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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date April 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Editor's corner

    Page(s): 161 - 162
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial

    Page(s): 163
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Temporal resolutions of time-reversal and passive-phase conjugation for underwater acoustic communications

    Page(s): 229 - 245
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    In this paper, we study the temporal resolution of a time-reversal or passive-phase conjugation process as applied to underwater acoustic communications. Specifically, we address 1) the time resolution or the pulse width of a back-propagated time-compressed pulse as compared with the original transmitted pulse; 2) the effectiveness of temporal focusing as measured by the peak-to-sidelobe ratio of the back-propagated or phase-conjugated pulse (both pulse elongation and sidelobe leakages are causes of intersymbol interference and bit errors for communications); 3) the duration of temporal focusing or the temporal coherence time of the underwater acoustic channel; and 4) the stability of temporal focusing as measured by the phase fluctuations of successive pulses (symbols). Binary phase-shift keying signals collected at sea from a fixed source to a fixed receiver are used to extract the above four parameters and are compared with simulated results. Mid-frequency (3-4-kHz) data were collected in a dynamic shallow-water environment, exhibiting high temporal fluctuations over a scale of minutes. Despite this, the channel is found to be highly coherent over a length of 17 s. As a result, only one probe signal is used for 17 s of data. The bit error rate and variance of the symbol phase fluctuations are measured as a function of the number of receivers. They are of the same order as that calculated from the simulated data. The agreement suggests that these two quantities could be modeled for a communication channel with high coherence time. The phase variance can be used to determine the maximum data rate for a phase-shift keying signal for a given signal bandwidth and a given number of receivers. View full abstract»

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  • Tomographic mapping of sediments in shallow water

    Page(s): 186 - 191
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    Sediment compressional wave speeds were estimated using broad-band data in range-dependent environments. The environment was assumed as mildly range dependent and was modeled using adiabatic theory. The inversion scheme was based on group speed-dispersion behavior. A genetic algorithm (GA) combined with a neighborhood approach was used for the search. The top layer of sediment was mapped in the shelf region using acoustic data from explosive sources collected on a vertical line array. View full abstract»

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  • Null broadening with snapshot-deficient covariance matrices in passive sonar

    Page(s): 250 - 261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive-array beamforming achieves high resolution and sidelobe suppression by producing sharp s in the adaptive beampattern. Large-aperture sonar arrays with many elements have small resolution cells; interferers may move through many resolution cells in the time required for accumulating a full-rank sample covariance matrix. This leads to "snapshot-deficient" processing. In this paper, the -broadening technique originally developed for an ideal stationary problem is extended to the snapshot-deficient problem combined with white-noise constraint (WNC) adaptive processing. Null broadening allows the strong interferers to move through resolution cells and increases the number of degrees of freedom, thereby improving the detection of weak stationary signals. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of East China Sea shallow-water environment on acoustic propagation

    Page(s): 192 - 211
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    Operational environmental acoustics experiments were conducted over the frequency range of 25 to 800 Hz in September 1997 in the East China Sea, where the water depth was about 100 m. Objectives of the data analysis reported here are to characterize this environment and to assess its complexities as they may impact acoustic propagation as measured by its transmission loss (TL). Conductivity-temperature-depths and expendable bathy-thermographs sampled the ocean, such that its spatial and temporal variability could be approximately separated. The sound-speed profiles are downward refracting, involve two water masses associated with the Kuroshio Current and Taiwan Warm Current, and have thermocline variations caused by internal tides. The bottom geoacoustic characteristics, presumed to be approximately horizontally isotropic, were based on data atlases and were estimated from the measured TL, for some interpretations. The TL data were obtained in octave bands from explosive signal underwater sound sources and sonobuoy receivers, both deployed at a depth of about 18 m. Tests were conducted in directions approximately normal and parallel to the bathymetric contours and the measured TL was, to zero order, independent of the direction of propagation. To higher order, directional differences in the TL were observed and ascribed to anisotropies in bottom properties. A state-of-the-art TL model was adopted, based on environmental idealizations typical of operational forecasting and compared with the measured TL. The comparison yields a probability density function that quantifies the uncertainty of such a TL model, caused by the stochastic variability of the environment, typically unknown a priori. For the model used, the pdf has a standard deviation of about 2 dB from 50 to 800 Hz and larger below 50 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Robust estimation techniques for target-motion analysis using passively sensed transient signals

    Page(s): 262 - 270
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    Sensor measurements derived from passively observed transient signals radiated by a target are non-Gaussian and may also be nonstationary due to their dependence on tracking geometry. Moreover, transients are usually observed in clutter, so there is also a possibility of false detections. A technique that incorporates a deterministic annealing procedure into a robust M-estimator, referred to as the annealing M-estimator, is applied to determine the target motion parameters based on such measurements. This technique is compared to standard robust M-estimators using several scenarios with different tracking geometry and is found to give more accurate parameter estimates. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of North Atlantic right-whale (Eubalaena glacialis) sounds in the Bay of Fundy

    Page(s): 164 - 173
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    Hydrophone recordings, made in the presence of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Bay of Fundy during the daytime in July 1999, are used to determine the characteristics of the recorded sounds. A spectrogram-based method was implemented to discriminate whale sounds from background noise and the time-frequency envelope of the primary harmonic in the spectrogram was used as the basis for sound characterization. Sounds were typically (82%, n=45) in the 300- to 600-Hz range with up- and downsweeping modulations. Lower (<200 Hz) and higher (>900 Hz) frequency sounds were relatively rare. Most sounds were frequency modulated, with 95% of the observed instantaneous relative frequency variation being within ±4.5% of the mean peak frequency. Harmonics were observed in 18% of the sounds. The average sound duration was 0.42 s±0.26 SD. The sounds occurred at a rate of between 0.3 and 0.7 min-1. The time intervals between adjacent sounds (2-700 s) were not randomly distributed. The number of sounds occurring among different waiting times did not reflect a Poisson distribution and a clustering of sounds (2 to 5 cluster-1) was observed. The sound characteristics are compared to those documented elsewhere and as reported for the southern right whale. View full abstract»

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  • Hotspots in ambient noise caused by ice-edge eddies in the Greenland and Barents Seas

    Page(s): 212 - 228
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    Mesoscale eddies are frequently observed in the Greenland and Barents Seas' marginal ice zone (MIZ). The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic hotspots along the ice-edge region are due to mesoscale eddy currents interacting with the broken-up ice floes in the MIZ. To test this hypothesis, ambient-noise case studies were carried out during the MIZEX 85-87 and SIZEX 89 field experiments. In each experiment, ice-edge eddies were localized visually from aircraft and by use of satellite remote-sensing data obtained in near real time. Sonobuoys were, thereafter, deployed by fix-wing aircraft and helicopters in selected eddy areas. Ambient-noise data, recorded over several hours by aircraft, were analyzed estimating averaged ambient-noise levels at four selected frequencies: 40, 100, 315, and 1000 Hz. The analysis showed high mean levels and large gradients in ambient noise near ice-edge eddies and during strong wind and wave forcing against the ice edge. The conclusion of this study is that mapping of the ice edge and localization of mesoscale ocean processes using remote sensing from space will provide important input to ambient-noise prediction in the MIZ. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of a high-frequency acoustic barrier with a time-reversal mirror

    Page(s): 246 - 249
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    An acoustic barrier has been demonstrated using a time-reversal mirror. The experiments, at 3500 Hz, utilized a source-receiver array, a probe source collocated with a receive array, and an echo repeater to emulate a disturbance. The successful demonstration is based on the idea that a disturbance such as an object between a time-reversal mirror and its focus will significantly disturb the focal region and, in particular, the quiescent region. View full abstract»

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  • Composite adaptive control of astable UUVs

    Page(s): 303 - 307
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    Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) typically operate in uncertain and changing environments. Globally convergent Lyapunov-based parameter-adaptive controllers for six-degree-of-freedom position and attitude trajectory-tracking control of astable UUVs have been successfully derived and applied. We propose an efficient adaptive-control scheme for UUVs based on existing parameter-adaptation schemes popular in the robotics literature. Specifically, we customize bounded-gain-forgetting composite adaptation, which utilizes information about both the tracking and model-prediction errors to yield faster parameter convergence than the traditional tracking-error-based (TEB) adaptation. Hence, better transient behavior of tracking errors is achieved by using fewer control efforts in most cases. We show the effectiveness of applying the suggested adaptation scheme on UUVs through simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic tomography for monitoring the Sea of Japan: a pilot experiment

    Page(s): 297 - 302
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    A pilot experiment was conducted in the Sea of Japan (also called the East Sea) in September-October 1999, to assess the possibility of using acoustic tomographic techniques for monitoring water mass structure and dynamics. Acoustic m-sequence signals at various frequencies between 250 and 634 Hz were transmitted from bottom-mounted acoustic sources in shallow water off the coast of Vladivostok to vertical-array receiving systems deployed off the north coast of Ulleung-Do island (S. Korea), 558 km to the south. The data are analyzed for temporal correlation, time spread, and transmission loss and are interpreted in terms of a tomographic system for monitoring the East Sea. View full abstract»

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  • Class-based target identification with multiaspect scattering data

    Page(s): 271 - 282
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    In underwater sensing applications, it is often difficult to train a classifier in advance for all targets that may be seen during testing, due to the large number of targets that may be encountered. We therefore partition the training data into target classes, with each class characteristic of multiple targets that share similar scattering physics. In some cases, one may have a priori insight into which targets should constitute a given class, while in other cases this segmentation must be done autonomously based on the scattering data. For the latter case, we constitute the classes using an information-theoretic mapping criterion. Having defined the target classes, the second phase of our identification procedure involves determining those features that enhance the similarity between the targets in a given class. This is achieved by using a genetic algorithm (GA)-based feature-selection algorithm with a Kullback-Leibler (KL) cost function. The classifier employed is appropriate for multiaspect scattering data and is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM). The performance of the class-based classification algorithm is examined using both measured and computed acoustic scattering data from submerged elastic targets. View full abstract»

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  • A sound projector for acoustic tomography and global ocean monitoring

    Page(s): 174 - 185
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    Long-range underwater acoustic systems, such as those used in ocean acoustic tomography, require low-frequency signals covering a broad frequency band. To meet this requirement, a novel design based on a tunable narrow-band high-efficiency sound projector has been used. The projector transmits a frequency sweep signal by mechanically tuning a resonator tube (or organ pipe) to match the frequency and phase of a reference signal. The resonator tube projector consists of a symmetrical pressure-balanced Tonpilz driver placed between two coaxially mounted tubes. The Tonpilz acoustic driver is composed of two pistons separated by preloaded ceramic stacks. The resonant tube is a simple, efficient, narrow-band, medium-output projector that operates at any ocean depth. Both projector tubes have slots (or vents) which are progressively covered or uncovered by sliding coaxial tubular sleeves. The frequency varies with the sleeve position. A computer-controlled electromechanical actuator moves the cylindrical sleeves along the tubes, keeping the projector in resonance at the instantaneous frequency of a swept frequency signal. The actuator smoothly tunes the resonator tube frequency in a bandwidth of 200 to 300 Hz during a 135-s transmission. A computer synthesizes the linear frequency-modulated signal; compares the phase between transmitted and reference signals; and, using a phase-lock loop (PLL) system, keeps the resonator tube frequency in resonance with the driver frequency. The estimated PLL precision is better than 3° phase error. The system was analyzed by means of finite element analysis and electrical equivalent circuit simulation. The projector prototype was first tested at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) dock in Woods Hole, MA and later in the Pacific Ocean during a voyage of the R/V "Point Sur" in November 2001. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and simulation of autonomous underwater vehicles: design and implementation

    Page(s): 283 - 296
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    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have many scientific, military, and commercial applications because of their potential capabilities and significant cost-performance improvements over traditional means for performing search and survey. The development of a reliable sampling platform requires a thorough system design and many costly at-sea trials during which systems specifications can be validated. Modeling and simulation provides a cost-effective measure to carry out preliminary component, system (hardware and software), and mission testing and verification, thereby reducing the number of potential failures in at-sea trials. An accurate simulation can help engineers to find hidden errors in the AUV embedded software and gain insights into the AUV operations and dynamics. This paper reviews our research work on real-time physics-based modeling and simulation for our AUVs. The modeling component includes vehicle dynamics, environment and sensor characteristics. The simulation component consists of stand-alone versus hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation, for both single as well as multiple vehicles. In particular, implementation issues with regard to multitasking system resources will be addressed. The main contribution of this paper is to present the rationale for our simulation architecture and the lessons learned. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca