. Video A/D and D/ A
2. Video Compression Techniques and Signal Processing
3. Multi-Dimensional Filters and Transforms
4. High Speed Real-Tune Circuits
5. Multi-Processors Systems—Hardware and Software
6. VLSI Architecture and Implementation for Video Technology 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dan Schonfeld
Multimedia Communications Laboratory
ECE Dept. (M/C 154)
University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
Chicago, IL 60607-7053
tcsvt-eic@tcad.polito.it

Managing Editor
Jaqueline Zelkowitz
tcsvt@tcad.polito.it