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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • A real-time voice service with the adaptive packet loss recovery scheme in the hybrid residential gateway system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 359 - 366
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a real-time voice service with the adaptive packet loss recovery scheme based on the H.323 protocol, which is one of the service functionalities of the hybrid residential gateway system. The proposed scheme analyzes the characteristics of packet losses based on the Gilbert model, and then describes a mechanism that can recover the lost audio packets with the offset redundant data. Using information periodically reported by a receiver, the sender dynamically adjusts the amount and the offset values of redundant data, with a constraint of minimizing the bandwidth consumption of links. Since the wireless environments could be often characterized by frequent and consecutive packet losses, loss recovery mechanisms need to deal with both the random and consecutive packet losses efficiently. To achieve this, the suggested mechanism uses relatively large and discontinuous exponential offset values. To verify the effectiveness of the mechanism, we extended and implemented RTP/RTCP protocols and applications in the hybrid residential gateway system. The experimental results show that our mechanism, with exponential offset, achieves remarkably low complete packet loss rate and adapts dynamically to the fluctuation of the packet loss pattern in the wired and wireless environments. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of transport stream remultiplexer with cascade architecture

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 447 - 452
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and implementation of MPEG-2 transport stream (TS) remultiplexer with cascade architecture. The remultiplexer monitors the input transport stream packets, and uses the packetized local program data to replace the packet in the input stream. In this way the local program data can be multiplexed into the transport stream. Compared with traditional TS remultiplexer, our design does not need the PCR correction procedure, and the synchronization of programs in the input TS can be preserved. A crucial issue of how to preserve the correct synchronization for the TS is discussed. Finally, the design is implemented and some experimental results are given. View full abstract»

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  • A novel fine track-seeking scheme for optical storage device

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 382 - 387
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel hybrid track position (HTP) detector for the track jump controller in an optical disk drive. The servo system then draws the feedback information from the HTP position information instead of the conventional track crossing velocity. The proposed design provides more accurate feedback information, and thus more accurate velocity profile. The experimental results show that the proposed controller achieves better seek time performance. The short jump experiments also show that the proposed system can more effectively cancel the disk eccentricity effect. View full abstract»

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  • A novel channel estimation and tracking method for wireless OFDM systems based on pilots and Kalman filtering

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 275 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel on-line channel estimation and tracking method for wireless OFDM systems based on comb-type pilots is developed. Long training sequences are used to estimate the channel response in the frequency domain, and a scalar Kalman filtering scheme is designed to refine the channel estimation. To track the channel variations during a long burst packet, pilots estimated via vector Kalman filtering are used to interpolate linearly and modify the estimated channel response. Both channel AWGN and state variable noise variance are adaptively estimated. Furthermore, to overcome phase changes across symbols owing to the frequency offset estimation error, a pilot based phase compensation scheme is incorporated. The complete algorithm can be processed in real time with much better performance than training sequence based or pilot based channel estimation methods. Simulation results based on the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN standard are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Yet another log-in authentication using n-dimensional construction based on circle property

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 337 - 341
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We take advantage of the circle property in n-dimensional space to construct a secure user log-in authentication in a remote network system. Due to the fact that past schemes are based on the straight-line geometric property, it is easy to find their possible points of attack and therefore their proclaimed secure system is easily cracked. We therefore propose yet another sophisticated authentication system to reinforce the robustness in secure demands. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of parameter imbalances in OFDM-based WLAN

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 296 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We measure the effect of an imperfect channel estimation and carrier frequency offset on the performance of an OFDM-based wireless local area network (WLAN) system. For the performance evaluation, the average bit error rate (BER) expression is derived in the presence of imperfect channel information, including both inherent estimation error and imperfect windowing error, derived in a mismatched channel separation. From numerical results, the inherent channel estimation error is found to be a dominating term in the system performance, compared to the other imperfections. The provided results work for the performance evaluation of the OFDM-based WLAN physical layer (PHY). View full abstract»

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  • Low-complexity PAR reduction schemes using SLM and PTS approaches for OFDM-CDMA signals

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 284 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper investigates a peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) reduction scheme employing a simple symbol transform in OFDM-CDMA systems. This approach is very simple because of no additional complexity and works without restriction on the allocation of spreading code, maintaining the original transmission efficiency. Simulation results show that the investigated scheme gives a PAR reduction gain of 2-3 dB compared to the original OFDM and OFDM-CDMA signals, and can provide further PAR reduction by combining the selective mapping (SLM) and partial transmit sequence (PTS) schemes, which are less complex compared to the ordinary SLM and PTS approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Modified fast climbing search auto-focus algorithm with adaptive step size searching technique for digital camera

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 257 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A practical real-time auto-focus algorithm for a digital camera is presented, and it improves the reliability and speed of the auto-focus process, especially suitable for a mega-pixel high definition camera. The proposed algorithm adopts threshold gradient and edge point count technique besides focus value function, instead of the traditional two-stage climbing search algorithm that uses the focus value function only. Additionally, a relative difference ratio circuit is also proposed, which can implement adaptive step size searching to increase the searching speed. By adopting the modified algorithm on the prototype of our mega-pixel digital camera, the real-time auto-focus function is verified. The proposed algorithm is implemented in a test camera chip that has been manufactured in 0.25μm CMOS digital process. View full abstract»

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  • Image restoration in digital photography

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 269 - 274
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces some novel image restoration algorithms for digital photography, which has one of the fastest growing consumer electronics markets in recent years. Many attempts have been made to improve the quality of the digital pictures in comparison with photography taken on films. A lot of these methods have their roots in discrete signal and image processing developed over the last two decades, but the ever-increasing computational power of personal computers has made possible new designs and advanced techniques. The algorithms we are presenting here take advantage of the programmability of the pixels and the availability of a compression codec commonly found inside digital cameras, and work in compliance with either the JPEG or the JPEG-2000 image compression standard. View full abstract»

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  • A new patching channel schedule scheme for video multicast

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 342 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (431 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new patching schedule scheme for video multicast is proposed The response to requests is modeled as a renewal process, and we prove that there exists an optimal value for the renewal period; in addition, a searching approach is presented to find this optimal value. The successive requests in a period are divided into a set of groups, based on which the patching streams are further patched in each group. Simulation results show that the proposed patching scheme outperforms the conventional patching technique by a significant margin in reducing the server network-I/O bandwidth. It even performs better than the dynamic skyscraper algorithm over a wide range of client request rates. Furthermore, it is reasonably competitive with hierarchical multicast stream merging (HMSM) at low to modest client request rates. Most importantly, the implementation complexity of our algorithm is much lower than the skyscraper and HMSM. View full abstract»

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  • A fast DV to MPEG-2 IBP-picture conversion algorithm

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 433 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a fast digital video (DV) to MPEG-2 conversion algorithm. At first, DCT domain 2×4×8 DCT to 8×8 DV conversion was employed for the DV to MPEG-2 I-picture conversion. DV to MPEG-2 IBP-picture conversion requires motion estimation, so fast hierarchical motion estimation was also employed. Since DCT information is available from DV data and 2×2 IDCT can be achieved by simple addition and subtraction operations, a low-resolution image is constructed and used for a coarse motion search. Then a fine search is performed using extended 2SS in the original image domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more than 40 times faster than a baseband domain conversion with the full search while about the same PSNR is obtained. Both the PSNR and the conversion speed are also greatly improved when compared with the conventional method. View full abstract»

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  • A QoS degradation policy for revenue maximization in fault-tolerant multi-resolution video servers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 392 - 402
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video servers are highly vulnerable to disk failures because they employ large-scale disk arrays to support many clients and multimedia contents. To cope with such a structural weakness, they reserve a significant portion of their resource contingent on disk operability, leading to under-utilization in normal operating mode. The paper addresses the improvement of resource utilization in fault-tolerant multi-resolution video servers. For this purpose, we propose a QoS degradation method and an admission control algorithm to maximize the system performance measured as revenue while guaranteeing every admitted client the minimum quality level in the event of disk failure. Our scheme exploits the multi-resolution property of video streams, and achieves graceful degradation at near-optimal level when the disk fails. Simulation results show that, in the best case, our proposed technique almost doubles the number of clients admitted for video service by greatly enhancing the resource utilization rates. View full abstract»

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  • UWB communication system for home entertainment network

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 302 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rapid proliferation of digital consumer electronics devices within the home is calling for the advent for home entertainment networks. In order to meet consumer demand for a low cost, high performance wireless entertainment network able to support streaming multimedia content and full motion video, a new kind of home networking scheme is proposed, which combines spectrally efficient UWB (ultra wide-band) technology. This paper investigates modulation schemes and design approach for improving the performance of home entertainment networks. View full abstract»

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  • A virtual frame rate control algorithm for efficient MPEG-2 video encoding

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 460 - 465
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a virtual frame rate control algorithm and a bit allocation algorithm at frame level for efficient MPEG-2 video encoding. The proposed frame rate control scheme is composed of three steps. At the first step, the scan format of an input video sequence is converted into a progressive scan format before video encoding. At the second step, an average motion activity of the frames within a previous temporal window of a pre-defined size is examined, and a proper frame rate of a current temporal window is adaptively determined based on the computed average motion activity. At the final step, the frames located at particular positions in a current temporal window are virtually skipped according to the determined frame rate. We can skip the selected frames by deliberately fixing the coding types of all the macroblocks in those frames to 'skipped MB.' We also propose a modified version of MPEG-2 TM5 bit allocation algorithm suitable for virtual frame rate control. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm noticeably improves the coding efficiency in comparison with conventional MPEG-2 video encoding. View full abstract»

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  • A fast scheme for arbitrarily resizing of digital image in the compressed domain

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 466 - 471
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Arbitrarily resizing of digital images is needed in many applications, such as transmission of images over communication channels whose bandwidth is varying widely, or display of the pre-encoding program on devices with different resolution. This paper presents a new algorithm, which possesses the capability of arbitrarily image resizing in compressed domain. Experimental results confirm that this scheme can achieve significant computation cost reduction while maintaining better quality. Hence, it can be efficiently used in standalone image resizing and in transcoding applications which require real-time processing. View full abstract»

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  • Remote access and networked appliance control using biometrics features

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 348 - 353
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the advent of home networks and the proliferation of broadband connectivity to homes, there is an increasing demand for a secure end-to-end mechanism to remotely access home networks and control home appliance from remote sites on the other side of the Internet. We propose an architecture for secure access to home or an organization's networks and control of networked appliances inside a home or within an organization from a remote location. We use biometrics features and a one-time password mechanism on top of secure socket layer (SSL) for authentication. We also provide three layers of security levels for network communication, and also a mechanism for secure file accesses based on the security privileges assigned to various users is proposed The files to be accessed from the server are categorized depending on their access privileges and encrypted using a key assigned to each category. View full abstract»

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  • A study on secure wireless networks consisting of home appliances

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 375 - 381
    Cited by:  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a security system for a wireless home network, regarding which consumers need not be aware of configuration of IP address or wireless LAN protocol type. This system assumes that a server manages a connectivity of each appliance to the wireless home network. The server uses two kinds of keys. First is a master key which is unique to each appliance. Second is a shared network key, which is securely distributed to each appliance with encryption by the master key. The periodic distribution of the new shared network key through the application layer ensures the timely update of the key, and prevents unknown appliances from joining the home network. The distributed data on the home network are protected by the encryption function in the data link layer of for example, IEEE802.11 and Bluetooth protocols. This system ensures higher security for the wireless home network with small implementation cost. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent devices for appliances control in home networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 328 - 336
    Cited by:  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, the architecture and functionality of intelligent, reduced-complexity devices used in appliances control for networking applications arc, presented. These devices exploit the Ethernet infrastructure in order to offer network-based control functionality. The devices implement a hard-wired version of the IP-based protocol stack and use an embedded soft processor core for executing the functions of a control-oriented application layer. The protocol stack used is based on a limited functionality MAC layer, while packet filtering is performed at the IP layer. Simulation results prove the exceptional characteristics of the proposed solution in terms of response time under various traffic conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a DVD-AV receiver using a single-chip DVD processor

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 388 - 391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent successes of DVD players in consumer electronics, combined with a constant evolution of audio compression formats, necessitate the integration of DVD players with AV (audio/video) receivers. Traditional DVD-AV receivers use board-level integration of separate DVD player and AV-receiver ICs. We present a more cost-effective approach using a single-chip DVD processor. In addition, we describe a modular audio processing pipeline with five main components: the DSP operating system; the DSP application programming interface; the compressed data decoder; the matrix decoder; the audio post-processor. View full abstract»

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  • An ultra-low memory fingerprint matching algorithm and its implementation on a 32-bit smart card

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 453 - 459
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an ultra-low memory fingerprint matching algorithm and implement it on a 32-bit smart card. We first evaluated both the number of instructions executed and memory requirement of each step of a typical fingerprint matching algorithm. Then, we developed a memory-efficient algorithm for the most memory-consuming step (alignment) by doing more computations under the restriction of the real-time requirement. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the required memory space by a factor of 62 and can be executed in real-time on a 32-bit smart card. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency synchronization for digital audio broadcasting

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 290 - 295
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In DAB, a coarse frequency offset estimation algorithm has to provide an initial frequency error estimate, which is sufficiently accurate for the subsequent fine frequency synchronization algorithm to operate reliably. We present a coarse frequency offset estimation technique using the minimum energy detection scheme for an OFDM-based transmission system. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm has high robustness against a large range of symbol timing offsets with a low complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Improved luminance and luminous efficiency of AC plasma display panel

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 253 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of applying auxiliary pulses to the address electrode during the sustain period on the discharge characteristics of an AC plasma display panel was investigated. When auxiliary pulses of 100 V and 250 kHz were applied to the address electrode during the sustain period, the maximum sustain voltage was found to decrease by 14%, while the minimum sustain voltage increased by 15% when compared to the case of a grounded address. It was also found that higher frequency auxiliary pulses resulted in a higher luminance in the sustain discharge. Consequently, the application of a pulse of 100 V and 250 kHz to the address electrode during the sustain period improved the luminous efficiency by 12%. View full abstract»

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  • A modified remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 414 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hwang and Li (see IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol.46, no.1, p.28-30, 2000) proposed a new remote authentication scheme using smart cards. Their scheme is based on the ElGamal's public key cryptosystem. However, Chan and Cheng (see IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol.46, p.992-993, 2000) pointed out that the scheme is vulnerable to the masquerade attack. In this article, we show a different attack on Hwang-Li scheme which is easier and simpler. Furthermore, we present an enhanced scheme for repairing the above attacks. View full abstract»

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  • A voltage-compensated driver for lighting PMOLEDs panels

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 263 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a voltage compensation driver for lighting a passive matrix organic LEDs (PMOLEDs) panel. A driver is designed and fabricated using FPGA and discrete components. The supply voltage range of the proposed driver is under 20 V. Therefore, it can be applied in most commercial PMOLEDs panels. The luminance is confirmed by driving a PMOLEDs panel with a size of 64×48 pixels. Experimental results indicate that good luminance uniformity is achieved using the proposed compensation driver. The lighting performance of PMOLEDs is quite similar to that driven by a constant current. The voltage compensation driving method is applicable to PMOLEDs panels with various structures or materials. Moreover, it can be applied to both monochrome and gray scale PMOLEDs panels. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient architecture for 2-D biorthogonal inverse discrete wavelet transforms

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 427 - 432
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wavelet transform, similar to the short-time Fourier transform, furnishes an alternative approach to signal processing, especially suitable for the analysis of spatial and spectral locality. We present an efficient VLSI architecture for 2-D biorthogonal inverse discrete wavelet transforms. Based on the zerotree-like synthesis scheme, the proposed architecture can efficiently process the input signal in real-time. To further minimize our hardware cost, three efficient filter structures are designed. For the computation of an N×N 2-D image with the Daubechies (1992) 9-tap/7-tap filter, this architecture spends near N2 clock cycles, and requires about 7N storage elements, 17 multipliers, as well as 27 adders. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The main focus for the IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics is the engineering and research aspects of the theory, design, construction, manufacture or end use of mass market electronics, systems, software and services for consumers.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt, IEEE Fellow
Professor of Consumer Electronics
School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588