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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Adaptive neural network control for robotic manipulators [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 523 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optimal cyclic scheduling for printed circuit board production lines with multiple hoists and general processing sequence

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 480 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a mixed-integer programming formulation for finding optimal cyclic schedules for printed circuit board lines with multiple hoists on a shared track, where the processing sequence may be different than the location sequence of the tanks. Computational results on some benchmark problems indicate that optimal cyclic schedules for problems of realistic size can be found in a reasonable time. View full abstract»

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  • Motion planning of a climbing parallel robot

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 485 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proposes an application of the Stewart-Gough parallel platform as a climbing robot and its kinematics control to climb through long structures describing unknown spatial trajectories, such as palm trunks, tubes, etc. First, the description and design of the climbing parallel robot is presented. Second, the inverse and forward kinematics analysis of a mobile six-degrees-of-freedom parallel robot is described, based on spatial constraint formulation. Finally, the gait pattern and the climbing strategy of the parallel robot is described. The information from this research is being used in an actual climbing parallel robot design at Miguel Hernandez University of Elche (Alicante), Spain. View full abstract»

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  • A humanoid shoulder complex and the humeral pointing kinematics

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 499 - 506
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a humanoid robotic shoulder complex and the kinematics of humanoid humeral pointing as performed by this complex. The humanoid shoulder complex is composed of two subsystems, a parallel mechanism which serves as the innermost shoulder girdle and a serial mechanism which serves as the outermost spherical glenohumeral joint. These two subsystems are separated by an offset distance and a twist angle. The subsystems operate cooperatively as an offset double pointing system. Humanoid humeral pointing is defined as a configuration in which the displacement of the shoulder girdle and the humerus are coplanar, and in which a ratio between an inclination angle in each subsystem achieves a constant value consistent with human humeral pointing. One redundant degree of freedom remains in the humanoid shoulder girdle, and it can be used to optimize system configuration and operating criteria, such as avoiding the singular cones of the humanoid glenohumeral joint. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic feasibility analysis of 3-D multifingered grasps

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 507 - 513
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planning of a dextrous manipulation task for a multifingered hand requires the feasibility of all the grasps involved throughout the manipulation process. In this paper, we address the problem of determining whether a desired grasp of a polyhedral object is kinematically feasible. In our study, we define a grasp in terms of a system of contact pairs between the topological features of the hand and the object, and formulate the grasp feasibility analysis as a set of equality and inequality constraints in the variables of the hand and object configurations. The feasibility of a grasp then becomes equivalent to the simultaneous satisfaction of all the constraints. This allows us to cast the feasibility analysis conveniently as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem and solve it numerically with commercially available software. The effectiveness of our approach is illustrated with an example of grasping a cuboid using a three-fingered robotic hand. View full abstract»

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  • A new high-speed 4-DOF parallel robot synthesis and modeling issues

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 411 - 420
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new family of fully-parallel robots producing motions of the Schoenflies displacements subgroup (three translations and one rotation about a given axis in world coordinates) for high-speed handling and machining. First, the structure's ability to provide this four-degrees-of-freedom motion is presented. Then, two of its possible designs are analyzed: the symmetrical and the asymmetrical one. Constructive designs are then presented. Some of the prototype's preliminary control results are given to prove the H4 robot's efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Research on estimating smoothed value and differential value by using sliding mode system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 391 - 402
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To be able to recognize an environment, a robot should have as many sensors as possible. When we use sensors, we must consider the characteristics of the sensors, such as range, processing time, error, and so on. In this paper, we focus on the ultrasonic wave sensor that is today the most common sensor employed on indoor mobile robotic systems, and we propose a new technique for estimating the smoothed value and the differential value of the distances measured by the ultrasonic wave sensor. In proposing this system, we take the characteristics of the sensors mentioned above into consideration. In spite of the many methods proposed, it is still very difficult to eliminate the noise of sonar completely. Therefore, we smooth the distance value by assuming the continuity of the signal obtained by the sonar, and taking advantage of this continuity, we compose a robust estimator. The estimator is based on the sliding mode system. View full abstract»

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  • The arc-transversal median algorithm: a geometric approach to increasing ultrasonic sensor azimuth accuracy

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 513 - 521
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new method for improving the azimuth accuracy of range information using conventional (Polaroid) low-resolution ultrasonic sensors mounted in a circular array on a mobile robot. Although ultrasonic sensors are fairly accurate in measuring distance in depth, they commonly have significant uncertainty in azimuth. We model this uncertainty with a uniform distribution along an arc. This means that the echo has an equal likelihood of originating from any point along the arc. We then introduce a new method to fuse sonar data to better approximate the actual obstacle location. This new method is termed the arc transversal median method because the robot determines the location of an object 1) by intersecting one arc with other arcs, 2) then by considering only "transversal" intersections, those which exceed a threshold in angle, and 3) by taking the median of the intersections. The median is a robust estimator that is insensitive to noise; a few stray readings will not affect its value. We show, via some simple geometric relationships, that this method can improve the azimuth accuracy of the sonar sensor by a specified amount under well-defined conditions. Experimental results on an ultrasonic sensor array situated on a mobile robot verify this approach. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture optimization of a 3-DOF translational parallel mechanism for machining applications, the orthoglide

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 403 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the architecture optimization of a three-degree-of-freedom translational parallel mechanism designed for machining applications. The design optimization is conducted on the basis of a prescribed Cartesian workspace with prescribed kinetostatic performances. The resulting machine, the Orthoglide, features three fixed parallel linear joints which are mounted orthogonally, and a mobile platform which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. The interesting features of the Orthoglide are a regular Cartesian workspace shape, uniform performances in all directions, and good compactness. A small-scale prototype of the Orthoglide under development is presented at the end of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Passive bilateral feedforward control of linear dynamically similar teleoperated manipulators

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 443 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents a passive bilateral feedforward control scheme for linear dynamically similar (LDS) teleoperated manipulators with kinematic scaling and power scaling. The proposed control law renders the teleoperator as a passive rigid mechanical tool with programmable apparent inertia to the human operator and the work environment by utilizing bilateral force feedforward and kinematic feedback control. The passivity of the closed-loop system is robust to force measurement inaccuracies and model uncertainty. Thus, interaction stability of the teleoperator with any passive environment is guaranteed. Coordination error and the overall motion aspects of teleoperation are controlled individually. The proposed control law is also applicable to general nonlinear robotic teleoperators if sufficiently high kinematic feedback gains are used. The proposed control schemes have been validated experimentally for both LDS and non-LDS systems. View full abstract»

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  • Visually guided landing of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 371 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (129)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design and implementation of a real-time, vision-based landing algorithm for an autonomous helicopter. The landing algorithm is integrated with algorithms for visual acquisition of the target (a helipad) and navigation to the target, from an arbitrary initial position and orientation. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition, and a combination of vision and Global Positioning System for navigation. The helicopter updates its landing target parameters based on vision and uses an onboard behavior-based controller to follow a path to the landing site. We present significant results from flight trials in the field which demonstrate that our detection, recognition, and control algorithms are accurate, robust, and repeatable. View full abstract»

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  • A generalized stochastic Petri net model for performance analysis and control of capacitated reentrant lines

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 474 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The basic definition of the reentrant line, which constitutes the typical abstraction for the formal modeling and analysis of the fabrication (fab) scheduling problem, considers only the job contest for the finite processing capacity of the system workstations, ignoring completely the effects and complications arising from additional operational issues like the finite buffering capacity of the system workstations/production units. Yet, as the semiconductor industry moves to more extensively automated operational modes, the explicit characterization and control of these additional operational features is of paramount importance for the robust and stable operation of the entire system. Moreover, the operational policies developed to control these logical aspects of the system behavior introduce additional constraints to the fab scheduling problem, that complicate it even further and, more importantly, invalidate prior characterizations of its optimal solutions. Motivated by these remarks, the work presented in the paper develops an analytical framework for the modeling, analysis, and control of capacitated, flexibly automated reentrant lines, based on the class of generalized stochastic Petri nets. The proposed framework allows the seamless integration of the logical/structural and the timed-based aspects of the system behavior, provides an analytical formulation for the underlying scheduling problem, and leads to an interesting qualitative characterization of the structure of the optimal scheduling policy. Hence, it provides the analytical basis for addressing the reentrant line scheduling problem in its contemporary, more complex operational context, and it constitutes the starting point for the development of new scheduling tools and policies for it. View full abstract»

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  • A life cycle engineering approach to development of flexible manufacturing systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 465 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Life cycle engineering, or integrated product and process development (IPPD), has gained much attention recently due to its significant applications to various products and systems in industry. The authors' previous work introduced an IPPD methodology as a systems approach to competitive and environmentally conscious product and process development. Different product development issues are formally described as constrained optimization problems and solved using a life locus tree. The paper extends the methodology to the development of manufacturing systems. In order to increase its modeling capability and decision accuracy, a time variable is introduced into the methodology. The execution duration of processes and their time-varying characteristics are considered. The methodology is then applied to the life cycle development of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). FMS machine selection and decisions along its life are optimally made. The latter includes how many times each FMS component should be upgraded and which end-of-life option it should take. Life cycle decision making is based on cost, benefit, and environmental impact of an FMS. The proposed approach provides a new way to develop cost-effective, high-quality, and environmentally conscious FMS. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple manipulator control from a human motor-control perspective

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 433 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The human motor-control system has a hierarchical and decentralized structure, and building such a control system for a multiple robot system would require a decomposed model. The difficulty in decomposing complex robotic systems is due to interactions between robots, and the paper proposes a control architecture that controls the manipulator joints and interactions separately. A decomposable model for an N - n degrees-of-freedom multimanipulator/object system handling an object is derived. This model is then used to design a Lyapunov-based fuzzy logic controller for the system by solving linear matrix equalities. It is shown that this controller is closed-loop stable and a stable suboptimal controller for the system may be designed using bounds. View full abstract»

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  • A holonic architecture for easy reconfiguration of robotic assembly systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 457 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proposes a flexible assembly system, where autonomous manufacturing devices and production management agents communicate with one another to accomplish production tasks. This architecture allows the system to arrange manufacturing devices independently of the type of products assembled and to assemble multiple products in parallel and asynchronous progress. This system also supports plug and produce, a system function that realizes easy reconfiguration. Thus, the system can return quick responses to breakdowns and changes in production quantities. This paper also presents an index for the general evaluation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems. With this index and the plug-and-produce function, the system can be reconfigured appropriately to adapt to changes in the manufacturing environments. View full abstract»

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  • Path planning for planar articulated robots using configuration spaces and compliant motion

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 381 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB)  

    This paper presents a path-planning algorithm for an articulated planar robot with a static obstacle. The algorithm selects a robot part, finds a path to its goal configuration by systematic configuration space search, drags the entire robot along the path using compliant motion, and repeats the cycle until every robot part reaches its goal. The planner is tested on 11 000 random problems, which span dozens of robot/obstacle geometries with up to 43 moving parts and with narrow channels. It solves every problem in seconds, whereas randomized algorithms appear to fail on all of them. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics Filter - concept and implementation of online motion Generator for human figures

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 421 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1060 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the concept and implementation of a dynamics filter, an online, full-body motion generator that converts a physically infeasible reference motion into a feasible one for the given human figure. Our implementation of the dynamics filter only uses time-local information, that is, does not require the whole motion sequence in advance. Therefore, the reference motion may be changed online in response to the interaction with a human or the environment. The dynamics filter is implemented based on an efficient rigid-body collision/contact model. This model itself provides an efficient algorithm for dynamics simulation of collisions and contacts. We demonstrate the power of the dynamics filter by several example motions that use motion capture data as a reference. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic controllability and motion planning for the snakeboard

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 494 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The snakeboard is shown to possess two decoupling vector fields, and to be kinematically controllable. Accordingly, the problem of steering the snakeboard from a given configuration at rest to a desired configuration at rest is posed as a constrained static nonlinear inversion problem. An explicit algorithmic solution to the problem is provided, and its limitations are discussed. An ad hoc solution to the nonlinear inversion problem is also exhibited. View full abstract»

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  • Vibration control of Gough-Stewart platform on flexible suspension

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 489 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Studies the vibration control of the Gough-Stewart platform on flexible supporting structures. The distinct characteristic of this application is that the two platforms are dynamically coupled. A proportional derivative control law based on the position prediction is used in the system. The control effects are evaluated by comparing the root mean square responses of the two platforms. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope