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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date June 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • A literature review: robots in medicine

    Page(s): 13 - 22
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    Robotic systems employed in the laboratory, in rehabilitation, and in surgery are reviewed. The advantages of using a robot system over manual procedures in the laboratory to prepare samples is discussed, and some of the obstacles are noted. A typical laboratory robot is described. Rehabilitative applications in the major research areas of tactile sensors, assistive devices for the blind, prosthetics, and orthotics are examined. Manipulators that can help a disabled individual with important everyday tasks and other assistive robotic systems in rehabilitation are described. A variety of robots that assist or perform surgery is surveyed. These applications include positioning in stereotactic neurosurgery, patient manipulation, an in vivo spinal kinematic instrument, and robotic radial keratotomy, among others.<> View full abstract»

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  • Locomotion diagnostics: Some neuromuscular and robotic aspects

    Page(s): 23 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB)  

    Some aspects of neuromuscular function evaluation in fast sports locomotion are presented. The procedure of locomotion diagnostics and the underlying principles are discussed, and experimental data for their support are given. These data concern the evaluation of locomotor skill and of muscle fatigue. The approach processes some features similar to robotic systems study and is potentially applicable to other (ergonomic, medical) areas as well. Among the major limitations of the methodology are a relatively crude representation of the neuromuscular system, with only a few major muscles (and only in the lower extremities) monitored, and the fact that the EMG gives an indication of an actively generated muscle force only, and not of significant elastic force components.<> View full abstract»

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  • Interface fixation analysis of artificial joints

    Page(s): 29 - 32
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    Implant/cement interface stresses, which affect the quality of implant fixation to the surrounding materials and therefore the long-term performance of the total joint replacement, are addressed. It is noted that previous modeling approaches result in stresses that are discontinuous at the interface between adjacent elements. Three distinct formulations that yield accurate continuous stresses as well as displacements are presented. These are a displacement-based interface element with an extra node on the interface, a penalty-modified compatible formulation, and a mixed stress-displacement formulation. Results for a tibial fixation model subjected to a nonaxisymmetric compression load are presented. The results are predicted using the penalty-based continuous stress formulation. The model has been analyzed for two types of loading conditions. One condition consists of two loaded areas, simulating a situation when the femur is exerting pressure evenly on the two tibial condyles. The second condition consists of a single loaded area simulating the loading of only one condyle. Results for the latter case are reported. The proposed formulations have performed satisfactorily in the test examples and are, therefore, considered as reliable tools to predict the interface mechanics in the total joint replacement.<> View full abstract»

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  • Spine configuration associated with various sleep surfaces

    Page(s): 33 - 36
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    The effects of various types of sleepware on the changes in spinal shape were investigated. Since any departure in the shape of the spine from its natural erect position causes tension in the lower back muscles, the study concentrated on changes in the spinal shape associated with subjects in a supine position on the sleepware. Since the subjects' spines were not visually exposed, indirect measurements were made by means of a sonic echoing device. The shape of the spine was determined for each subject by combining the data taken from the erect position and the data from the supine position. Results for a selected group of subjects are presented and discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Developmental and corrective biomechanics for scoliosis

    Page(s): 37 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB)  

    The developmental mechanism for scoliosis and its surgical correction are studied by modeling the spinal column as a curved nonlinear (large-deformation-sustaining) beam column to which are applied (a) muscle forces to simulate scoliosis development due to asymmetrical bilateral muscle contractions and (b) corrective forces to simulate the action of surgically implanted corrective systems. The two-dimensional model permits curvature in the frontal plane and can simulate and demonstrate the progression of a scoliotic curve from an initially straight configuration for various model parameter values. The calculation of the bonding moments is treated, and a simple algorithm for solving the model equations is presented. Results for an actual clinical case are given.<> View full abstract»

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  • Effects of injury on the biokinetics of the lumbar spine

    Page(s): 42 - 47
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    In vitro experiments used to investigate the three-dimensional kinetics of the intact, normal ligamentous human lumbar spine and the changes due to injuries are described. A major objective was to assess the extent of injury and the necessity for surgery. The analysis of the data is described, and the results are discussed. The utility of the method is assessed and compared with that of in vivo studies. The experimental technique has enabled the injury types that are likely to induce spinal instability to be identified.<> View full abstract»

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  • Guidelines for treatment of myocardial infarction

    Page(s): 48 - 49
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    Two interventions for the treatment of myocardial infarction, pharmacological and surgical, are discussed. The biomechanical analysis for the pharmacological intervention entails minimization of the hydraulic load against which the infarcted left ventricle is pumping. The biomechanics of the surgical intervention involves optimization of the coronary-bypass graft's geometrical and material properties in order to maximize its patency. Both of these analyses employ the concept of blood-pressure pulse-wave reflection. The relationship of the pressure-pulse reflection coefficient to blood vessel properties is presented and used to develop guidelines for pharmacological and surgical intervention.<> View full abstract»

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  • Spectrophotometric analysis of cortical bone

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    An attempt was made to study the structural behavior of a crystal in bone composite material of rats and rabbits. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer and computer were used to monitor the infrared spectra of five bone samples each from the rats and rabbits. The spectra indicate the absorption band in the region of 500 to 700 cm/sup -1/, with a wider bandwidth in the samples of rats as compared to rabbits. The spectra indicate that (1) the amorphous crystalline behavior of bone crystal is animal specific: (2) bone surface resorption is greater in amorphous bone; (3) cortical thickness may be affected by the bone's molecular structure; and (4) the mineral deposits on the collagen matrix are mediated through a biophysical mechanism that follows a crystallographical arrangement in the protein lattice.<> View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of trunk muscle recruitment during isometric exertion

    Page(s): 51 - 54
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    Prior modeling approaches are reviewed, and a general nonlinear optimization model for trunk muscle recruitment is developed. The effects of the different cost functions and the load vector characterization on the predicted muscle tensions are investigated. Some of the model's limitations are discussed, and some results obtained using six different cost functions are presented and evaluated.<> View full abstract»

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  • Effects of radiotherapy on the mechanical properties of human skin

    Page(s): 55 - 57
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    A portable apparatus that measures the elastic properties of human skin in vivo was used in a study involving 34 female patients being treated for carcinoma of the breast. Two skin areas were stretched: one at a site on the breast in the irradiated area and the other at a site on the nonirradiated contralateral breast. The mechanical tests on the skin were carried out before radiotherapy and then monthly after the treatment had ceased. It was found that the clinical and biological response of skin to radiation, particularly in fractionated treatments, depends on both the dose and the time. In particular, a three fractions a week treatment regime is preferable to five fractions a week.<> View full abstract»

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  • On the classification of equine force traces

    Page(s): 58 - 60
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    Evidence indicating that comparison of a particular animal trace with a population average is an insufficient test of the health of a limb is presented. The methodology involves representing each of three recorded force components (vertical, lateral, and transverse) as a Fourier-Legendre series; the coefficients in the series represent the trace. A history for the horse is built by accumulating the coefficients (along with pertinent experimental data such as date, sex, weight, height, and in the case of race horses the date of last race) over a long duration. Then, on each subsequent recording, the trace is first compared with the animal's history to identify the occurrence of injury or pathology. If the limb is found to be normal, the trace is added to the history. Otherwise, it is recommended that the animal be further examined by a veterinarian. Preliminary results indicate that an animal trace needs to be compared with a history of traces for the same animal to identify alterations in the locomotive behavior of the limb.<> View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

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