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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Very low-frequency heart rate variability wave amplitude and sympathetic stimulation-characterization and modeling

    Page(s): 797 - 803
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-frequency heart rate variability (LFHR) wave amplitude and the degree of sympathetic stimulation. We developed a computerized system for the controlled increase of heart rate (HR) by isoproterenol (ISP), with which we obtained a series of stabilized HR levels in conscious freely moving rats. We found that LFHR amplitude rises gradually as a function of the average HR for each level until it reaches a point where additional increases in average HR are associated with gradual decrease in LFHR amplitude. We successfully built and fitted a model of LFHR amplitude to the experimental results. The fact that our model fits the experimental data well may suggest a possible relationship between our LFHR amplitude findings and the basic physiologic properties of the HR-ISP system inherent in our model. View full abstract»

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  • On the induced electric field gradients in the human body for magnetic stimulation by gradient coils in MRI

    Page(s): 804 - 815
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prior theoretical studies indicate that the negative spatial derivative of the electric field induced by magnetic stimulation may be one of the main factors contributing to depolarization of the nerve fiber. This paper studies this parameter for peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) induced by time-varying gradient fields during MRI scans. The numerical calculations are based on an efficient, quasi-static, finite-difference scheme and an anatomically realistic human, full-body model. Whole-body cylindrical and planar gradient sets in MRI systems and various input signals have been explored. The spatial distributions of the induced electric field and their gradients are calculated and attempts are made to correlate these areas with reported experimental stimulation data. The induced electrical field pattern is similar for both the planar coils and cylindrical coils. This study provides some insight into the spatial characteristics of the induced field gradients for PNS in MRI, which may be used to further evaluate the sites where magnetic stimulation is likely to occur and to optimize gradient coil design. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of torso impedance on epicardial and body surface potentials: a modeling study

    Page(s): 816 - 824
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental results have been published that report marked changes in measured epicardial potentials when the conductivity of the material surrounding the heart is altered. These reports raise a question as to the validity of the traditional two step, equivalent cardiac source approach to modeling the forward problem of electrocardiology as the equivalent source calculation occurs in what is effectively an isolated cardiac region. In the physical situation the heart is surrounded by a torso that contains many different tissue types with different conductivities and is certainly not isolated. Here, a fully coupled model of the problem is employed where the electrical pathways are continuous from a cellular level through to the body surface. This model is used to investigate the effects that torso inhomogeneities have on epicardial and body surface potentials, including comparisons with a traditional two step approach. In particular, it is shown that adding lungs changes the epicardial potentials by 17%, which is consistent with the reported experimental results. In none of the tested situations did the equivalent source approach completely reproduce the fully coupled results, supporting the notion that a fully coupled approach is required to properly solve the forward problem of electrocardiology. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting the threshold of single-pulse electrical stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of noise

    Page(s): 825 - 835
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (709 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An important factor that may play a role in speech recognition by individuals with cochlear implants is that electrically stimulated nerves respond with a much higher level of synchrony than is normally observed in acoustically stimulated nerves. Recent work has indicated that the addition of noise to an electrical stimulus may result in neural responses whose statistical characteristics are more similar to those observed in acoustically driven neurons. Psychophysical data have indicated that performance on some tasks might also be enhanced by the addition of noise. However, little theoretical work has been done toward predicting the effect of noise on psychoacoustic measurements. In this paper, theoretical predictions of these effects are developed through the use of a stochastic computational model. The effect of additive noise on the input and output characteristics and aggregate threshold behavior of modeled auditory nerves (ANs) is specifically studied. This paper derives the stochastic properties of the model input and output when using adaptive threshold procedures. A closed form solution for the input, or amplitude, probability distribution is obtained via Markov models for both one-down one-up (1D1U) and two-down one-up (2D1U) experimental paradigms. The output statistics are derived by integrating over the noise-free probability mass function (PMF). All theoretical PMFs are verified by simulations with the model. Theoretical threshold is predicted as a function of noise level based on these PMFs and the predictions match simulated performance. The results indicate that threshold may be adversely affected by the presence of high levels of noise. View full abstract»

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  • A spatio-temporal dipole simulation of gastrointestinal magnetic fields

    Page(s): 836 - 847
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a simulation of magnetic fields from gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Current sources are modeled as depolarization dipoles at the leading edge of the isopotential ring of electrical control activity (ECA) that is driven by coupled cells in the GI musculature. The dipole moment resulting from the known transmembrane potential distribution varies in frequency and phase depending on location in the GI tract. Magnetic fields in a homogeneous volume conductor are computed using the law of Biot-Savart and characterized by their spatial and temporal variation. The model predicts that the natural ECA frequency gradient may be detected by magnetic field detectors outside the abdomen. It also shows that propagation of the ECA in the gastric musculature results in propagating magnetic field patterns. Uncoupling of gastric smooth muscle cells disrupts the normal magnetic field propagation pattern. Intestinal ischemia, which has been experimentally characterized by lower-than-normal ECA frequencies, also produces external magnetic fields with lower ECA frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • A robust, real-time control scheme for multifunction myoelectric control

    Page(s): 848 - 854
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper represents an ongoing investigation of dexterous and natural control of upper extremity prostheses using the myoelectric signal (MES). The scheme described within uses pattern recognition to process four channels of MES, with the task of discriminating multiple classes of limb movement. The method does not require segmentation of the MES data, allowing a continuous stream of class decisions to be delivered to a prosthetic device. It is shown in this paper that, by exploiting the processing power inherent in current computing systems, substantial gains in classifier accuracy and response time are possible. Other important characteristics for prosthetic control systems are met as well. Due to the fact that the classifier learns the muscle activation patterns for each desired class for each individual, a natural control actuation results. The continuous decision stream allows complex sequences of manipulation involving multiple joints to be performed without interruption. Finally, minimal storage capacity is required, which is an important factor in embedded control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Endocardial detection of repolarization alternans

    Page(s): 855 - 862
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Repolarization alternans (RPA) is prognostic of sudden cardiac death and is thought to be mechanistically linked to the initiation of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Thus, implantable cardiac device detection of RPA may be therapeutically valuable. Because alternans detection is currently limited to surface electrocardiograms, we investigated whether RPA could be measured using a single right-ventricular endocardial lead in humans. Such a location was chosen because it is consistent with the requirements for long-term implantable-device implementation. During diagnostic electrophysiological testing, 28 patients (23 male, 5 female; 61±15 years) were evaluated for surface T-wave alternans (TWA; the current "gold standard" for RPA detection) and endocardial RPA during 5 min of 550-ms right-atrial pacing. Power spectral analysis indicated that 11/28 patients had both surface TWA and endocardial RPA, 9/28 patients had neither, and 8/28 patients had discordant results (71% concordance; p=0.02). Importantly, unlike surface TWA, endocardial RPA was detectable on a beat-to-beat basis. Given the putative mechanistic link between RPA and ventricular arrhythmias, beat-to-beat endocardial RPA detection might be of diagnostic or therapeutic utility. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of cryogen spray properties for application in dermatologic laser surgery

    Page(s): 863 - 869
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cryogenic sprays are used for cooling human skin during laser dermatologic surgery. In this paper, six straight-tube nozzles are characterized by photographs of cryogenic spray shapes, as well as measurements of average droplet diameter, velocity, and temperature. A single-droplet evaporation model to predict average spray droplet diameter and temperature is tested using the experimental data presented here. The results show two distinct spray patterns-sprays for 1.4-mm-diameter nozzles ( wide nozzles) show significantly larger average droplet diameters and higher temperatures as a function of distance from the nozzle compared with those for 0.5-0.8-mm-diameter nozzles (narrow nozzles). These results complement and support previously reported studies, indicating that wide nozzles induce more efficient heat extraction than the narrow nozzles. View full abstract»

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  • Biological tissue characterization by magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS): requirements and limitations

    Page(s): 870 - 880
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) aims at the contactless measurement of the passive electrical properties (PEP) σ, ε, and μ of biological tissues via magnetic fields at multiple frequencies. Whereas previous publications focus on either the conductive or the magnetic aspect of inductive measurements, this article provides a synthesis of both concepts by discussing two different applications with the same measurement system: 1) monitoring of brain edema and 2) the estimation of hepatic iron stores in certain pathologies. We derived the equations to estimate the sensitivity of MIS as a function of the PEP of biological objects. The system requirements and possible systematic errors are analyzed for a MIS-channel using a planar gradiometer (PGRAD) as detector. We studied 4 important error sources: 1) moving conductors near the PGRAD; 2) thermal drifts of the PGRAD-parameters; 3) lateral displacements of the PGRAD; and 4) phase drifts in the receiver. All errors were compared with the desirable resolution. All errors affect the detected imaginary part (mainly related to σ) of the measured complex field much less than the real part (mainly related to ε and μ). Hence, the presented technique renders possible the resolution of (patho-) physiological changes of the electrical conductivity when applying highly resolving hardware and elaborate signal processing. Changes of the magnetic permeability and permittivity in biological tissues are more complicated to deal with and may require chopping techniques, e.g., periodic movement of the object. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a novel expanded tip wire (ETW) antenna for microwave ablation of cardiac arrhythmias

    Page(s): 890 - 899
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1181 KB)  

    A novel expanded tip wire (ETW) catheter antenna is proposed for microwave ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The antenna is designed as an integral part of coaxial cable so that it can be inserted via a 6F catheter. A numerical model based on the rotationally symmetric finite-difference time-domain technique incorporating the generalized perfectly matched layer as the absorbing boundary condition has been utilized to accurately model the interaction between the antenna and the myocardium. Numerical and in-vitro experimental results are presented for specific absorption rate, return loss and heating pattern produced by the antenna. Both numerical modeling and in-vitro experimentation show that the proposed ETW antenna produces a well-defined electric field distribution that provides continuous long and linear lesions for the treatment of AF. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of in vivo local shear modulus using MR elastography multiple-phase patchwork offsets

    Page(s): 908 - 915
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a method that can visualize the propagating and standing shear waves in an object being measured. The quantitative value of a shear modulus can be calculated by estimating the local shear wavelength. Low-frequency mechanical motion must be used for soft, tissue-like objects because a propagating shear wave rapidly attenuates at a higher frequency. Moreover, a propagating shear wave is distorted by reflections from the boundaries of objects. However, the distortions are minimal around the wave front of the propagating shear wave. Therefore, we can avoid the effect of reflection on a region of interest (ROI) by adjusting the duration of mechanical vibrations. Thus, the ROI is often shorter than the propagating shear wavelength. In the MRE sequence, a motion-sensitizing gradient (MSG) is synchronized with mechanical cyclic motion. MRE images with multiple initial phase offsets can be generated with increasing delays between the MSG and mechanical vibrations. This paper proposes a method for measuring the local shear wavelength using MRE multiple initial phase patchwork offsets that can be used when the size of the object being measured is shorter than the local wavelength. To confirm the reliability of the proposed method, computer simulations, a simulated tissue study and in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. View full abstract»

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  • Simulated characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries by measurement of bioimpedance

    Page(s): 916 - 921
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (950 KB)  

    FEM software was used to determine the feasibility of characterizing various types of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. This was accomplished by simulating two electrodes as being attached to an angioplasty balloon in the coronary artery. The electrodes on the "balloon" touched and measured the simulated complex impedance of type III, IV, and Va and Vb lesions, as defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). Additionally, the effect of changes in morphology on the complex impedance was determined for type Va and Vb lesions. The simulations showed that the layer closest to the electrodes had the most significant effect on the measured complex impedance. As a consequence of these simulations, it appears plausible that electrodes could be placed in vivo to determine the characteristics and type of a given atherosclerotic lesion. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of electric and magnetic stimulation in human head using the 3-D impedance method

    Page(s): 900 - 907
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1665 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A comparative, computational study of the modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is presented using a human head model. The magnetic fields from a typical TMS coil of figure-eight type is modeled using the Biot-Savart law. The TMS coil is placed in a position used clinically for treatment of depression. Induced current densities and electric field distributions are calculated in the model using the impedance method. The calculations are made using driving currents and wave forms typical in the clinical setting. The obtained results are compared and contrasted with the corresponding ECT results. In the ECT case, a uniform current density is injected on one side of the head and extracted from the equal area on the opposite side of the head. The area of the injected currents corresponds to the electrode placement used in the clinic. The currents and electric fields, thus, produced within the model are computed using the same three-dimensional impedance method as used for the TMS case. The ECT calculations are made using currents and wave forms typical in the clinic. The electrical tissue properties are obtained from a 4-Cole-Cole model. The numerical results obtained are shown on a two-dimensional cross section of the model. In this study, we find that the current densities and electric fields in the ECT case are stronger and deeper penetrating than the corresponding TMS quantities but both methods show biologically interesting current levels deep inside the brain. View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional SPICE-linked multiresolution impedance method for low-frequency electromagnetic interactions

    Page(s): 881 - 889
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (773 KB)  

    A multiresolution impedance method for the solution of low-frequency electromagnetic interaction problems typically encountered in bioelectromagnetics is presented. While the impedance method in its original form is based on the discretization of the scattering objects into equal-sized cells, our formulation decreases the number of unknowns by using an automatic mesh generation method that does not yield equal-sized cells in the modeling space. Results indicate that our multiresolution mesh generation scheme can provide a 50%-80% reduction in cell count, providing new opportunities for the solution of low-frequency bioelectromagnetic problems that require a high level of detail only in specific regions of the modeling space. Furthermore, linking the mesh generator to a circuit simulator such as SPICE permits the addition of arbitrarily complex passive and active circuit elements to the generated impedance network, opening the door to significant advances in the modeling of bioelectromagnetic phenomena. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

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Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering