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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Corrections to "Electronic changes of refractive index in intensively pumped Nd:YAG laser crystals"

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB)  

    In the above-named article [ibid., vol. 39, pp. 910¿918, July 2003], Fig. 10 was incorrectly represented. The correct version appears here. View full abstract»

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  • Study of enhanced bit error rate and "bit skipping" due to parasitic coupling in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1049 - 1059
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cavity interactions due to lateral fringe field overlap or "stray" reflections from optical elements in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array based interconnects are studied. Interacting cavity pairs act as coupled oscillators. Depending on the bit sequence the cavity that switches on first acts as a master oscillator that affects the switch on jitter for the other. Earlier analytic formalism for the bit error rate (BER) is extended to include the influence of the cavity coupling strength on the switch on jitter. Analytic results, including pre-biasing, demonstrate the potential for a large degradation in BER at small coupling strengths, if anti-phasing develops during bit coupling. Numerical results show that extreme cases result into complete pulse suppression (bit skipping). On the other hand, achieving in-phase coupling among bits improves BER. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced linewidth re-broadening by suppressing longitudinal spatial hole burning in high-power 1.55-μm continuous-wave distributed-feedback (CW-DFB) laser diodes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1060 - 1065
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the first time, the impact of longitudinal photon density distribution and longitudinal carrier density distribution on the spectral linewidth re-broadening effect in single-electrode 1.55-μm distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes (LDs) is investigated experimentally in details. By optimizing the front-to-rear facet power ratio, the nonuniformity of the photon density distribution along the laser cavity is reduced, hence reducing the degree of longitudinal spatial hole burning (SHB). Using this optimized value of front-to-rear facet power ratio, the degree of longitudinal SHB can be further reduced through reduction of the nonuniformity of the longitudinal carrier density distribution by increasing the cavity length. As a result, the local stimulated emission is reduced, hence reducing linewidth re-broadening caused by longitudinal SHB. The outcomes of this analysis is being used fruitfully to design high-power 1.55-μm DFB LDs exhibiting very narrow spectral linewidth of approximately 1.3 MHz at an output power of 175 mW under continuous-wave operation. View full abstract»

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  • Mode calculation by beam propagation method combined with digital signal processing technique

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1111 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB)  

    A robust computational scheme for calculation of multiple modes of optical waveguides is developed and presented. The new method uses the beam propagation methods to generate the modal fields and a digital signal processing technique for mode parameter extraction. It can be applied to both guided and leaky modes with different formulations (i.e., scalar, semi-vector or full-vector) and discretizations (e.g., finite difference or finite element). Salient features of the new method are discussed and advantages over other computational methods based on boundary-value eigen solvers and initial-value propagation solvers are demonstrated by way of examples. View full abstract»

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  • Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germano-aluminosilicate fiber laser

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1118 - 1122
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simultaneous multiwavelength oscillation at 1060 and 1090 nm has been produced from a free-running Nd3+-doped multicomponent silica fiber laser. As a result of co-doping with both Al2O3 and GeO2, the Nd3+ ions are situated at separate sites relating to either Al3+-rich or Ge4+-rich regions of the germano-aluminosilicate glass. The slope efficiency of the combined ∼1-μm output was ∼52% (56%) with respect to the launched (absorbed) pump power. The 1060-nm emission reaches threshold first because of the greater number of Nd3+ ions that are located at Al3+-rich sites. On chopping the pump light the relaxation oscillations relating to the 1090-nm emission are antiphase with the oscillations observed with the 1060-nm emission. A degree of spectral overlap exists between the fluorescence emitted from Nd3+ ions located at each site. Power equalization (to ∼1 W each) of the 1060- and 1090-nm emissions was carried out by way of Raman amplification that occurred either internally or externally to the Nd3+-doped silica fiber laser. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization-independent optical spectral inversion without frequency shift using a single semiconductor optical amplifier

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1123 - 1128
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two schemes for polarization-independent spectral inversion without frequency shift have been experimentally demonstrated. Both schemes use two pump beams and a polarization-insensitive semiconductor amplifier. Polarization-independent optical spectral inversion without frequency shift was obtained for lower wavelength detuning between the two pump beams in the first scheme and for large wavelength detuning in the second scheme. Combining these two schemes allows polarization-independent spectral inversion without frequency shift to be obtained over a quite wide frequency range. The results are in good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • Modulation bandwidth of planar circular grating distributed Bragg reflector lasers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1129 - 1134
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    This paper presents an analysis of the 3-dB-modulation bandwidth in planar circular grating distributed Bragg reflector lasers. The theoretical model takes into account both the spatial hole burning effect and the transverse and longitudinal field distribution. That model allows the study of the influence of real structure parameters on the 3-dB-modulation bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1106 - 1110
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mode frequencies and field distributions of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes of square resonators are obtained analytically, which agree very well with the numerical results calculated by the FDTD technique and Pade approximation method. In the analysis, a perfect electric wall for the transverse magnetic mode or perfect magnetic wall for the transverse electric mode is assumed at the diagonals of the square resonators, which not only provides the transverse mode confinement, but also requires the longitudinal mode number to be an even integer. The WG-like modes of square resonators are nondegenerate modes with high-quality factors, which make them suitable for fabricating single-mode low-threshold semiconductor microcavity lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Saturable absorber intensity modulator

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1143 - 1149
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (787 KB)  

    We propose and demonstrate a reflection-type optical modulator, with surface-normal architecture that exploits saturation of absorption in semiconductor quantum wells pumped optically. The modulation section, composed of quantum wells placed within a Fabry-Perot cavity, is exposed to an intensity-modulated beam generated by an in-plane laser integrated monolithically on the same wafer. Since the modulation section and the in-plane laser share the same medium, an efficient coupling between the control beam and the signal beam is achieved. Design guidelines and device performance are presented. We demonstrate that the modulator provides an efficient light modulation mechanism that is sufficient to actively mode-lock an erbium-doped fiber laser. View full abstract»

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  • Symmetry relations of two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity modes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1081 - 1085
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Degeneracy of resonant modes in two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal cavities are investigated using the symmetry relations. The 2-D photonic crystal cavity tends to have either a pair of doubly degenerate modes or nondegenerate modes. We derive simple relations between degenerate modes without using a rigorous group theory. These relations are useful for classifying the resonant modes into degenerate pairs and nondegenerate ones. View full abstract»

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  • Complete polarization mode control of long-wavelength tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers over 65-nm tuning, up to 14-mW output power

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1037 - 1048
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We experimentally demonstrate a stable polarization mode operation in long-wavelength tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers over a 65-nm tuning range and the entire output power range (< 14.6 mW) at room temperature. The polarization mode control was achieved by utilizing anisotropic gain properties of quantum wells due to the difference in bond lengths between the constituent atoms at the interfaces combined with uni-axial external strain induced by a stressor. The experiments were conducted to verify this newly proposed polarization control scheme based on the spin flip model (SFM) developed to incorporate the detailed gain properties, cavity standing wave effect, self-heating effect, and strain effect. The experimental results on the tuning characteristics of polarization switching behavior and output powers were reproduced in highly agreeable manner by simulations. The relative importance of the external strain, interfacial strain at quantum wells, and the wavelength dependence of gain anisotropy are also discussed. It is also shown that the fast spin relaxation times for InP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was responsible for the inhibition of elliptic polarization states often observed for GaAs-based VCSELs. The effectiveness of the polarization control scheme was highlighted by the observed high polarization suppression ratio of 34 dB maintained for the entire wavelength and pump power ranges during the reliability testing over 2000 h. The influence of the elliptic polarization state for the optical pump laser was detected which could be explained as a memory effect of the spin-polarized electrons, supporting the validity of the SFM. View full abstract»

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  • A quasi-mode interpretation of radiation modes in long-period fiber gratings

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1135 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB)  

    We have found an efficient approximation based on a quasi-mode method to analyze radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber grating (LPFG) devices, and which was deduced by consideration of the best confinement condition of radiation-mode spectra inside an optical fiber. A single-mode representation via the quasi-mode method enables one to solve the radiation-mode-coupling problems analytically, which is the advantage of the method. The numerical accuracy is found to quite acceptable in comparison with the conventional method of the Green-function representation of radiation-modes via numerical computation of the integral. Utilizing the proposed method, we present several numerical examples for radiation-mode coupling problems both in uniform and nonuniform LPFGs. View full abstract»

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  • A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1160 - 1169
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB)  

    We have developed a quasi-CW, deep ultraviolet source producing >250 mW of 205-nm radiation. The source consists of a 100-MHz, mode-locked, 15-W, 1047-nm master-oscillator/power-amplifier, a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator, and three nonlinear conversion stages. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of the ElectriCOIL system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1150 - 1159
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Theoretical studies have indicated that sufficient fractions of O2(1Δ) may be produced in an electrical discharge that will permit lasing of an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectriCOIL) system. Results of those studies along with more recent experimental results show that electric excitation is a very complicated process that must be investigated with advanced diagnostics along with modeling to better understand this highly complex system. A kinetic package appropriate for the ElectriCOIL system is presented and implemented in the detailed electrodynamic GlobalKin model and the Blaze II chemical laser modeling code. A parametric study with the Blaze II model establishes that it may be possible to attain positive gain in the ElectriCOIL system, perhaps even with subsonic flow. The Blaze II model is in reasonable agreement with early gain data. Temperature is a critical issue, especially in the subsonic cases, and thus it appears that supersonic flow will be important for the ElectriCOIL system. Simulations of a supersonic ElectriCOIL system indicate that it may be possible to attain reasonable performance levels, even at low yield levels of 20% or less. In addition, pre-dissociation of the iodine is shown to be very important for the supersonic flow situation. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1074 - 1080
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB)  

    We investigate in detail control methods of polarization mode in a two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal laser. In order to control the polarization mode using the square lattice, we investigate the eigenmode of the electromagnetic field against the possible symmetry groups of a square lattice. Both the electromagnetic field distributions of lasing oscillation mode and the band diagram are significantly influenced by the symmetry groups. In the case of the square lattice structure, symmetries "p1", "pm", "p2", and "pmm" are suitable for obtaining the unidirectional polarization mode. Among these symmetry groups, the symmetry group "pmm" is especially interesting considering the simplicity of the eigenmode of the electromagnetic field. In order to obtain the symmetry group "pmm", we deform the unit cell structure of a square lattice from circular to elliptical and investigate the properties of symmetry group "pmm" in detail. The elliptical ratio of the unit cell structure can modify the coupling balance of a lightwave propagating in two perpendicular in-plane directions and can control the eigen energy of each band edge. View full abstract»

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  • Amplified spontaneous emission in index-guided multimodal waveguide structures

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1099 - 1105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a theory of amplified spontaneous emission in index-guided multimodal waveguide structures. It is based on a perturbation approach taking into account the correlated excitation of the different guided modes of the unperturbed waveguide. The coupling between these modes due to the propagation through a perturbed waveguide is taken into account by deducing evolution equations of the cross correlations between the modal amplitudes. Eventually, a beam propagation method program, including the spontaneous emission model, has been used for a comparison of the noise characteristics of a single-mode SOA with a 1-by-1 multimode interference semiconductor optical amplifier. Experiments have been performed confirming the obtained simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility study for degenerate two-photon gain in a semiconductor microcavity

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1066 - 1073
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the magnitude of degenerate two-photon gain of several quantum wells (QWs) in a resonant microcavity which is pumped off-resonantly by an optical field. A set of coupled phenomenological rate equations for electron-hole pairs and photons is derived. In the framework of this model, we make a realistic prediction of the time-integrated two-photon gain and find that a λ-cavity containing 11 QWs would give a maximal amplification of ∼2.3% for a peak intensity of ∼80 MW/cm2. A better insight into the dependence of the gain on the various physical parameters is given by an analytical formula resulting from various approximations on the rate equations. View full abstract»

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  • Hankel transform-domain analysis of scattered fields in multilayer planar waveguides and lasers with circular gratings

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1086 - 1098
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1185 KB)  

    Radiation patterns of scattered fields with arbitrary azimuthal orders in multilayer planar waveguides and laser cavities with circularly symmetric gratings are formulated based on the volume current method. Full-wave Green's function analysis based on the integral transform method lies at the heart of this approach. Unlike the conventional approach, the dyadic Green's function relates some auxiliary fields to some auxiliary sources in the spectral domain. These auxiliary functions are defined to facilitate the spectral domain formulation in the cylindrical coordinate system and the use of transfer matrix method for obtaining a closed-form solution of the spectral Green's function in multilayer planar structures. More importantly, it is shown that the far-field pattern of the scattered field can be expressed directly in terms of the auxiliary fields in the Hankel transform domain. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University