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Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • Constrained least squares detector for OFDM/SDMA-based wireless networks

    Page(s): 129 - 140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The two major obstacles toward high-capacity indoor wireless networks are distortion due to the indoor channel and the limited bandwidth which necessitates a high spectral efficiency. A combined orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)/spatial division multiple access (SDMA) approach can efficiently tackle both obstacles and paves the way for cheap, high-capacity wireless indoor networks. The channel distortion due to multipath propagation is efficiently mitigated with OFDM while the bandwidth efficiency can be increased with the use of SDMA. However, to keep the cost of an indoor wireless network comparable to its wired counterpart's cost, low-complexity SDMA processors with good performance are of special interest. In this paper, we propose a new multiuser SDMA detector which is designed for constant modulus signals. This constrained least squares (CLS) receiver, which deterministically exploits the constant modulus nature of the subcarrier modulation to achieve better separation, is compared in terms of performance and complexity with the zero forcing (ZF) and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) receiver. Additionally, since the CLS detector relies on reliable channel knowledge at the receiver, we propose a strategy for estimating the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels. Simulations for a Hiperlan II-based case-study show that the CLS detector significantly outperforms the ZF detector and comes close to the performance of the MMSE detector for QPSK. For higher order M-PSK, the CLS detector outperforms the MMSF detector. Furthermore, the estimation complexity for the CLS detector is substantially lower than that for the MMSE detector which additionally requires estimation of the noise power. View full abstract»

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  • Kalman filtering for power estimation in mobile communications

    Page(s): 151 - 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In wireless cellular communications, accurate local mean (shadow) power estimation performed at a mobile station is important for use in power control, handoff, and adaptive transmission. Window-based weighted sample average shadow power estimators are commonly used due to their simplicity. In practice, the performance of these estimators degrades severely when the window size deviates beyond a certain range. The optimal window size for window-based estimators is hard to determine and track in practice due to the continuously changing fading environment. Based on a first-order autoregressive model of the shadow process, we propose a scalar Kalman-filter-based approach for improved local mean power estimation, with only slightly increased computational complexity. Our analysis and experiments show promising results. View full abstract»

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  • An optimum power management scheme for wireless video service in CDMA systems

    Page(s): 81 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optimum power management scheme is proposed for intra-frame refreshed image sequences of the wireless video service in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. The end-to-end distortion of H.263 video data is first modeled when the error concealment schemes are employed. This distortion model takes into account the error propagation effects caused by the motion compensation. Then, based on the model, the target bit-error rates (BERs) of the image frames are optimized in such a way that the consumed power could be minimized under the constraint of maximum distortion. To satisfy the specified target BER requirement, an optimum power management scheme is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme considerably outperforms the conventional scheme in the sense of the decoded image quality. Additionally, the effects of the imperfect power control on the performance are also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • On space-time code design

    Page(s): 20 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that the separation between space-time code matrices can be described in terms of a metric of Euclidean type, which is defined via the singular values of difference code matrices, and arises naturally from a minimization of the pairwise error probability. Essentially, the distance between complex space-time code matrices is the Euclidean distance between the respective - demultiplexed and concatenated - transmit antenna streams, expressed in terms of the structure inherent to the multiple antenna arrangement. It is further shown that the determinant criterion can be strengthened, in a manner that not only suggests an optimum space-time code matrix structure, but also outlines the central role played by the Euclidean distance in quasi-static fading. Theorem 5 - which claims that in order to optimize the product distance one must optimize the Euclidean distance -establishes a close interdependence between product and Euclidean distances; it thereby links the performance determining factors in quasi-static and independent fading, and rigorously establishes the relevance of combining space-time coding and modulation in fading environments. A multidimensional space-time constellation for two transmit antennas, and its coset partitioning-based on traces of differences between constellation matrices-are described. Example codes constitute the first reporting of a space-time coded modulation scheme for fading channels, whereby a space-time constellation is partitioned in cosets. View full abstract»

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  • Concatenated codes for fading channels based on recursive space-time trellis codes

    Page(s): 118 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a class of codes which combine the principles of turbo coding and space-time trellis codes. It is first shown that several classes of space-time codes have an equivalent recursive realization. This fact is then exploited to design serial concatenated coding schemes with an outer code, interleaver, and an inner recursive space-time encoder. Two solutions are proposed in this paper - the use of convolutional outer codes aimed mainly to improve the power efficiency and the use of very high-rate outer codes to obtain significant improvement in power efficiency with a marginal decrease in spectral efficiency. We show that single parity check based turbo product codes are a good candidate for very high-rate outer codes. Finally, we propose an automatic repeat request scheme based on recursive realizations of space-time codes and show that the proposed scheme provides significant reduction in frame error rate. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of microdiversity and correlated macrodiversity on outages in a cellular system

    Page(s): 50 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We focus on maximum ratio combining at each base station and switching between base stations (BSs) as a simple macrodiversity technique. We obtain analytical results for pointwise outage probabilities for systems using one or a combination of both techniques to cover a desired area, assuming a certain correlation model for the set of path losses of the links connecting a terminal to the receiving BSs. Pointwise outage probabilities are averaged over the entire region of interest to get an estimate of the outage in the desired region. A comparison of micro- and macrodiversity schemes in terms of the outage gives insights as to the tradeoff between the two forms of diversity in the design of a cellular system. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced MDIR receiver for space-time dispersive channels

    Page(s): 99 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A particular property of the matched desired impulse response receiver is introduced, namely, the fact that full exploitation of the diversity is obtained with multiple beamformers when the channel is spatially and timely dispersive. This particularity makes the receiver specially suitable for mobile and underwater communications. The new structure provides better performance than conventional and weighted VRAKE receivers, and a diversity gain with no need for additional radio frequency equipment. The baseband hardware needed for this new receiver may be obtained through reconfigurability of the RAKE architectures available at the base station. The proposed receiver is tested through simulations assuming UTRA frequency-division-duplexing mode. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of cellular mobile systems with successive co-channel interference cancellation

    Page(s): 29 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of cellular mobile radio systems equipped with smart antenna systems. In particular, the paper focuses on low-complexity systems which are able to successively suppress the strongest active interferers. The desired user fading statistics is assumed to be flat Rayleigh, Rician, or Nakagami, whereas the interfering signals are assumed to be independent and subject to slow flat Rayleigh fading. The paper starts by presenting generic closed-form expressions for the the carrier-to-interference ratio probability density function after interference cancellation. Based on that, exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability and average error rate formulas are derived. Finally, a comparison with a practical cancellation scheme and the impact of some practical considerations on the performance of successive interference cancellation are investigated. More specifically, the effect of traffic loading, the overall spectral efficiency gain, and the impact of time delay are studied. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced complexity in-phase/quadrature-phase M-QAM turbo equalization using iterative channel estimation

    Page(s): 2 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A reduced complexity trellis-based turbo equalizer known as the in-phase (I)/quadrature-phase (Q) turbo equalizer (TEQ-IQ) invoking iterative channel impulse response (CIR) estimation is proposed. The underlying principle of TEQ-IQ is based on equalizing the I and Q component of the transmitted signal independently. This requires the equalization of a reduced set of separate I and Q signal components in comparison to all of the possible I/Q phasor combinations considered by the conventional trellis-based equalizer. It was observed that the TEQ-IQ operating in conjunction with iterative CIR estimation was capable of achieving the same performance as the full-complexity conventional turbo equalizer (TEQ-CT) benefiting from perfect CIR information for both 4- and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmissions, while attaining a complexity reduction factor of 1.1 and 12.2, respectively. For 64-QAM, the TEQ-CT receiver was too complex to be investigated by simulation. However, by assuming that only two turbo equalization iterations were required, which is the lowest possible number of iterations, the complexity of the TEQ-IQ was estimated to be a factor of 51.5 lower than that of the TEQ-CT. Furthermore, at BER = 10-3 the performance of the TEQ-IQ 64-QAM receiver using iterative CIR estimation was only 1.5 dB away from the associated decoding performance curve of the nondispersive Gaussian channel. View full abstract»

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  • A low complexity reduced-rank MMSE receiver for DS/CDMA communications

    Page(s): 59 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receiver is a linear filter which can achieve optimal near-far resistance in direct-sequence code-division multiple-access communications. However, one of the main problems of this receiver is the required number of filter taps, which is typically large. This is especially true in systems with a large processing gain in which case the receiver's computation burden becomes very high. As a result, methods for reducing the complexity of the MMSE receiver have been of great interest in recent years. We propose an efficient partitioned MMSE receiver based on a classification algorithm. It is shown that the computational complexity (in terms of the filter taps) of the proposed receiver can be reduced significantly while good performance is maintained. Based on the special structure of our proposed receiver, we also propose a release-merge adaptive partition algorithm which can update the partition and the receiver's coefficients simultaneously. In particular, it is demonstrated that the proposed receiver can perform much better than previously proposed reduced-rank MMSE receivers, such as the partial despreading MMSE receiver and the cyclically shifted filter bank receiver, with even a smaller number of taps. View full abstract»

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  • PN code acquisition for DS-CDMA systems employing smart antennas .II

    Page(s): 108 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For pt. I see IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. A smart antenna, i.e., a blind adaptive antenna array, has attracted much attention to improve the capacity of a future code-division multiple-access wireless communications system. It has been demonstrated that there is significant improvement in data demodulation through lab simulations and field experiments by employing a smart antenna of multiple elements. However, only one element is used for the pseudonoise (PN) code acquisition process, which is a coarse PN code synchronization prior to data demodulation. This paper proposes a simple and practical PN code acquisition scheme, which employs all elements in the smart antenna. Also, this paper uses an adaptive threshold for the PN code acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the PN code acquisition performance, e.g., the PN code acquisition time will be half as long by employing five elements rather than the single element at a given bit-energy-to-interference power spectral density ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Downlink joint rate and power allocation in cellular multirate WCDMA systems

    Page(s): 69 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic joint rate and power control procedure for downlink data transmission in a multicell variable spreading factor wideband code-division multiple-access (WCDMA) system where the different users have similar quality-of-service requirements in terms of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). Two variations of the dynamic joint rate and power allocation procedure, namely, Algorithm-1 and Algorithm-2, are presented. The performances of these two schemes are compared to the performance of the optimal dynamic link adaptation for which the rate and power allocation is found by an exhaustive search. The optimality criterion is the maximization of the total radio link level capacity (or sum-rate capacity) in terms of the average number of radio link level frame transmitted per adaptation interval under constrained SIR and power limit in the base station transmitter. The proposed schemes have linear time complexity as compared to the exponential time complexity of the optimal scheme and achieve better radio link level throughput fairness compared to the optimal link adaptation scheme with a moderate loss in total throughput. Performance evaluation is carried out under random and directional micromobility models with uncorrelated and correlated long-term fading, respectively, in a cellular WCDMA environment for both the homogeneous (or uniform) and the nonhomogeneous (or nonuniform) traffic load scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal admission control in cellular DS-CDMA systems with multimedia traffic

    Page(s): 195 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (503 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of jointly controlling the data rates and transmit powers of users, so as to maximize throughput in cellular direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks is addressed. The multicode (MC)-CDMA system, where the processing gain of each code is fixed and high-rate users use multiple codes for transmission, and the variable gain (VG)-CDMA architectures are considered. The throughout maximization problem is formulated as a classical optimization problem, modeling the constraints arising from the data rate requirements and power budgets. Optimal strategies to maximize throughput in both systems are derived. While the MC-CDMA system has a simple optimal rate-power allocation algorithm, the VG-CDMA system has a more complex solution. View full abstract»

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  • Co-channel interference cancellation for space-time coded OFDM systems

    Page(s): 41 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising scheme for future wideband multimedia wireless communication systems. The combination of space-time coding (STC) and OFDM modulation promises an enhanced performance in terms of power and spectral efficiency. Such combination benefits from the diversity gain within the multiple-input-multiple-output ST coded system and the matured OFDM modulation for wideband wireless transmission. However, STC transmit diversity impairs the system's interference suppression ability due to the use of multiple transmitters at each mobile. We propose an effective co-channel interference (CCI) cancellation method that employs angle diversity based on -steering beamforming or minimum variance distortion response beamforming. It is shown that the proposed method can effectively mitigate CCI while preserving the space-time structure, thereby, significantly improving the system's interference suppression ability without significant bit-error rate performance degradation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly combat the delay spread detrimental effects over multipath fading channels without the use of interleaving. View full abstract»

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  • Staggered interleaving and iterative errors- and-erasures decoding for frequency-hop packet radio

    Page(s): 92 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Information about the reliabilities; of the received symbols is very beneficial in frequency-hop communication systems. This information, known as side information, can be used to erase unreliable symbols at the input to an errors-and-erasures decoder. For slow-frequency-hop systems it is common that special redundant symbols, referred to as side-information symbols, are included in each dwell interval, and the demodulation of these symbols provides the side information. The corresponding decrease in the number of message symbols that can be sent in each dwell interval makes it desirable to develop alternative methods that do not require side-information symbols. In this paper, one such alternative is proposed, and its performance is evaluated for channels with partial-band interference. It is shown that staggered interleaving of Reed-Solomon code words and iterative errors-and-erasures decoding facilitates the erasure of unreliable symbols without the need for side-information symbols. The performance of this method is compared with the performance of systems that employ standard block interleaving and errors-only decoding or errors-and-erasures decoding with side information obtained from test symbols. View full abstract»

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  • Subspace-based blind channel estimation for OFDM by exploiting virtual carriers

    Page(s): 141 - 150
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliable channel estimation is indispensable for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems employing coherent detection and adaptive loading in order to achieve high data rate communications. Several options exist in practical OFDM systems-including training symbols, cyclic prefix, virtual carriers, pilot tones, and receiver diversity-to facilitate channel estimation. In this paper, a subspace blind channel estimation method based on exploiting the presence of virtual carriers is proposed for OFDM systems over a time-dispersive channel. The method can be applied to conventional OFDM systems with cyclic prefix as well as OFDM systems with no cyclic prefix. The reduction/elimination of cyclic prefix thereby provides the OFDM systems the potential to achieve higher channel utilization than most previously reported cyclic prefix based estimators. Sufficient channel identifiability condition is developed as well. Comparison with two other recently reported subspace methods is presented via computer simulations to support the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Improved MAC protocol for reverse link packet data transmission in wideband DS-CDMA

    Page(s): 162 - 174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces and analyses a novel medium access control protocol for reverse links in wideband direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) mobile systems. The proposed protocol is particularly efficient when data consists of short packets. The new MAC protocol uses the time taken by the receiver to process the packets (the processing delay) to admit a new packet. When packet arrival is assumed to be Poisson, analysis and simulations show consistently that, for short packets, the new MAC scheme can handle a higher arrival rate than the conventional one, in which the processing delay is not used. The new MAC scheme shows only slight throughput degradation, a high utilization of the packet-switched data channel, and achieves a fair treatment of mobile stations. View full abstract»

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  • On CDMA with space-time codes over multipath fading channels

    Page(s): 11 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We explore code-division multiple-access systems with multiple transmitter and receiver antennas combined with algebraic constellations over a quasi-static multipath fading channel. We first propose a technique to obtain transmit diversity for a single user over quasi-static fading channels by combining algebraic constellations with full spatial diversity and spreading sequences with good cross-correlation properties. The proposed scheme is then generalized to a multiuser system using the same algebraic constellation and different spreading sequences. We also propose a linear multiuser detector based on the combination of linear decorrelation with respect to all users, and the application of the sphere decoder to decode each user separately. Finally, we consider the generalization to multipath fading channels where the additional diversity advantage due to multipath is exploited by the sphere decoder, and a method of blind channel estimation based on subspace decomposition is examined. View full abstract»

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  • A noncooperative power control game for multirate CDMA data networks

    Page(s): 186 - 194
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors consider a multirate code-division multiple acess system, in which all users have the same chip rate and vary their data rate by adjusting the processing gain. The receivers are assumed to be implemented using conventional matched filters, whose performance is sensitive to the received power levels. The authors' goal is to maximize the total system throughput by means of power control. A game theoretic approach is adopted. It is shown that for a certain type of pricing function, a unique Nash equilibrium solution exists and it possesses nice global properties. For example, it can be shown that for the optimal solution a high-rate connection should maintain a higher energy per bit than low-rate ones. The asymptotic spectral efficiency is also derived. View full abstract»

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  • Performance enhancement of DS-CDMA system using overlapping sectors with interference avoidance

    Page(s): 175 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A cellular system with overlapping sectors is proposed to enhance system performance through interference avoidance. Due to the overlapping effect, each user is allowed to select one sector out of many for operation. It is shown that the mutual interference among users in different regions within a cell can be minimized by choosing a good sector combination. The potential benefits of the proposed technique are investigated in two scenarios: orthogonal and nonorthogonal code division multiple access systems. In the former case, it is shown that when compared with the traditional nonoverlapping sectors system, one is able to reduce the number of spreading codes required to support all users by using appropriate code allocation in the proposed system. A theoretical framework based on combinatorial enumeration is developed to assess the performance of the proposed system. For the latter case, the enhancement takes the form of multiple access interference reduction. Simulation results show that its improvement is significant and can be further enhanced by increasing the number of overlapping sectors. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications publishes high-quality manuscripts on advances in the state-of-the-art of wireless communications.

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Editor-in-Chief
Jeff Andrews
Cullen Trust for Higher Education Endowed Professor of Engineering