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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Discussion of "Active voltage correction for industrial plants"

    Publication Year: 2003
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB)  

    The author comments on the paper by D. Ezer et al. (see ibid., vol.38, p.1641-6, 2002), briefly reviewing the proposals put forward. The author discusses the proposal to use active voltage conditioners (AVCs) as a solution to mitigate the effect of voltage sags in industrial plants, pointing out that this seems to be effective for the case studies mentioned but not, in his opinion, for a general case. The author also points out an apsect not considered in the paper which is the synchronization of the additive voltage injected by the series transformer with the voltage supply in the distribution system in order to mitigate phase jumps. View full abstract»

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  • Even harmonic resonance-an unusual problem

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1181 - 1186
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is a case study examining the cause, effect, and solution of an actual "noncharacteristic" even harmonic problem in an electrochemical plant. While issues concerning "characteristic" harmonics are well documented in the literature, limited information is available describing how noncharacteristic harmonic currents create operational problems. The author has not found any papers describing a case of even harmonic resonance and would like to share the experience of resolving a 4th harmonic resonance problem in the hopes it will benefit others. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of a new voltage sag compensator for critical loads in electrical power distribution systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1143 - 1150
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (777 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new voltage sag compensator for powering critical loads in electric distribution systems is discussed. The proposed scheme employs a pulsewidth-modulation AC-AC converter (four insulated gate bipolar transistors per phase) along with an autotransformer. During a disturbance such as voltage sag, the proposed scheme supplies the missing voltage and helps in maintaining rated voltage at the terminals of the critical load. The approach does not employ any energy storage components such as bulk capacitors/inductors and provides fast response at low cost. Under normal conditions the approach works in bypass mode, delivering utility power directly to the load; this method of control allows the transformer to be rated only for transient conditions, thus reducing its required size. A four-step switching technique to drive the AC-AC converter is employed to realize snubberless operation. A design example is presented, and simulation results are shown for a three-phase 230-V 5-kVA system. Experimental results on a single-phase unit are discussed. The proposed approach can be easily integrated into a distribution transformer supplying critical loads. View full abstract»

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  • DITC-direct instantaneous torque control of switched reluctance drives

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1046 - 1051
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an online instantaneous torque control technique for switched reluctance machines called direct instantaneous torque control. The method comprises two novel aspects. First, torque is estimated as a function of terminal quantities, i.e., flux linkage and phase current. Hence, torque estimation is independent of the rotor position. Secondly, high-bandwidth drive performance is obtained by implementing a digital torque hysteresis controller. Thus, the method works without torque profile functions and auxiliary phase commutating strategies. Therefore, the control algorithm offers a wide drive operating range without the use of a high-resolution shaft position sensor or sensitive position estimation techniques. Experimental and simulation results are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative evaluation of new silicon carbide diodes and state-of-the-art silicon diodes for power electronic applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 915 - 921
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent progress in silicon carbide (SiC) material has made it feasible to build power devices of reasonable current density. This paper presents results including a comparison with state-of-the-art silicon diodes. Switching losses for two silicon diodes (a fast diode, 600 V, 50 A, 60 ns Trr), an ultrafast silicon diode (600 V, 50 A, 23 ns Trr), and a 4H-SiC diode (600 V, 50 A) are compared. The effect of diode reverse recovery on the turn-on losses of a fast insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are studied both at room temperature and at 150 °C. At room temperature, SiC diodes allow a reduction of IGBT turn-on losses by 25% compared to ultrafast silicon diodes and by 70% compared to fast silicon diodes. At 150 °C junction temperature, SiC diodes allow turn-on loss reductions of 35% and 85% compared to ultrafast and fast silicon diodes, respectively. The silicon and SiC diodes are used in a boost converter with the IGBT to assess the overall effect of SiC diodes on the converter characteristics. Efficiency measurements at light load (100 W) and full load (500 W) are reported. Although SiC diodes exhibit very low switching losses, their high conduction losses due to the high forward drop dominate the overall losses, hence reducing the overall efficiency. Since this is an ongoing development, it is expected that future prototypes will have improved forward characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Online stator winding fault diagnosis in inverter-fed AC machines using high-frequency signal injection

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1109 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The diagnosis of stator winding faults in inverter-fed AC machines using an injected high-frequency carrier signal is presented and analyzed in this paper. Measurement of the resulting high-frequency negative-sequence current (or alternatively of the negative-sequence impedance) is used to detect turn faults at an incipient stage. Though sharing the same physical principles of similar techniques applied to line-connected machines, the use of a high-frequency signal is shown to present important advantages, such as providing the same performance almost independently of the fundamental excitation frequency, and drastically reducing the sensitivity to the working condition of the machine, i.e., torque and flux levels. View full abstract»

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  • Vibration prediction in switched reluctance motors with transfer function identification from shaker and force hammer tests

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 978 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (969 KB)  

    A vibration prediction model for the switched reluctance motor is constructed in this paper. Shaker and force hammer tests for vibration measurement are used for measuring crucial parameters like modal frequency and damping ratio for the transfer function. A detailed lookup table of normal force versus phase current and rotor angle is constructed based on finite-element calculations. The model is then verified by experiments, with acceptable accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Stator- and rotor-flux-based deadbeat direct torque control of induction machines

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1093 - 1101
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (663 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new deadbeat type of direct torque control (DTC) is proposed, analyzed, and experimentally verified in this paper. The control is based on stator and rotor flux as state variables. This choice of state variables allows a graphical representation which is transparent and insightful. The graphical solution shows the effects of realistic considerations such as voltage and current limits. A position- and speed-sensorless implementation of the control, based on the self-sensing signal injection technique, is also demonstrated experimentally for low-speed operation. The paper first develops the new deadbeat DTC methodology and graphical representation of the new algorithm. It then evaluates feasibility via simulation and experimentally demonstrates performance of the new method with a laboratory prototype including the sensorless methods. View full abstract»

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  • Application of emergency and standby generation for distributed generation. I. Concepts and hypotheses

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1214 - 1225
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experience has shown that the demand for electricity imposes excessive peaks for short periods of time. On a yearly basis, these "needle peaks" exist for less than 200 h cumulatively. However, meeting them has produced excessively high costs of electric energy or rolling blackouts when the additional energy was not available. A viable alternative to this excessive cost or blackout is the use of installed emergency and standby capacity for these short intervals of time. To meet the challenges of orchestrating a safe and acceptable interface of the varied power sources, utility companies and state regulators are struggling with the development of suitable interconnect requirements. While there are different strategies for bringing this installed base into service during such periods, this discussion centers on those issues concerned with the parallel operation and interconnection of emergency and standby synchronous generation resources with the electric power system. View full abstract»

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  • An approach to reduce common-mode voltage in matrix converter

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1151 - 1159
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an approach to reduce common-mode voltage at the output of a matrix converter is discussed. A new modulation strategy which reduces the common-mode voltage at the output is presented. The proposed method maintains the active voltage vector and distributes zero vector equally within a sampling period and reduces square RMS of ripple components of input current. Advantages of the scheme include: 34% reduction in the common-mode voltage (peak value); improved harmonic spectrum; reduced switching losses and no more additional switching instants over one sampling period; and simplified implementation via software. Further, the voltage transfer ratio is unaffected by the proposed scheme. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of the new pulsewidth modulation approach. Experimental results on a 230-V 3-kVA matrix converter-fed adjustable-speed drive based on a digital signal processor controller are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Line-start permanent-magnet motor: single-phase starting performance analysis

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1021 - 1030
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a detailed quasi-steady-state approach to different torque components (average and pulsating) for a single-phase capacitor-run permanent-magnet (PM) motor. By employing average electromagnetic torque, and the expected envelope of the pulsating torque, an accurate prediction of starting torque components behavior is made. The quasi-steady-state analysis of the asynchronous performance of the single-phase capacitor-start capacitor-run PM motor is realized through a combination of symmetrical components and d-q axes theory. The developed approach is valid for any m-phase AC motor-induction, synchronous reluctance, or synchronous PM. View full abstract»

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  • Arc flash calculations in systems protected by low-voltage circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1193 - 1199
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A series of previous papers has provided information regarding the arc flash hazard and methods of calculating its potential impact on persons working on or near the equipment. This paper extends that base of information by focusing on the arcing current level and duration in low-voltage circuits protected by circuit breakers (CBs). It describes a method of calculating incident energy and the flash protection boundary due to arcing occurrences in equipment protected by CBs. This method provides convenient procedures for determining these values for generic situations in which some details of the CB are not known. Further, it provides a process for determining these values in typical feeder and branch circuit applications involving common transformers and cable sizes and lengths. The values are needed to determine safe work practices and appropriate Personal Protective Equipment to comply with NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces. View full abstract»

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  • A simplified thermal model for variable-speed self-cooled industrial induction motor

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 945 - 952
    Cited by:  Papers (86)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a simplified thermal model for variable-speed self-cooled induction motors is proposed and experimentally verified. The thermal model is based on simple equations that are compared with more complex equations well known in the literature. The proposed thermal model allows one to predict the over temperature in the main parts of the motor, starting from the measured or the estimated losses in the machine. In the paper, the description of the thermal model setup is reported in detail. Finally, the model is used to define the correct power derating for a variable-speed pulsewidth-modulation induction motor drive. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance digital PI current regulator for EV switched reluctance motor drives

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1118 - 1126
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB)  

    This paper presents a design methodology for digital proportional-integral current regulators that may be used for the highly nonlinear switched reluctance motor control. The important nonlinear behavior of saturation, back electromotive force (EMF), and mutual coupling are accounted for to achieve consistent current regulator performance over the entire operating regime. Gain adaptation is used with respect to both position and current to insure stability. An improved back-EMF decoupling scheme is implemented to reduce bandwidth requirements. The proposed control is implemented on a high-torque traction drive for electric vehicle applications. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate excellent performance over the entire operating regime. View full abstract»

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  • A new design method and half-step operation for ultrasonic stepping motors

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 953 - 960
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (875 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a systematic design method and a new half-step operation are proposed for ultrasonic stepping motors (USMs) which are based on the principle of spatially shifted standing vibrations. With emphasis on the combination of the order of vibration mode, the number of spatial phase shifts, the number of electrodes, and the number of simultaneously excited electrodes, the design equations and constraints are newly derived, hence, proposing the design procedure. The finite-element method and impedance measurement are also employed to investigate the vibration of the stator. By borrowing the control idea of electromagnetic stepping motors, the half-step operation is newly applied to this USM so that the step size can be further halved. An 80-step USM is prototyped. The proposed design method and half-step operation are well supported by experimentation. View full abstract»

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  • Neuro-fuzzy speed tracking control of traveling-wave ultrasonic motor drives using direct pulsewidth modulation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1061 - 1069
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The traveling-wave ultrasonic motor (TWUM) drive offers many distinct advantages but suffers from severe system nonlinearities and parameter variations, especially during speed control. This paper presents a new speed tracking control system for the TWUM drive, which newly incorporates neuro-fuzzy control and direct pulsewidth modulation to solve the problem of nonlinearities and variations. The proposed control system is digitally implemented by a low-cost digital-signal-processor-based microcontroller, hence reducing the system hardware size and cost. Experimental results confirm that the proposed speed tracking controller can offer good steady-state and transient performance. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsating torque and losses in multiphase induction machines

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 986 - 993
    Cited by:  Papers (79)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)  

    In this paper, the authors take a high-level look at multiphase induction machines in order to examine those aspects that are not design specific. They show that for a machine in which the only design variable is the phase number, the main target for loss reduction is the stator copper loss, which by the use of more than three phases may be attenuate by as much as 8.5%. In addition, a general expression for the harmonic fields produced when a machine having any phase number is excited from a PWM inverter is derived, and the sources of torque pulsation are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Performance under design and test of the 20500 HP TEAAC synchronous motors for the Shaybah project in the Rub-Al-Khali desert, Saudi Arabia

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1177 - 1180
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In July 1998, a large oil company successfully started up the ambitious Shaybah oil production project. The largest motors that were procured for this undertaking had to be designed to operate in one of the most forbidding environments on earth. The project location in the Saudi Arabian Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) desert experiences daily heat extremes in excess of 50 °C, extensive periods of wind-borne dust, and exposure to relentless solar radiation. Totally enclosed air-to-air cooling (TEAAC) was and continues to be specified for all large motors. The motor standards that were applied during procurement were based upon NEMA MG-1, which clearly stated that for operation in an ambient that exceeds 50 °C, the allowable temperature rise is to be reduced by 20 °C. This paper reviews the performance issues that were raised during design and test in order to meet the requirements of this very difficult TEAAC application. Engineering tradeoffs that had to be thoroughly justified by both the motor manufacturer and the motor user are also highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of fuel-cell stacks using a computer-controlled power rectifier with the purposes of actual high-power injection applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1136 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the guidelines for simulation of fuel-cell (FC) stacks by using a computer-controlled high-power converter, which drives actual electric loads, or injects power to the grid. The FC output static and dynamic characteristics are closely reproduced in such a way the actual loads are seamlessly driven as if they were supplied by the simulated FC. The simulator characteristics include the membrane temperature and humidity, efficiency, flow of the reactants, cooling air fan and water pumps, the actual air environmental temperature and humidity, and the regimen of operation of the actual electrical load. Any type of FC of ordinary size can be simulated without having to use hydrogen with improved safety, variety of tests, flexibility, and demo facilities. Those features allied to the low cost of this FC simulator contribute for market analysis and life-cycle studies of a site installation. View full abstract»

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  • High-dynamic direct average torque control for switched reluctance drives

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1040 - 1045
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (837 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique was developed to estimate online average torque of switched reluctance machines. This novel online average torque and energy ratio estimation technique can be used for closed-loop torque control, i.e., direct average torque control. This closed-loop torque control algorithm continuously adjusts the reference torque by changing switching angles and reference current to maintain constant and accurate average shaft torque at a commanded torque level. Using the estimated average torque for regulation, the control structure can be simplified and decoupled from DC-bus voltage variations and other secondary control input parameters, such as temperature. The switched reluctance drive controller used in this study was developed and implemented for a 55 W electric-vehicle traction drive. View full abstract»

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  • An accurate low-cost method for determining electric motors' efficiency for the purpose of plant energy management

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1205 - 1210
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the cost of energy increases it is increasingly more important to remove inefficient motors from operation. The first step toward achieving this goal is to estimate accurately the existing motors' efficiencies to determine how much saving will be achieved by using more efficient motors. The problem with estimating the efficiency of motors in the field is the practicality and cost associated with measuring the output power. This paper describes the results of a very-low-cost and accurate method for determining the motor efficiency without the need for removing the motors and without the need for measuring the output power or torque. Test results indicate that the novel method has an accuracy of over 99%. As a result of the high accuracy it is possible to estimate the potential savings with great confidence. View full abstract»

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  • Inverter statistics for online detection of stator asymmetries in inverter-fed induction motors

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1102 - 1108
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simulation model of an induction machine that enables the analysis of the influence of stator fault conditions on the machine control of inverter-fed drives is presented. Based on this model, the influence of the breakdown of the stator windings insulation on the behavior of the machine and especially on the current control scheme is shown. A new online method to detect such asymmetries caused, for example, by an interturn insulation failure in the stator windings is proposed and investigated. This new method utilizes the influence of stator asymmetries on the inverter current control scheme. By evaluating the statistical distribution of the different inverter switching states and switching times, asymmetries in the stator can be detected and isolated. The measurements required to implement this method are already available in modern inverter fed drives as they are used to realize the current control loop. Thus, no additional sensors are necessary. The practical realization of the fault detection algorithm is demonstrated in combination with a predictive single step current controller. Measurements performed on a drive test stand verify the applicability of the proposed online method to detect and isolate stator faults. View full abstract»

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  • Low-vibration design of switched reluctance motors for automotive applications using modal analysis

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 971 - 977
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The search for low-noise switched reluctance motor designs has encouraged this research to focus on the effects of different lamination shapes on vibration. Five different shapes are considered, with one emerging as the best candidate for the 12/8-pole combination considered. The implications of using different phase numbers in the design are also explored from a vibration and noise point of view. A prototype motor is manufactured and used for a force hammer test. The test result validates the finite-element calculations of resonant frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Application of emergency and standby generation for distributed generation. II. Experimental evaluations

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1226 - 1233
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For pt.I see ibid., vo.39, no.4, p.1214-25, 2003. Experience has shown that the demand for electricity imposes excessive peaks for short periods of time. On a yearly basis, these "needle peaks" exist for less than 200 h cumulatively. However, meeting them has produced excessively high costs of electric energy or rolling blackouts when the additional energy was not available. A viable alternative to this excessive cost or blackout is the use of installed emergency and standby capacity for these short intervals of time. To meet the challenges of orchestrating a safe and acceptable interface of the varied power sources, utility companies and state regulators are struggling with the development of suitable interconnect requirements. While there are different strategies for bringing this installed base into service during such periods, this discussion centers on those issues concerned with the parallel operation and interconnection of emergency and standby synchronous generation resources with the electric power system. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnostics of eccentricities and bar/end-ring connector breakages in polyphase induction motors through a combination of time-series data mining and time-stepping coupled FE-state-space techniques

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1005 - 1013
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB)  

    This paper develops the foundations of a technique for detection and categorization of dynamic/static eccentricities and bar/end-ring connector breakages in squirrel-cage induction motors that is not based on the traditional Fourier transform frequency-domain spectral analysis concepts. Hence, this approach can distinguish between the "fault signatures" of each of the following faults: eccentricities, broken bars, and broken end-ring connectors in such induction motors. Furthermore, the techniques presented here can extensively and economically predict and characterize faults from the induction machine adjustable-speed drive design data without the need to have had actual fault data from field experience. This is done through the development of dual-track studies of fault simulations and, hence, simulated fault signature data. These studies are performed using our proven time-stepping coupled finite-element-state-space method to generate fault case performance data, which contain phase current waveforms and time-domain torque profiles. Then, from this data, the fault cases are classified by their inherent characteristics, so-called "signatures" or "fingerprints." These fault signatures are extracted or "mined" here from the fault case data using our novel time-series data mining technique. The dual track of generating fault data and mining fault signatures was tested here on dynamic and static eccentricities of 10% and 30% of air-gap height as well as cases of one, three, six, and nine broken bars and three, six, and nine broken end-ring connectors. These cases were studied for proof of principle in a 208 V 60 Hz four-pole 1.2 hp squirrel-cage three-phase induction motor. The paper presents faulty and healthy performance characteristics and their corresponding so-called phase space diagnoses that show distinct fault signatures of each of the above-mentioned motor faults. View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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