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Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Erratum - Maximum likelihood parameter estimation in the extended weibull distribution and its applications to breakdown voltage estimation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 186
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Breakdown voltages of polymers in the temperature range 23°-250°C

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 117 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The direct voltage electric strengths of several polymers are measured using a new type of environmental chamber in which a new specimen of the material can be introduced without the necessity of cooling and reheating after every voltage application. The range of temperatures at which investigations are carried out is 23°C-250°C. The plots of the dielectric strength on Weibull paper demonstrates departure from the two parameter Weibull distribution, particularly at low field strengths. In each case the method of determining the more favorable distributions are discussed with the view of obtaining consistent results for the dielectric strength. The lower voltage breakdown cannot be ignored if high reliability is desired and the evaluated dielectric strengths on this basis are also presented. The polymers studied are aromatic polyamide, PTFE, aromatic polyimide and polyamide-polyester-polyamide composites. Thickness effects are presented for selected polymers. View full abstract»

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  • Charge storage and its dynamics in porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 102 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The outstanding space charge storage stability of porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets is studied by isothermal surface potential decay measurements and open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) experiments after corona charging at room and elevated temperatures, or corona charging at RT and then aging at different temperatures. Charge storage properties of porous PTFE, nonporous PTFE (Teflon® PTFE) and nonporous FEP (Teflon® FEP) electrets are compared. The results show that porous PTFE has the best charge storage stability of organic materials for both negative and positive charges, especially at high temperatures. The structure of porous PTFE, investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is important for understanding the electret properties of this material. Charge dynamics, including the influence of environmental humidity and temperature on charge stability and shift of mean charge depth, and the kinetics of detrapped charges for the porous PTFE film electrets were also investigated by means of isothermal surface potential decay measurements and analysis of the TSD current spectra in combination with the heat pulse technique. It is found that from about RT to 200°C slow retrapping plays a dominant role; from about 200°C to 300°C fast retrapping controls the transport. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical simulation of electric field distributions in electrohydrodynamic two-phase flow regimes

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 37 - 51
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    In electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow boiling and condensation heat transfer applications an interdependence exists between two-phase flow patterns and the applied voltage, and subsequently the electric field distribution established. Unlike single-phase flow, in liquid/gas or phase change processes the electric field established is continuously changing as the flow pattern changes due to interfacial vaporization or condensation. To further complicate the variation in this dynamic field effect, the interaction between the electric field and the fluid introduce an electrical force that can also cause a redistribution of the phases. In an effort to understand and analyze this interaction, the electric field distribution must be determined. To contribute to this effort, the evaluation of the static electric field distribution is performed for various flow regimes to provide a qualitative assessment regarding the direction of phase migration and possible flow pattern transition and,to determine the net EHD force acting on the flow for an instant in time, i.e. for a given phase distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Entropy production and the temperature equation in electrohydrodynamics

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 22 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The equation for the temperature in moving dielectric fluids is obtained in most texts and papers dealing with electrothermohydrodynamics by simply adding the Joule heating, and more exceptionally by adding also the dielectric heating. Here we derive this equation rigorously from first principles. First, we derive the entropy production, and then we show that additional terms depending on the electric field are present in the equation for the temperature. Among them we have terms of thermoelectric origin, and terms depending on the variation of permittivity with temperature, in addition to Joule and dielectric heating. The different terms in this equation are discussed in detail, and are given a clear physical interpretation. View full abstract»

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  • Aerodynamic effect on charged droplet train ejected from a 26 μm nozzle

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 52 - 56
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The fundamental characteristics of motion of a droplet ejected from a nozzle with 26 μm aperture have been carefully investigated. Droplets ejected are periodically charged and deflected by the deflection field. The behavior of charged and uncharged droplets in air is examined by a CCD camera, and from its images velocities and deflection distances are calculated. The results indicate that droplet train is decelerated linearly by the aerodynamic resistance, which is much smaller than the Stokes resistance for a single particle. It was found that there are two types of coalescence: one is due to Coulomb force between a charged and an uncharged droplet and the other is due to purely aerodynamic effect which is caused by the vacancy of the train. Deflected charge droplets showed complicated motion because of Coulomb and aerodynamic effects when they are proceeding in air. A factor to the Stokes resistance is shown to be between 0.5 and 0.6. Thus, the aerodynamic resistance for the train of droplets is much smaller than for the single particle. View full abstract»

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  • Tree growth monitoring by means of digital partial discharge measurements

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 65 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work results relevant to electrical treeing tests performed on several ethylvinylacetate EVA (with different vinylacetate percentage) and on cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) (of two different lots) polymer materials are presented. During the tree growth the partial discharges (PDs) were monitored by means of a digital PD acquisition system and the tree morphologies were optically evidenced by means of video recorder equipment. The PD acquired data, the outcome of the video monitoring and the time-to-breakdown were off-line processed and analysed. In this way, two main results were obtained: the first one, applicable to this kind of laboratory treeing tests, is related to the possibility of predicting the lifetime of the specimens, considering a specific PD measurement derived quantity; the second one demonstrates the possibility to detect the tree morphology considering the phase-number distribution obtained by the digital PD measurement. The presented test procedures are deemed to have a potential for diagnostic applications. View full abstract»

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  • Flow visualization and image analysis of gas-phase AC corona discharge induced electrohydrodynamic liquid flow in a stratified fluid

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 57 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A phenomenon of AC gas-phase needle-plate corona discharge induced electrohydrodynamic (EHD) liquid flow in a stratified fluid has been investigated experimentally. The flow visualization of flow pattern is carried out by a fluorescent dielectric liquid tracer, where the steady EHD liquid motion induced by the corona discharge is presented in visual impressions. The results show that the EHD liquid flow direction on an electrode axis is not from needle to plate electrodes axis when the needle position was above the liquid layer. For the case of the needle electrode tip immersed into the dielectric liquid, it is well known that the dielectric liquid flows in anticlockwise rotation by contraries. The flow velocity distribution is experimentally obtained by a particle image velocimetry with image processing, where the measurement system takes sequential digital images of flow field illuminated by a laser light sheet for computed tomography. The mechanistic model based on interfacial momentum transfer effects on liquid-phase fluid motion is discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • A pumping technique using electrohydrodynamic flow inside a gel

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 181 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrated a new type of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump that had a pair of electrodes placed inside a gel (poly(vinyl alcohol) swollen by dimethyl sulfoxide). The fluid (decahydronaphthalene) was in contact with the gel surface. During a voltage application to the electrodes, the EHD flow of dimethyl sulfoxide inside the gel caused the flow of the fluid outside the gel. An advantage of this pumping technique is that one can dissolve some chemicals in the fluid without the fear of their electrochemical decomposition because the electrodes inside the gel are not in contact with the fluid. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of corona on the long-term performance of nonceramic insulators

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 80 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
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    A majority of nonceramic insulator (NCI) application is under relatively clean conditions where leakage current may be nonexistent. Occurrence of corona for long periods of time on NCI operating under relatively clean conditions is possible due to localized high electric field (E-field) brought about by design and manufacturing deficiencies. Therefore, resistance to corona-induced degradation of NCI housing materials is an important factor that impacts NCI long-term reliability, and is the focal point of this paper. Two sources of corona have been investigated: corona from a metal electrode, and corona from water droplets. Field inspections were performed on 230 and 500 kV insulators to demonstrate the existence of corona even under relatively clean and dry conditions. Three commonly used NCI housing materials, namely high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber (SIR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and a blend of EPDM and silicone polymer were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, housing materials from several insulators removed from the field were analyzed. Data gathered from electrical and physicochemical analyses show that corona induced degradation is dominantly due to a combination of electro-chemical reactions rather than thermal effects. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a new off-line test procedure for low voltage rotating machines fed by adjustable speed drives (ASD)

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 168 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using adjustable speed drives employing fast switching components to supply low voltage asynchronous motors may be detrimental to their reliability in some cases. The premature failures of the insulating materials are often attributed to the existence of partial discharges (PD) in the windings. Nevertheless, a clear evidence of any PD existence in such systems is far from being established. Also, their location may not be in the turn-to-ground or phase-to-phase insulation but in the turn-to-turn insulation due to the voltage waveforms, and as such, the classical AC test is no longer applicable. The aim of this paper is to present an off-line test procedure capable of overcoming this problem. The results of the test carried out on the representative population of different motors are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Electrohydrodynamics

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Currents and charge profiles in electron beam irradiated samples under an applied voltage: exact numerical calculation and Sessler's conductivity approximation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 137 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (679 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the Sessler's treatment (ST) for radiation induced conductivity in open circuit, in which the material under electron beam irradiation is supposed to acquire a conductivity and to accumulate mobile as well as trapped charges, is applied to the case of irradiation under a voltage. We show that ST is an approximation of a more complex treatment where the generation-recombination process is explicitly considered while allowing a single species to move. ST leads to good results for the back electrode current and for charge profiles if the electric field is so directed as to drive the mobile charges into the sample bulk. In general, trapping causes the agreement to be worse. An implicit finite difference scheme was employed in the numerical integration to ensure greater accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Flow electrification in high power transformers: BTA effect on pressboard degraded by electrical discharges

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 15 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The flow electrification process occurring at the oil-pressboard interface in high power transformers seems to cause electrical discharge incidents and may cause failures. The goal of this experimental study is to measure and to compare the streaming current obtained from unused pressboard, pressboard artificially degraded by electrical discharges, and pressboard obtained from a damaged power transformer. The influence of additive 1,2,3 Benzotriazole (BTA) in oil is also analyzed. The results show that flow electrification is greatly increased by the degraded pressboards compared with the new one. On the other hand, adding of BTA significantly reduces flow electrification. View full abstract»

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  • Range analysis in electroquasistatic field linear problems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 155 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that the joint use of Monte Carlo techniques and interval analysis with affine arithmetic can be profitably exploited to carry out range analysis in electro-quasistatic field linear problems. Stochastic and deterministic techniques can support each other in order to overcome the main limits of each method of analysis thus providing reliable inner and outer bounds for the True Worst Case solution. A benchmark 2-D linear problem has been used to show the main features of the proposed approach which can be applied to study all those physical phenomena ruled by Poisson's equation and characterized by some (eventually all) parameters ranging in specific intervals. View full abstract»

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  • Electrohydrodynamically induced dielectric liquid flow through pure conduction in point/plane geometry

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 27 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mildly polar liquids generally exhibit an ohmic behavior when subjected to electric fields of limited values. The resulting conduction is then associated with heterocharge layers of finite thickness in the vicinity of the electrodes. In the absence of charge injection or induction, a simple conduction model based on the processes of dissociation of a neutral electrolytic species and recombination of the generated ions is presented. This model is first applied to parallel plane electrode geometry to describe the build-up of the heterocharge. Then, the case of point/plane configuration is considered where the effect of Coulomb force is different in the two layers next to the electrodes. A net motion toward the point electrode is predicted to occur. With a rough approximation for the harmonic field, an analysis is presented which leads to an expression for the axial component of the net force exerted on the liquid. A simple static pump is designed and built to experimentally investigate the pressure head generated through pure conduction. Two working fluids (refrigerant R-123 and n-hexane) and two different electrode designs are considered in this study. The experimental results are qualitatively compared to the theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • Growth model for filamentary streamers in an ambient field

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 73 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have simulated the fast streamer stage of liquid dielectric breakdown as stochastic growth of a branching fractal tree. Breakdown and threshold properties of the fluid are represented in the random filter procedure. A range of fractal densities, from sparse to bushy, is approximated by the choice of power-law (4th-power to linear). The choice of threshold (cutoff) voltage also significantly affects the growth form. These parameters combine with the shape and concentration of the electric field, to regulate the distribution and directedness of the local discharge growth pattern. Inclusion of a voltage gradient along the streamer tree produces a secondary narrowing effect on the growth. A large grid (128 cubed) is used for the discretization. Diagonal growth paths to neighbor-vertices are included, increasing the choice of available directions for each discharge event. We use a combination of data-parallel programming and three-dimensional visualization. Complete growth histories, evolving from the voltage distribution, can be displayed in animation or in color banding against the "trials" variable, which simulates a time tick. Side views of the structures provide comparison against sub-microsecond snapshots from experiment. Results include sparse, directed trees evolving from a 4th-power-law filter; also dense trees from a linear filter, whose conical upper-envelope boundary is strongly influenced by the choice of threshold (cutoff) potential. View full abstract»

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  • Impulse fault classification in transformers by fractal analysis

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 109 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transformers are usually subjected to lightning impulse tests after assembly for assessment of their insulation strength. In the case of a fault the resulting winding current gets changed to a certain extent. The pattern of the fault currents depends on the type of fault and its location along the length of the winding. This paper describes the application of the concept of fractal geometry to analyze the properties of fault currents. Fractal features such as fractal dimension, lacunarity used for image surface recognition and the sliding window algorithm used for fractal analysis of waveform have been employed for classification of transformer impulse faults. Experimental results obtained for a 3 MVA transformer and simulation results obtained for 3 MVA, 5 MVA and 7 MVA transformers are presented to illustrate the ability of this approach to classify insulation failures. The results indicate that this new approach possesses reasonable abilities for waveform pattern discrimination. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric response in dimethyl substituted pyridines using microwave cavity spectrometer

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 96 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A study of the dielectric response of dimethyl substituted pyridines (lutidines) has been reported in the temperature range 293-323 K. The microwave cavity spectrometer has been used to measure the relative shift, width and amplitude of the resonance profile for the sample loaded in the cavity operated in TM010 mode at a fixed frequency of 9.0 GHz. The Slater's perturbation equations are used to analyze the measured data and permittivity and dielectric loss have been obtained using interaction form factor. Significant effect in the dielectric response and interaction has been found due to change of the position of the -CH3 functional groups. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental and low frequency harmonic components of leakage current as a diagnostic tool to study aging of RTV and HTV silicone rubber in salt-fog

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 128 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents the results of using the fundamental and the low frequency harmonic components of leakage current to study aging of silicone rubber in salt-fog. Experiments have been conducted on RTV and HTV coated rods at different fields (0.25-0.6 kV/cm) and conductivities (1000 to 2500 μS/cm). The onset of dry-band arcing on samples could be determined by measuring the low frequency harmonic components. A correlation has been found between the fundamental and low harmonic components of leakage current and different forms of aging. Where erosion could be associated with an increase in the level of both the fundamental and low frequency harmonic components of leakage current. For example, surface damage for HTV rods occurred when the fundamental component of leakage current was greater than 2 mA. On the other hand, when the samples approached failure, the fundamental component of leakage current reached relatively high values ( > 6 mA for HTV rods and > 2 mA for RTV rods) and the low frequency harmonic components of the leakage current tended to decrease. The results suggest that both the fundamental and low frequency harmonics of leakage current can be used as a tool to determine both the beginning of aging and end of life of silicone rubber in salt-fog. View full abstract»

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  • Electric field calculations for needle-plane geometry and space charge in polyethylene

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 176 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric fields in polymeric insulation are calculated with the boundary element method (BEM) in the presence and absence of space charge. A 3-D version of the BEM software is employed to determine the profiles of divergent electric fields produced by metallic and semicon needles embedded in the polymeric insulation. It is shown that the value of the electric field in the insulation decreases rapidly and within 5 μm from the tip it is less than 50% of its initial value. The BEM can also provide 3D profiles of the electric field distributions in the presence of space charge. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of additives on morphology and space charge accumulation in low density polyethylene

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 148 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effects of an antioxidant additive on polymer morphology and space charge formation have been investigated, as a function of temperature, in melt-quenched films of low-density polyethylene. On quenching, the additive-free polymer crystallizes to give extensive spherulitic structures; similar objects are not seen in the system containing the antioxidant. The pulsed electro-acoustic method was then used dynamically to follow both the formation of space charge at high voltage and its subsequent decay under short circuit conditions in both material systems. Data were obtained at room temperature, 50 and 70°C. Comparing the additive free material with identical polymer containing a standard anti-oxidant package indicates that the addition of the antioxidant markedly changes both space charge formation and decay processes. At room temperature, both materials were found to behave similarly, suggesting that the changes in gross morphology described above are of secondary importance. At higher temperatures, the addition of the antioxidant enhances negative charge accumulation in the material, implying its association with relatively deep traps for the negative charges within the bulk. View full abstract»

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  • Flow electrification in transformers: relevance of ECT and leakage current measurements

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 7 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The accumulated charge Q on a well insulated pressboard part being probably the most relevant parameter for flow electrification evolution inside transformers but clearly not measurable in situ, we compare in this paper this parameter with others possible to measure. The two most commonly used are oil parameters: ECT (electrostatic charging tendency) and, to a smaller extent, the continuous aging test for tan δ. Another is not so often used because of measurements difficulties, but was considered to be one of the most relevant: the leakage current. Thus in this paper we compare on two facilities (specially made for that) the accumulated charge Q to the ECT and leakage current. We find that, even if sometimes a correct correlation exists between these parameters, several cases show a bad correlation. Thus monitoring transformers by analyzing only ECT or leakage current seems to be hazardous. View full abstract»

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  • Recommended international standard for dimensionless parameters used in electrohydrodynamics

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 3 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern day electrohydrodynamics (EHD) was defined as an interaction between electrical parameters and fluid flow included multi-phase systems. However, unlike well-established magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the terminology and dimensionless parameters used for EHD analyses were not unified. Based on the IEEE-DEIS-EHD technical committee's recommendation, unified dimensionless parameters for EHD studies are proposed in this report. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation contains topics concerned with dielectric phenomena and measurements with development and characterization of gaseous, vacuum, liquid and solid electrical insulating materials and systems.

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Reuben Hackam