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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
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  • Comments on "A shaped reflector antenna for 60-GHz indoor wireless LAN access points" [with reply]

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    The author comments that the shaped reflector antenna principles and theory of Smulders, Khusial and Herben (see ibid., vol.50, p.584-91, Mar.2001) are based on the papers described by Kumar (see Proc. Montech '86 IEEE Conference on Antennas and Communication, 1986, IEEE Cat. No. TH0156-0, Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc., vol.134, p.106-108, 1987 and Technology Symposium, 1990). These papers described the X-band, circularly polarized shaped beam telemetry antenna suitable for retransmitting the radar data back to an earth terminal. Smulders et al. have used the same principle, and similar types of radiation patterns are produced. However, two points are different in their paper: (1) the design frequency (60 GHz) and (2) the application of antenna for indoor wireless LAN access points. Therefore, they authors should have referenced Kumar's papers. Smulders et al. agree with Kumar's comments that reflector shaping is nothing new. However, we took into account diffraction effects (by applying the uniform theory of diffraction) whereas the shaping in the paper of Kumar is based on geometrical optics, only. We showed that according to our approach, a more smooth illumination function can be achieved and how the smoothing effect depends on the amount of edge illumination. We also showed in which way the spatial field deviation can be minimized and that this could save a few decibels in the link budget. View full abstract»

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  • Authors' reply

    Page(s): 1681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Author index

    Page(s): 1699 - 1704
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  • Subject index

    Page(s): 1704 - 1723
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  • Error probability performance for W-CDMA systems with multiple transmit and receive antennas in correlated Nakagami fading channels

    Page(s): 1502 - 1516
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The bit error rate (BER) performance of a two-dimensional (2-D) RAKE receiver, in combination with transmit diversity on the downlink of a wide-band CDMA (W-CDMA) system, is presented. The analyses assume correlated fading between receive antenna array elements, and an arbitrary number of independent but nonidentical resolvable multipaths combined by the RAKE receiver in the general Nakagami-m (1960) fading channel framework. The impact of the array configuration (e.g., the number of transmit antennas and receive antennas, the antenna element separation) and the operating environment parameters (such as the fading severity, angular spread and path delay profile) on the overall space-path diversity gain can be directly evaluated. In addition, the exact pairwise error probability of a convolutional coded system is obtained, and the coding gain of a space-path diversity receiver is quantified. View full abstract»

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  • Signal design for ultra-wide-band communications in dense multipath

    Page(s): 1517 - 1521
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultra-wide-band (UWB) wireless communications utilizes information signals characterized by a radiated spectrum with a very wide bandwidth around a relatively low center frequency. We formulate the signal design for binary UWB communications taking into consideration the particular characteristics of UWB propagation in a dense multipath channel. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous multiple packet capture based on SIR levels and arrival delay offsets in CDMA packet networks

    Page(s): 1560 - 1568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    This paper proposes an analytical method to study multipacket capture effects in a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) communication system considering both signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) levels and packet arrival delay offsets. Single- and double-packet capture probabilities are derived explicitly based on CDMA cochannel interference threshold, which can be generalized to study the n-packet capture effect in a CDMA packet data network. Performance of a common coded spread-spectrum (SS) packet network is taken as an example to exemplify the validity of the derived analytical model for studying double-packet power-delay capture. It is concluded from the analytical results of this paper that the n-packet-capture capability can significantly enhance the performance of an SS packet data network, which is usually underestimated in the literature otherwise. View full abstract»

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  • New clustering schemes for energy conservationin two-tiered mobile ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 1661 - 1668
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two distributed heuristic clustering schemes are proposed that will minimize the required transmission power in two-tiered mobile ad hoc networks. Both schemes can be implemented and executed in real time and can be adopted for periodic or event-driven cluster reconfiguration. Scheme performance is simulated and compared with optimum configurations based on the mean transmission power and the call drop rate as performance measures. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes deliver performance similar to optimum results. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed wireless channel allocation in networks with mobile base stations

    Page(s): 1407 - 1421
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In traditional cellular networks with fixed base stations, the channel reuse pattern is static and deterministic. When the cell layout is dynamic, due to the mobility of base stations, the cluster of cells within cochannel interference range changes with time. Consequently, the channel reuse pattern is highly dynamic. Moreover, base stations also need wireless channels to communicate amongst themselves. A communication session between a pair of nodes may have to switch channels due to the movement of other nodes into the neighborhood. None of the existing dynamic channel allocation algorithms for cellular networks works in such a system. Hence, there is a need for new wireless channel allocation algorithms for virtual cellular networks with mobile base stations. In this paper, principles of mutual exclusion pertaining to distributed computing systems are employed to develop such an algorithm. The inter-base-station wireless links are referred to as backbone links, while the base station to mobile node links are referred to as short-hop links. The proposed algorithm is distributed, dynamic, and deadlock-free. Disjoint sets of channels are used for backbone and short-hop links. The distributed nature of the channel allocation scheme leads to scalability and robustness, as the responsibility is no longer centralized at the mobile telecommunications switching office (MTSO). Instead, it is shared among all the mobile base stations. In addition, the issue of channel rearrangement is addressed. Channel rearrangement is the switching of channels, performed to prevent cochannel interference, when mobile base stations using the same channels, hitherto not in interference range, come within the range of each other. If multiple channels are available to support a communication session, the channel selection policy can have a significant impact on performance. A random selection from the set of available channels yields better performance at low to moderate channel demand. This is in contrast to ordered channel selection (from one end of the spectrum), which always yields the best performance for cellular networks. Results obtained by simulating the algorithm are consistent with the theoretically obtained values. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of handoff algorithm based on distance and RSSI measurements

    Page(s): 1460 - 1468
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of a proposed handoff algorithm based on both the distance of a mobile station to neighboring base stations and the relative signal strength measurements is evaluated. The algorithm performs handoff when the measured distance from the serving base station exceeds that from the candidate base station by a given threshold and if the measured signal strength of the adjacent base station exceeds that of the serving base station by a given hysteresis level. The average handoff delay and average number of handoffs are used as criteria for performance. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the distance-based handoff algorithm, including results for an additional criterion based on relative signal strength. The proposed algorithm is compared with an algorithm based on absolute and relative signal strength measurements and with a solely distance-based algorithm. It is found that the proposed handoff algorithm performs well in a log-normal fading environment when the distance estimate error is modeled by wide-sense stationary additive white Gaussian noise. View full abstract»

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  • Admission control scheme for soft handoff in DS-CDMA cellular systems supporting voice and stream-type data services

    Page(s): 1445 - 1459
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The soft handoff call requests of real-time services in third-generation (3G) direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) and first- and second-generation cellular systems are more important than new call requests from the viewpoint of quality of service (QoS). Rejection of soft handoff requests causes forced termination of an ongoing real-time call, which is a severer problem than blocking of new call attempts. An admission control scheme that can guarantee a higher QoS for the soft handoff requests of real-time services in 3G DS-CDMA systems is proposed for delay-sensitive voice and delay-tolerant stream-type data services. The proposed scheme (P-Scheme) accommodates both voice and data services by utilizing the full bandwidth. However, voice soft handoff call requests are given priority over new voice call and stream-type data packet requests by suppressing interference from stream-type data services according to voice soft handoff requests, and by varying interference levels. Performance of the P-Scheme is evaluated using a Markovian model. Results are compared with a conventional reservation scheme (C-Scheme) that reserves resources exclusively for voice soft handoff requests. Numerical results show that system performance can be significantly improved using the proposed P-Scheme, compared with the conventional C-Scheme, when various types of service are supported in third-generation DS-CDMA systems. View full abstract»

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  • A general framework for the calculation of the average outage duration of diversity systems over generalized fading channels

    Page(s): 1672 - 1680
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two approaches for the calculation of the average outage duration (AOD) of diversity systems over generalized fading channels. First, a "classical" probability density function (pdf)-based approach is used to obtain exact closed-form expressions for the AOD of maximal-ratio combiner (MRC) over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh and Rice fading channels. On the other hand, relying upon a numerical technique for inverting Laplace transforms of cumulative distribution functions, and in conjunction with the calculation of the joint characteristic function (CF) of the combined output signal-to-noise ratio process and its time derivative, a CF-based approach is adopted to compute the AOD of MRC over non-i.i.d. Rayleigh and Rician diversity paths. The mathematical expressions are illustrated by presenting and interpreting numerical results/plots, showing the impact of the power delay profile, the angles of arrival, and the angle spreads on the AOD of diversity systems operating over typical fading channels of practical interest. View full abstract»

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  • Forgery attacks on "Multisignature schemes for authenticating mobile code delegates"

    Page(s): 1669 - 1671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    In 2000, Shieh et al. proposed two novel multisignature schemes (a serial multisignature scheme and a parallel multisignature scheme) that are suitable for authenticating the delegated access, because of its efficiency of computation and communication, message recovery, and no pre-determination of signers and their signing order. However, this article shows that the two schemes are vulnerable to the forgery attacks. View full abstract»

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  • Deterministic channel modeling and performance simulation of microcellular wide-band communication systems

    Page(s): 1422 - 1430
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To evaluate the performance of future microcellular IMT-2000 modems, simple physical models are required, so that a number of system characteristics, such as the signal bandwidth, the antenna beamwidth, or the base station height can be accounted for at a limited computational cost. This paper describes a deterministic three-dimensional electromagnetic model, which allows simulation of the radiowave propagation for microcellular wide-band communication systems in urban areas. The model is based on a UTD ray-tracing tool and makes use of an improved mirror method. Simulated power-delay profiles are plotted against measured power-delay profiles recorded at 1.87 GHz in a street of Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, by means of an 80-MHz channel sounder. Despite several discrepancies, a satisfying matching is found considering three orders of reflection and single diffraction. Predictions of rms delay-spread accounting for the sounder limited bandwidth are presented. Finally, simulated and measured channels are also compared through the resulting performance of a typical IMT-2000 service in the presence of multiple access interference. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and efficient handling of handoffs in integrated wireless mobile networks

    Page(s): 1469 - 1478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and analyze two handoff schemes without and with preemptive priority procedures for integrated wireless mobile networks. We categorize the service calls into four different types, namely, originating voice calls, originating data calls, voice handoff request calls, and data handoff request calls and we assume two separate queues for two handoff services. A number of channels in each cell are reserved exclusively for handoff request calls. Out of these channels, few are reserved exclusively for voice handoff request calls. The remaining channels are shared by both originating and handoff request calls. In the preemptive priority scheme, higher priority is given to voice handoff request calls over data handoff request calls and can preempt data service to the queue if, upon arrival, a voice handoff request finds no free channels. We model the system by a three-dimensional Markov chain and compute the system performance in terms of blocking probability of originating calls, forced termination probability of voice handoff request calls, and average transmission delay of data calls. It is observed that forced termination probability of voice handoff request calls can be decreased by increasing the number of reserved channels. On the other hand, as a data handoff request can be transferred from a queue of one base station to another, there is no packet loss of data handoff except for a negligibly small blocking probability. View full abstract»

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  • Data transmission scheduling considering short-term fading for transmit power reduction in CDMA systems

    Page(s): 1621 - 1627
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new data transmission scheduling scheme considering short-term fading conditions in the downlink of code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems is proposed. In this scheduling method, a mobile station (MS) connected to a base station (BS) estimates the fading condition of the next frame based on the received signal power variation and feeds back this information to the corresponding BS. The BS determines the MSs to which it transmits data based on the fading information from the MSs. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme saves the transmit power greatly when the speed of an MS is relatively low and the Rician factor is small. The maximum amount of the power reduction is about 9 dB. This reduced transmit power results in the data throughput increase of CDMA systems. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of exposure levels generated by cellular systems: methodology and results

    Page(s): 1322 - 1329
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    During the past years, the number of antenna installations has considerably increased mainly as a consequence of the great diffusion of cellular systems. While the emissions of mobile terminals principally concern cellular system users, the exposure due to base stations (BSs) is permanent and spread over the entire territory. In this paper, a flexible approach for the evaluation of exposure levels generated by cellular systems BSs is proposed. Both a conceptual method for the evaluation of the overall exposure level and a site specific method for the computation of the field in the surroundings of BS antennas are proposed. This last method is based on a combination of three different propagation models which enable an accurate evaluation of the field both close to the antenna and farther off. The validity of the approach is checked by comparison with measurements in single-antenna and multiantenna cases. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive asymmetric linearization of radio over fiber links for wireless access

    Page(s): 1576 - 1586
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The biggest concern in the use of radio-over-fiber (ROF) links in wireless access is their limited dynamic range due to nonlinear distortion (NLD). In this paper, a higher order adaptive filter based nonlinearity compensation scheme is proposed. Pre-compensation is done for the downlink while post-compensation is done for the uplink to result in asymmetry with respect to complexity. This centralized signal processing is attractive in that it keeps the remote unit simple. Accurate measurements of ROF link parameters are not required with this approach because the filters are adapted from the distortion of the input/output base band signal. This technique also facilitates fast tracking of modifications and drifts in the link characteristics. Measurements and simulation results show that gradually saturating amplitude nonlinearity can be adequately linearized with some backoff from the clipping limit. A 42% backoff is required for pre-compensation to protect the laser while only a 16.7% backoff is required for post-compensation. Phase pre-compensation is accomplished with a higher accuracy than phase post-compensation. View full abstract»

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  • Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes

    Page(s): 1479 - 1493
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spread adaptive quadrature amplitude modulated (AQAM) code-division multiple access (CDMA) is proposed as a powerful means of exploiting the time-variant channel capacity fluctuations of wireless channels. It is studied in comparison to variable spreading factor (VSF)-based techniques. These adaptive-rate transmission methods are compared in the context of joint detection and interference cancellation assisted adaptive CDMA (ACDMA) systems. More explicitly, we exploit the time-variant channel quality of mobile channels by switching either the modulation mode (AQAM) or the spreading factor (VSF) on a burst-by-burst basis. The most appropriate modulation mode or spreading factor is chosen based on the instantaneous channel quality estimated. The chosen modem mode or spreading factor is communicated to the remote communicator either through explicit signalling or extracted at the receiver using blind detection techniques. The multiuser joint detector (JD) and the successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver are compared in the context of these adaptive schemes, with the conclusion that the JD outperformed the SIC receiver in the ACDMA schemes at the cost of increased complexity. Finally, the performance of the uncoded AQAM JD-CDMA scheme is also compared to that of adaptive trellis coded modulation (TCM) assisted AQAM JD-CDMA, which allows us to incorporate adaptive channel coding without any bandwidth expansion. We also show that in the particular scenario studied, adaptive TCM outperformed adaptive turbo TCM since the system was designed for maintaining a low turbo-interleaver delay. View full abstract»

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  • Performance improvements for sector antennas using feature extraction and spatial interference cancellation

    Page(s): 1685 - 1698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Effective utilization of the spatial domain enhances the capacity of a mobile radio network. A common technique is to use sector antennas, where the sectors are formed by weighting the outputs from the antenna elements. This results in spatial domain selectivity, which significantly improves the signal-to-(noise and interference) ratio in the received signals. However, the operation of the sector antenna will be limited by the sidelobes of the corresponding beam patterns. By introducing a blind spatial interference canceler that combines the fix beamformers in the sector antenna with blind signal separation, a significant improvement in the multiuser interference suppression can be achieved. Thus, it will be able to efficiently handle the near-far problem, where the users are received with different power. The blind signal separation is performed by an independent component analysis algorithm. The convergence rate of the algorithm is significantly improved compared to the standard formulation by taking into account the modulation format. The algorithm is further improved by introducing a forgetting factor on the weight update. The blind spatial interference canceler is evaluated by simulations using the mean square error and the bit error rate as quality measures. The results show that the mean square error obtained from the blind spatial interference canceler is within 0.5 dB from the optimum Wiener solution for signal-to-noise ratios greater than 0 dB. View full abstract»

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  • A residue number system based parallel communication scheme using orthogonal signaling .I. System outline

    Page(s): 1534 - 1546
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel signaling scheme is presented, where a set of orthogonal signals is transmitted in parallel. The signals are selected according to the so-called residue number system (RNS). Hence the system is essentially a multiple code parallel communication scheme using high modulation alphabets. It is demonstrated that the system's performance can be substantially improved by exploiting a number of advantageous properties of the RNS arithmetic. We focus our attention on the system's description and on the associated background of the RNS arithmetic, as well as on the performance evaluation of the residue number system arithmetic, using both nonredundant and redundant moduli based orthogonal signaling schemes, over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Redundant RNS codes are introduced in order to protect the transmitted information. The detection techniques used in this novel system are different from conventional detectors. Specifically, a novel decision algorithm, referred to as a ratio statistic test, is designed, which implies dropping some of the lowest reliability demodulation outputs before the residue digits are transformed back to binary symbols. This improves the system's performance. This dropping technique is different from the conventional "errors and erasures" decoding, where the erased symbols (or bits) should be computed and filled during decoding. We argue that the demodulated/decoded information can be obtained by decoding the retained or undiscarded symbols upon exploiting the properties of the RNS arithmetic. Our numerical results show that the proposed scheme constitutes a high-efficiency parallel transmission method for high-bit-rate communication, achieving a coding gain of 2 dB at a bit error rate of 10-6 over AWGN channels. View full abstract»

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  • On the synergy between adaptive physical layer and multiple-access control for integrated voice and data services in a cellular wireless network

    Page(s): 1338 - 1351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel design to exploit the synergy between the multiple-access control (MAC) layer and the physical layer of a cellular wireless system with integrated voice and data services. As in a traditional design, the physical layer (channel encoder and modulator) is responsible for providing error protection for transmitting the packets over the hostile radio channel, while the MAC layer is responsible for allocating the precious bandwidth to the contending users for voice or data connections. However, a distinctive feature of our proposed design is that in the physical layer, a variable-rate adaptive channel encoder is employed to dynamically adjust the amount of forward error correction according to the time-varying wireless channel state such that the MAC layer, which is a reservation-based time-division multiple-access protocol, is able to make informed decisions as to bandwidth allocation. Specifically, based on the channel state information provided by the physical layer, the MAC protocol gives higher priority to users with better channel states. This novel synergistic mechanism between the two protocol layers can utilize the system bandwidth more effectively. The multiple-access performance of the proposed scheme is compared with two baseline systems. The first baseline system consists of the same reservation-based MAC protocol but with a traditional fixed-rate physical layer. The second system consists of the same reservation-based MAC protocol and the same channel adaptive physical layer, but without interaction between the two layers. All three protocols have a request queue, which stores the previous requests that survive the contention but are not allocated information slots. Our extensive simulation results demonstrate that significant performance gains are achieved through the exploitation of the synergy between the two protocol layers. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and analysis of hierarchical cellular networks with general distributions of call and cell residence times

    Page(s): 1361 - 1374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an analytic model for the performance evaluation of hierarchical cellular systems, which can provide multiple routes for calls through overflow from one cell layer to another. Our model allows the case where both the call time and the cell residence time are generally distributed. Based on the characterization of the call time by a hyper-Erlang distribution, the Laplace transform of channel occupancy time distribution for each call type (new call, handoff call, and overflow call) is derived as a function of the Laplace transform of cell residence time. In particular, overflow calls are modeled by using a renewal process. Performance measures are derived based on the product form solution of a loss system with capacity limitation. Numerical results show that the distribution type of call time and/or cell residence time has influence on the performance measure and that the exponential case may underestimate the system performance. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida