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Audio, IRE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date September-October 1960

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • [Front cover and tabel of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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  • The editor's corner: 'Audio terminology' & 'Stereo commercialism'

    Page(s): 141
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  • PGA news

    Page(s): 142 - 143
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  • Perception of stereophonic effect as a function of frequency

    Page(s): 144 - 153
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    A literature study and listening tests have been conducted to contribute to an understanding of the stereophonic effect as a function of frequency. The literature study failed to reveal tests showing loss of stereophonic direction for any part of the audio spectrum and pointed to arrival time difference of the transient portion of sound waves as the significant contributor to stereophonic perception. Tests employing actual program material with a specially developed Stereo Spectrum Selector showed the extreme lower frequencies to have equal or superior directional content to the higher frequencies. The perception loss at any frequency may be of a quantitative nature rather than strictly related to certain wavelengths. Test results and consideration for future developments suggest adoption of full frequency stereophonic systems. View full abstract»

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  • Listener ratings of stereophonic systems

    Page(s): 153 - 160
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    Subjective listening tests have been completed which indicate that stereo in any of the forms compared is preferred over monaural, but normal stereo from two full range speakers well physically separated is, in all probability, the most preferred. View full abstract»

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  • An 17/8-IPS magnetic recording system for stereophonic music

    Page(s): 161 - 167
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    The primary aim of this work has been to develop a stereophonic system for recorded music, using a small, inexpensive and practical cartridge with magnetic tape as the information carrier. In order to make the cost of the recorded cartridge comparable with a disk containing an equivalent amount of music, it was realized that basic developments in magnetic recording such as efficiency of recording and reproducing techniques were necessary to meet the packing density requirements. This paper describes developments which have led to a recorded cartridge one fifth of the volume of a disk and capable of playing more than one hour of stereophonic sound uninterrupted. In order to obtain the desired signal-to-noise ratio and frequency response to 15 kc, radical improvements have been made to tape, recording system and playback head. In conjunction with this work, a fully automated tape machine has been developed. The machine is equipped with a changer-type mechanism and accommodates a number of cartridges which are played and rewound completely automatically, one after another, furnishing music for several hours. The machine requires no manual threading and has a rewind cycle of less than twenty seconds for an hour-long tape. View full abstract»

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  • Signal mutuality in stereo systems

    Page(s): 168 - 173
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    Four stereo systems are compared: 1) 3 microphones, 3 independent transmission means or "tracks," and 3 speaker output or "channels," designated 3-3-3. 2) 3 microphones, 2 sound tracks and 3 outputs using a bridging or "derived" center channel, designated 3-2-3. 3) 2 microphones, 2 tracks, 3 outputs with derived center, designated 2-2-3. 4) A stereo microphone pair in a single housing with stereo separation derived by directional response of the 2 microphones, using 2 sound tracks and 3 play back speakers with derived center, designated SD-2-3 (SD for "stereo-directional" applied to the microphone) Each of the 4 systems is shown to contain mixtures of all signals in each channel. Crosstalk may be defined as the inadvertent transfer of a signal from one channel to another. Signal mutuality is the natural consequence of one microphone in a stereo array detecting signals pertinent to other microphones. The magnitude of differences between the 4 types of stereo studied are found to be small-of the order of less than 4 decibels. Delay effects are similar in the first 3 types, but where a single microphone location is used and dependence is on directional pattern for stereo separation, the delay effects are different. A separate study of the combined effects of sound delay and quality was made to corroborate the suspected delay effect of the so-called "stereo microphone." View full abstract»

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  • Stereophonic localization: An analysis of listener reactions to current techniques

    Page(s): 174 - 178
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    Playback localization plots, similar to the technique employed by Steinberg and Snow in the Bell Laboratory experiments of 1933, afford perhaps the only means of evaluating quantitatively the performance of representative stereophonic systems. In the present tests, which deal with two-channel systems comprising a center bridged loudspeaker in addition to the two flanking loudspeakers, it is seen that the performance of wide-angle loudspeaker arrays can be optimized to give accurate localization over a large listening area. As an aid to the evaluation of test data, brief discussions of loudness and time-delay effects-the essential factors providing localization-are included. View full abstract»

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  • Compatible cartridges for magnetic tapes

    Page(s): 178 - 184
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    Magnetic tape may be offered in cartridge form at a price competitive with phonograph disks. Cartridges of different sizes are designed either for high quality or for maximum tape economy. All of these will operate on present-day machines, as well as on automatic designs. A cartridge changer allows records to be played in sequence. The erase feature offers interesting possibilities for sale of pure music separate from the sale of cartridges. View full abstract»

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  • Recorded tapes

    Page(s): 185
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Full Aims & Scope