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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Comments on the security of fast encryption algorithm for multimedia (FEA-M)

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 168 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that the Fast Encryption Algorithm for Multimedia (FEA-M) proposed by Yi et al. (IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol.47, no.1, p.101-7, 2001) is insecure. In particular, we present a simple attack that reduces the complexity of obtaining both the session key and the master key to solving a set of linear equations. The low complexity of the attack combined with its simplicity makes it feasible in many multimedia applications. View full abstract»

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  • MNR: a novel approach to correct MPEG temporal distortions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 229 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As TV screens get ever larger, viewer tolerance to noise and artifacts has steadily declined. For next generation TVs, such as flat TV, LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon), etc., excellent picture quality becomes a distinguishing feature. Although the quality of most digital signals has significantly been improved, distortion and noise still creep in and are an important source of picture degradations. Post-processing is a sensible solution that achieves a visual enhancement of the reconstructed images. Some of the artifacts, such as blocking and ringing, have already been widely considered. Therefore, this paper concentrates on a novel post-processing technique that reduces another kind of distortion known as "mosquito noise". This temporal "busyness" is discarded by applying an adaptive temporal filter that preserves sharpness and naturalness of the reconstructed video signal in the frequency domain. The proposed mosquito noise reducer (MNR) algorithm is effective and straightforward to implement; experimental results show that the temporal post-filtering process significantly improves the visual quality of video sequences. Moreover, the architectural options allow flexibility and cost trade-off. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI architecture for motion vector quantization

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 237 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper present a novel VLSI architecture for block-matching operations based on motion vector quantizers (MVQs). Since the distribution of the MVQ check point locations is irregular, the usual VLSI architectures for regular block-matching processes may not be effective for the hardware implementation of the MVQ. Our architecture solves this problem by adopting a scheme capable of performing both sequential and parallel block-matching processes. For check points having close locations, their block-matching processes are performed sequentially to reduce both the I/O rate and the clock cycle. On the other hand, we perform the parallel block-matching processes for checkpoints which are widely separated so that the clock cycle can be reduced while retaining the I/O rate. Because of the flexibility for sequential and parallel selection, our architecture requires less clock cycle and I/O rate for the MVQ hardware implementation as compared with other existing architectures. View full abstract»

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  • New efficient FFT algorithm and pipeline implementation results for OFDM/DMT applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 14 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new efficient FFT algorithm for OFDM/DMT applications and present its pipeline implementation results. Since the proposed algorithm is based on the radix-4 butterfly unit, the processing rate can be twice as fast as that based on the radix-23 algorithm. Also, its implementation is more area-efficient than the implementation from conventional radix-4 algorithm due to reduced number of nontrivial multipliers like using the radix-23 algorithm. In order to compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional radix-4 algorithm, the 64-point MDC pipelined FFT processor based on the proposed algorithm was implemented. After the logic synthesis using 0.35 μm CMOS technology, the logic gate count for the processor with the proposed algorithm is only about 70% of that for the processor with the conventional radix-4 algorithm. Since the proposed algorithm can achieve higher processing rate and better efficiency than the conventional algorithm, it is very suitable for the OFDM/DMT applications such as the WLAN, DAB/DVB, and ADSL/VDSL systems. View full abstract»

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  • Equalization of low frequency response in automobile

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 243 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In automobile space, we experience sound coloring of reproduced sound quite differently from large spaces such as concert halls. This is assumed to be due to the well-separated acoustic modes in the low frequency range up to the relatively high crossover frequency. Such unwanted sound coloring can be reduced through equalization of the well-separated modes. However, it is not a simple process as binaural responses are different for every person and drivers are likely to move their head during driving. We introduce a novel approach, based on minimum phase inversion, to the equalization of the low frequency response in order to compensate for the coloring. We then compare the proposed approach with the conventional least squares based inversion and attempt to show the superiority of this approach through experimental and listening test results. View full abstract»

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  • Deterministic equalization and results of a DVB-T multipath equalizer for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM operation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 21 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developments in the UK concerning the reception of digital terrestrial television (DTT) have indicated that, as it currently stands, DVB-T receivers may not be sufficient to maintain adequate quality of digital picture information to the consumer. There are many possible reasons why such large errors are being introduced into the system preventing reception failure. It has been suggested that one possibility is that the assumptions concerning the immunity to multipath that coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM) is expected to have, may not be entirely accurate. Previous research has shown that multipath can indeed have an impact on a DVB-T receiver performance. In the UK, proposals have been made to change the modulation from 64-QAM to 16-QAM to improve the immunity to multipath, but this paper demonstrates that the 16-QAM performance may again not be sufficient. To this end, this paper presents a deterministic approach to equalization such that a 64-QAM receiver with the simple equalizer presented has the same order of MPEG-2 BER performance as that of a 16-QAM receiver without equalization. Thus, alleviating the requirement in the broadcasters to migrate from 64-QAM to 16-QAM of course, by adding the equalizer to a 16-QAM receiver then the BER is also further improved and thus creating one more step to satisfying the consumers. View full abstract»

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  • A new combined method of the block coding and predistortion for the nonlinear distortion compensation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 27 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper newly propose a combined method of the block coding and predistortion to compensate for the nonlinear distortion from the nonlinear amplifier in an OFDM communication system. Though the coding efficiency is low, the block coding has coding gain as well as limits the PAPR under 3 dB. Even if the predistortion is used, some amount of back-off is required to remove nonlinear distortion completely. We reduce the PAPR of an OFDM signal by the block coding and compensate for the nonlinear distortion by the predistortion. Therefore, the amount of required back-off is lowered so that power efficiency is improved compared to the case of predistortion only. The proposed combined method brings about 3 dB back-off gain than the single predistortion and block coding method when BPSK modulation is used and the number of subcarriers is 64. Also, when IBO (input back-off) is 3 dB, we can get 3 dB and 1 dB SNR gains than with only predistortion and block coding, respectively. Via the proposed method, even in the IBO of 2 dB, we can get a similar performance as the linear amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • An encryption scheme for limited k-time access to digital media

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 171 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital content needs to be protected against piracy yet readily accessible to the user. Furthermore, the digital content may come with a proper use license which concerns how the content may be used by the purchaser/user. In this paper we describe a method fir protecting digital content from piracy where the "proper use license" is a k-time license. This license says that the digital content may be used/accessed at most k times. To protect the digital content from piracy or misuse we provide an application that will decrypt and re-encrypt the content according to our k-time encryption scheme. Since secret keys must reside on the user's system, we heighten the level of security by hiding secret keys in the heuristic solutions of NP-hard problems and by extending the security with some other well known methods. View full abstract»

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  • d-Agent: an approach to mobile agent planning for distributed information retrieval

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 115 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Owing to advances in home networking, Internet, and mobile computing technology, the retrieval of information that is required in a timely manner has increased in importance for both the home and business user. This type of information can usually be delivered to users within the required time. Therefore, a retrieval service needs to be able to supply the required information to users within a specified time given by the user, and at the same time, it needs to have minimum system overheads from network traffic when performing the retrieval task for an anticipated increasing number of users. In this paper, we propose a new agent-planning algorithm, called d-Agent, for distributed information retrieval. This planning algorithm has two goals: (1) to guarantee a given turn-around time; (2) to schedule mobile agents (the number of agents and each agent's itinerary) optimally while maintaining low system overheads. Although the algorithm tends to slightly increase the planning cost because of these two requirements, a simulation study shows that our algorithm is practical and realistic, and can be directly applied to distributed information retrieval with deadline constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Superview 3D image warping for visibility gap errors

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 177 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (751 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    3D image warping is an image-based rendering technique that allows nearby views of a 3D environment to be efficiently extrapolated from a single 2D reference image that includes depth information. This method allows the real-time rendering of a virtual environment on low powered consumer devices such as PDAs, cellular phones, e-Books, etc. However one major drawback with this method is the frequent occurrence of visibility gap errors caused by a limited field of view. Visibility gaps are regions for which the new viewpoint has no information and often occur during a viewpoint rotation or lateral translation. The resulting warped image contains significant areas of unsightly holes. This paper proposes using a reference image larger than the display size with a greater field of view (superview), to reduce or eliminate visibility gap errors. However warping a larger reference image increases rendering time. In order to address the problem of the reduced frame-rate, acceleration methods such as image sub-sampling, pixel averaging and clipping are presented. It is concluded that use of an oversize reference image in conjunction with sub-sampling and clipping of the reference image produces a better quality warped image for a given frame-rate. View full abstract»

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  • Deinterlacing using directional interpolation and motion compensation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 198 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new deinterlacing algorithm, which uses directional interpolation and motion compensation. In the proposed method, intrafield interpolation is first performed in the direction that shows the highest correlation. Second, motion estimation is performed between two fields of the same parity. The motion vector is further refined in half-pixel accuracy. In the conventional motion compensated methods, a prefilter such as line averaging, is applied to interpolate missing lines prior to motion estimation between opposite parity fields. The proposed method does not require this prefilter since block matching is performed between the same parity fields. Finally, we apply a test and use either directional interpolation or motion compensated interpolation depending on the test result. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method provides better performances than conventional deinterlacing algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Spread-spectrum image encoding and decoding using ergodic chaos

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 59 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The large-scale proliferation of wireless communications both inside and outside the home-office environment has led to an increased demand for effective and simple spread-spectrum technology - which provides secure digital communication schemes. Now a new chaos based digital communication scheme is proposed by exploiting the ergodic properties of chaotic signals. A novel approach called the mean-value estimation method which is adapted to propose a robust noncoherent demodulator design for a chaos based digital communication scheme. A simple chaos on-off keying method is utilized at the transmitter and it is found that the proposed scheme is robust even in the presence of low signal-to-noise environments. Further, spread spectrum image encoding and decoding simulation results are demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient implementation of MPEG-4 video encoder on RISC core

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 204 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPEG-4 simple profile video is being used as the video compression standard in mobile video communications. MPEG-4 video requires more computational power because of its high complexity. Currently, RISC cores are widely used in mobile applications because of their low power consumption. Design of fully standard-complaint MPEG-4 video encoder with real time performance on a RISC processor for embedded applications entails optimizations at all levels to the maximum extent possible. This paper describes in detail about the implementation of MPEG-4 simple profile video encoder on efficient RISC processor core requiring 50 Mega Cycles to encode QCIF resolution video at 15 frames per second with minimum processing power and memory requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Remote mobile control of home appliances

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 123 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes an approach for interconnecting home and mobile networks to enable the control of consumer electronics devices (TV, VCR, camera, CD speller, radio, etc.), connected in a home network, from a remote mobile device like a mobile phone or a Web pad. Typical applications are: remote mobile programming of VCR (video cassette recorder), remote mobile control of heating thermostats, remote mobile monitoring of security cameras, etc. To explore the possibilities and the challenges from the middleware point of view, we have developed a general home-mobile network gateway architecture. The feasibility of this architecture has been demonstrated with a prototype implementation, in which we have selected HAVI (home audio video interoperability) and WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) as home entertainment and mobile communication network technologies respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Storage channel modelling in Simulink

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 158 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel model of the magnetic/optical storage channel is reported The model is implemented in the Matlab/Simulink block-diagram language, and is self-configuring to arbitrary user-specified partial response targets. All key continuous- and discrete-time channel components are implemented in a configurable architecture. A unified system description which merges the channel model with a behavioral representation of the analog processing electronics and interconnects preceding the channel is described, and results presented. Applications are in design of magnetic tape/disk, and optical storage systems. View full abstract»

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  • Research on Chinese Digital Television service information

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 188 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a study on the Chinese DTV service information. Especially the modifications and improvements based on the reference standards, such as the selection of character coding for Chinese DTV service information, the introduction of the advertising descriptor into the event information table and the improved method for describing the NVOD service, etc., are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A novel scheme for streaming multimedia to personal wireless handheld devices

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 32 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Delivering streaming video over wireless is an important component of many interactive multimedia applications running on personal wireless handheld devices. Such personal devices have to be inexpensive, compact, and lightweight. Wireless channels have a high channel bit error rate and limited bandwidth. Delay variation of packets due to network congestion and the high bit error rate degrades the quality of video at the handheld device. Multimedia application use a buffer at the handheld device smooth out the delay variation and improve the quality of streaming video. However, the buffer size has to be kept small in order to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of handheld devices. We propose a novel selective retransmission scheme for multimedia transmission over wireless networks. Our scheme is based on retransmission of only the most important information in a video in order to achieve a high quality of video. Our objective is to develop a simple cost effective scheme which offers an acceptable video quality over a noisy wireless channel using a small buffer size at the handheld device. We have developed an analytical model to determine the networking requirements, video quality as a function of video compression parameters and network error conditions, and optimally dimension the buffer at the handheld device. View full abstract»

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  • GPS receiver prototype for integration into system-on-chip

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 48 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes the design of a GPS receiver architected for integration into system-on-chip solutions. The application and the design challenges are first presented followed by the proposed solution. The solution is a complete environment starting from algorithmic and architectural development including modeling down-to implementation and verification by simulation on a software as well as a hardware platform. The resulting system is presented with initial results obtained using real signals. View full abstract»

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  • A novel coefficient ordering based low power pipelined radix-4 FFT processor for wireless LAN applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 128 - 134
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The FFT processor is a critical block in all multicarrier systems used primarily in the mobile environment. The portability requirement of these systems is mainly responsible for the need of low power FFT architectures. This paper proposes a technique to reduce the power consumption of a popular low power radix-4 pipelined FFT processor by modifying its operation sequence. The complex multiplier is one of the most power consuming blocks in the FFT processor. The switching activity at its fixed coefficient input, and hence its power consumption, can be drastically reduced by coefficient ordering. Coefficient ordering requires a novel commutator architecture which can handle the corresponding data sequencing as per new coefficient ordering. The resulting power saving is around 23% and 9%, respectively, for the 16-point and 64-point radix-4 pipelined FFT processor. This approach is very attractive for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) requiring short FFTs but it can also be applied to the penultimate stage of longer FFTs used in digital audio and video broadcasting. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-based nonuniform time-scale compression of audio signals

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 183 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel method for time-scale compression based on a time-varying time-scale ratio is developed, with the ratio determined by the short-term energy of the signal. The target operating area of the technique is in very low ratio time-scale compression, where it is shown that improvement in perceptual quality is achievable at low computational complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Storage scheme of system information for digital television receiver

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 147 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a storage scheme of system information for a digital television receiver. The proposed configuration is based on MPEG-2/DVB (Moving Picture Experts Group/Digital Video Broadcasting) standards. The corresponding software for system information processing has been implemented and runs under the real time and multitask operating system. System information consists of SI (Service Information) and PSI (Program Specific Information). As the data in the memory of the DTV receiver can be shared between the SI and PSI, the requirement of the memory resource is reduced. An improved version of the system information identification is also proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of multiplierless correlators for timing synchronization in IEEE 802.11a wireless LANs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 107 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Timing synchronization for IEEE 802.11a WLANs requires using a correlator to correlate the received signal with a known waveform. Straightforward implementation of this correlator results in the need to perform 320 million complex multiplications per second. This significant requirement can be eliminated by using multiplierless correlators. In this paper, multiplierless correlators are designed based on constraining the real and imaginary parts of correlator coefficients to be sums of powers of two. Sets of coefficients that yield good synchronization performance for simple AWGN channels are first identified; then their goodness for indoor communication environments is verified by simulation for multipath fading channels. Several multiplierless correlators are found. Comparison among these correlators identifies a good one that requires to perform only 26 addition/subtraction operations per correlator output while a similar synchronization performance can be maintained. View full abstract»

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  • An intelligent rate control algorithm to improve the video quality at scene transitions for off-line MPEG-1/2 encoders

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 210 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPEG-1/2 are the most popular compression schemes used in consumer video products. The significant problem in these compression schemes is high fluctuation in output data rate over the video sequence. These encoders, in general, utilize a rate control algorithm in order to maintain the output data rate at a constant level regardless of the properties of the video sequence and differences in compression ratios of different picture types. Conventional rate control algorithms such as TM5 cannot maintain the picture quality at scene transitions where the statistical properties of pictures change significantly. This paper presents an innovative algorithm to improve the video quality at sudden and gradual scene transitions. The algorithm works in three steps. The fixed encoding structure of the MPEG data stream is disturbed by forcing an extension or termination of the last GOP of the first scene such that the first anchor picture of the second scene becomes an I-coded picture. The complexity parameters of each picture type are, then, corrected with an iterative algorithm. P-pictures are provided with additional bits to cope with inefficient forward prediction during gradual scene transitions. Experimental results show that with the proposed algorithm, both objective and subjective quality of MPEG video can be improved significantly during scene transitions. View full abstract»

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  • Bespoke data broadcasting scheme for popular videos

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 193 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bespoke data broadcasting scheme is the theme of this paper. For employing lower bandwidth, the bespoke scheme requires less local storage, although its waiting time is on the higher side when compared with the harmonic scheme. Specifically, for two video channels, its performance for user's waiting time is about 22% worse whereas for local storage, it performs about 41% better. Further, this scheme initially behaves very similar to the staircase scheme but as the bandwidth is increased, its performance for waiting time improves considerably and it converges to that of the harmonic scheme. View full abstract»

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  • 30 GB/side rewritable optical disk for HDTV utilizing a blue laser diode

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 152 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a rewritable optical disk with a capacity of 30 GB/side intended for the next generation of rewritable optical disks. The experimental results have shown that this optical disk has wide tilt margin and is a prospective candidate for supplanting VCR in the HDTV era. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The main focus for the IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics is the engineering and research aspects of the theory, design, construction, manufacture or end use of mass market electronics, systems, software and services for consumers.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt, IEEE Fellow
Professor of Consumer Electronics
School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588