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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Use of service history for certification credit for COTS [avionic software]

    Page(s): 24 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    Much has been written in the last ten years about how the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components would revolutionize the aerospace industry avionics, communication, navigation, surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) as well as global air traffic management (GATM). Civil aviation authorities around the world have been faced with numerous requests to certify aircraft containing increasing percentages of COTS components, much of it never designed or intended for use in the safety critical environment of an aircraft. Product service history is one method for demonstrating that such software is acceptable for use. In theory, product service history would seem to be a fairly simple concept, both to understand and to apply. However, in practice, such use has proven extremely problematic, as questions of how to measure the historic performance and the relevance of the provided data have surfaced. This paper elaborates a research effort funded by the United States Federal Aviation Administration to collect, analyze, and synthesize what is known and understood about applying product service history. The effort is limited to the topic of software product service history as applied in the certification of airborne systems and equipment. View full abstract»

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  • GRS 2002: German Radar Symposium in Bonn, Germany

    Page(s): 29 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • MIT Lincoln Laboratory Journal: Fifty years of radar

    Page(s): 37 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (207 KB)  

    This review assumes that many non-US readers may not be well-informed about the steps and work in radar development in the US after WW II to the present. Many know MIT by name and recall the famous Radiation Laboratory Series. But the more recent technical history has been less in the "public domain." In an attempt to correct this, one of the key institutions in the field, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory two years ago produced a special issue of their regular publication. Although the document currently at hand is not a book in the strict sense, the size, shape, and editorial comprehensiveness of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Journal's Fifty-Year Anniversary Issue (12, 2, 2000) justifies calling this article being treated as a book review. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid power source for manportable applications

    Page(s): 13 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (579 KB)  

    In this paper, we present the results of work with a hybrid power system made of a fuel cell and rechargeable battery with pulse power capability. This hybrid power source successfully ran pulse power load based on the power profile of the present and future manportable military electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 35 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a Li-ion battery. In this work, two cyclic load scenarios were utilized. Each consisted of a baseline load for 9 minutes followed by a higher pulse load for 1 minute. One test profile consisted of 20 W (baseline)/40 W (pulse) load, whereas, the second was 25 W/50 W. Under both scenarios, the hybrid provided significant enhancements in performance over the individual components tested separately. These results are discussed and analyzed. Also discussed are possible future implications of such technology and approach. View full abstract»

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  • The stretched lens array (SLA) [spacecraft solar power]

    Page(s): 3 - 9
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    At IECEC 2001, this team presented a paper on the new stretched lens array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Since that conference, the SLA team has made significant advances in SLA technology, including component-level improvements, array-level optimization, space environment exposure testing, and prototype hardware fabrication and evaluation. This paper describes the evolved version of the SLA, highlighting recent improvements in the lens, solar cell, photovoltaic receiver, rigid panel structure, and complete solar array wing. In addition to excellent durability in the space environment, the near-term SLA will provide outstanding wing-level performance parameters: 180 W/kg specific power; 300 W/m2 power density; 300 V operational voltage; 85% savings in cell area (cm2/W) and cell-related cost ($/W) compared to planar arrays; 9 kW/m3 stowed power at launch. View full abstract»

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  • Hubble Space Telescope at twelve years of age

    Page(s): 31 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (694 KB)  

    The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery into a 380-mile high Earth orbit on April 25, 1990. It subsequently made outstanding astronomical discoveries with its 8-foot (2.4-meter) telescope and other scientific instruments. Critical to the successful observations was continuous availability of power from its solar arrays during sunlit periods, and from nickel-hydrogen batteries when the satellite was in the Earth's shadow. The adopted nickel-hydrogen batteries were carefully selected and tested to confirm their depth-of-discharge and operating temperature that delivered the longest life in charge/discharge cycling service. These batteries had a design life of 7 years. At 12 years after launch the Hubble batteries have delivered more charge/discharge cycles than any other batteries in low-Earth orbit. However, the Hubble batteries have been subjected to many unexpected stresses, and peculiar reductions in battery capacity have been observed. Battery replacement requires a costly trip to the Hubble Space Telescope by astronauts, so the remaining useful life of the batteries must be predicted. Already in four servicing missions, astronauts have replaced or modified optics, solar arrays, a power control unit, and various science packages. A fifth servicing mission is scheduled in 2004. This paper discusses battery charging hardware and software controls, history of battery events in Hubble, cell performance model and spare battery tests, and capacity walkdown. View full abstract»

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  • High reliability lithium rechargeable batteries for specialties

    Page(s): 21 - 23
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    Since their development in the late 1980s, lithium rechargeable batteries have enjoyed rapid growth and wide use as a commodity battery known for its higher energy density storage and lightweight convenience. These same attributes are emerging as a strong platform in power source development for the medical and aerospace sectors with highly customized applications and narrowly defined criteria. Accordingly, this new generation of lithium rechargeables must be hermetically sealed, have long-term storage capability, and zero-fault tolerances for common causes of field failures such as electrolyte leakage or short circuits from mechanical deformation. Quallion has been developing and manufacturing highly reliable lithium rechargeable cells for medical, aerospace, and specialty applications. Summarized in this paper are some key technologies developed at Quallion for designing and manufacturing of this new class of lithium rechargeable batteries. They include: 1) leakage reliability; 2) self-extinguishing electrolyte system; 3) mechanical impact resistance; 4) deep discharge storage; and 5) high reliability manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • Is the need for a new ATM operational concept a strategic necessity?

    Page(s): 10 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB)  

    We must face the fact that conventional methods of air traffic management (ATM) that have served us well cannot continue to cope indefinitely. We need-therefore, to decide what the new operational concept should be and agree on the transition path. Air traffic management is the term we apply today to the totality of the activities involved in the handling of air traffic. The quest for a new concept led to what was first called "free flight," an idea that has, in the meantime, acquired some notoriety and is today more commonly referred to in Europe as "air/ground cooperative ATS." Simply put, the original free flight concept, stipulated that given the right on-board equipment (display of traffic information, conflict detection, and resolution tools) aircraft could navigate and avoid each other completely on their own, without the need for ATC. That a new ATM operational concept will be needed to take the industry further by the time traditional methods run out of potential is difficult to question. Equally clear is that the only new concept available is free flight a.k.a. air/ground cooperative ATS. View full abstract»

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  • Safety testing of lithium ion batteries for navy devices

    Page(s): 17 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    Lithium ion battery technology is being introduced into power supplies used by our armed forces for a variety of applications. In many cases, the same cells and design parameters that support commercial battery packs are being used in military battery packs. This approach is expected to result in a major decrease in the total life cycle cost of the equipment these batteries support. On June 13, 1991, NAVSEA issued INST9310.1B1, which states that all lithium battery powered equipment must undergo safety evaluation and approval prior to fleet use. This safety program governs a process whereby approvals are issued for lithium batteries to be used in specific equipment on ground facilities, surface combatants, air combatants, and/or submarines. The Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity (NOSSA) manages the program. The chief technical advisors are Code 644 at NSWC Carderock Division and Code 609A at NSWC Crane Division. This paper describes three battery designs that incorporate lithium ion technology, and the results of battery safety tests conducted in accordance with navy requirements. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles and tutorials concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.

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Teresa Pace, PhD EE
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