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IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics

Issue 3 • June 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 133
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction at award lunch

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 134
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The influence of glottal waveform on the naturalness of speech from a parallel formant synthesizer

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):298 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    A computer-simulated parallel formant synthesizer has been used to copy short samples of human speech. It is possible to make the synthetic speech almost indistinguishable from the natural in spectrum, waveform, and by earphone listening, provided that the synthetic glottal pulse is derived by inverse filtering a typical natural vowel from the same talker. Various other pulse shapes have been trie... View full abstract»

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  • Some experiments on the control of voice in the profoundly deaf using a pitch extractor and storage oscilloscope display

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):274 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    A visual pitch display is described. This extracts fundamental frequency by low-pass filtering and displays frequency as a function of time on a storage oscilloscope. Three studies with deaf children are described. In the first it is found that the subjects have poor voluntary pitch control, despite generally good oral skills. In the second it is shown that simple pitch control can be learned quic... View full abstract»

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  • An Approach to syntactic recognition without phonemics

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):249 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB)

    Linguistic and perceptual arguments suggest that, in speech recognition systems, syntactic hypotheses should be formed before phonemic segments are identified. Prosodic features can provide some cues to constituent structure. In a variety of texts and excerpts from conversations, spoken by several talkers, a decrease in voice fundamental frequency (F0) usually occurred at the end of eac... View full abstract»

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  • A system for converting english text into speech

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):288 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    The feasibility of converting English text into speech using an inexpensive computer and a small amount of stored data has been investigated. The text is segmented into breath groups, the orthography is converted into a phonemic representation, lexical stress is assigned to appropriate syllables, then the resulting string of symbols is converted by synthesis-by-rule into the parameter values for c... View full abstract»

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  • A plan for the field evaluation of an automated reading system for the blind

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):265 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)

    After more than two decades of research it is now possible to construct a high-performance reading system for the blind that will produce synthetic speech from printed text. The entire process can be carried out automatically by computer and associated special-purpose devices. As a first step toward the eventual deployment of a reading system, we have begun an evaluation study in collaboration wit... View full abstract»

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  • Listener performance in speaker verification tasks

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):221 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)

    The ability of listeners to perform some speaker verification tasks has been measured experimentally and compared with the performance of an automatic system for speaker verification. A test presentation in the subjective experiments consists of a pair of utterances. One of these is drawn from the recordings of a group of speakers designated customers while the second utterance is either a distinc... View full abstract»

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  • Application of sequential decoding for converting phonetic to graphic representation in automatic recognition of continuous speech(ARCS)

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):225 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)

    Following segmentation and phonetic classification in automatic recognition of continuous speech (ARCS), it is necessary to provide methods for linguistic decoding, In this work a graph search procedure, based on the Fano algorithm, is used to convert machine-contaminated phonetic descriptions of speaker performance into standard orthography. The information utilized by the decoder consists of a s... View full abstract»

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  • On transient distortion in hearing aids with volume compression

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):279 - 285
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)

    The influence of harmonic distortion on the performance of ordinary hearing aids is discussed, as well as several kinds of possible distortions found in the transient state when compression is introduced. Transient response was determined for several hearing aids with compression that are available on the market. It is shown that each transient response is composed of two parts: the first part is ... View full abstract»

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  • Speech processing with Walsh-Hadamard transforms

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):174 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)

    High-speed algorithms to compute the discrete Hadamard and Walsh transforms of speech waveforms have been developed. Intelligible speech has been reconstructed from dominant Hadamard or Walsh coefficients on a medium sized computer in a non-real-time mode. Degradation of some phonemes was noted at low bit rates of reconstruction, but the reconstruction could be improved by varying the position of ... View full abstract»

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  • An electrotactile sound detector for the deaf

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):285 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    The electrotactile sound detector described here is designed to enable deaf persons to detect and localize sounds. Two microphones are worn bilaterally on the head, the sounds received are converted to electrical pulses, and the pulses are fed to two electrodes applied to the forehead. Differences in intensity of the pulses permit the wearer to localize the source of a sound. Additional informatio... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of various parameter sets in spoken digits recognition

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):202 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)

    Various parameter sets-including a spectrum envelope, cepstrum, autocorrelation function, linear predictive coefficients, and partial autocorrelation coefficients (PAC's)- are evaluated experimentally to determine which constitutes the best parameter in spoken digit recognition. The principle of recognition is simple pattern matching in the parameter space with nonlinear adjustment of the time axi... View full abstract»

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  • Advantages of experienced listeners in intelligibility testing

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):161 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    The use of a highly experienced, permanent panel of listeners has eliminated some of the variables of intelligibility testing and minimized many of the other objections to such testing. Variables such as training time, learning, and personnel changes are no longer significant. In addition, the problems of individual listener variation and less tangible questions of motivation and fatigue have been... View full abstract»

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  • Reading machines for the blind:The technical problems and the methods adopted for their solution

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):259 - 264
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    In order to assess current efforts devoted to reading machine design, it is first necessary to develop a set of requirements for an ideal device. Direct translation aids are then seen to lack several of these desirable features, and more general, linguistically based techniques are then examined. Structural properties of English are found to be obtainable from the orthographic representation, and ... View full abstract»

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  • On the automatic recognition of continuous speech:Implications from a spectrogram-reading experiment

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)

    An experiment was performed in which the authors attempted to recognize a set of unknown sentences by visual examination of spectrograms and machine-aided lexical searching. Ninteen sentences representing data from five talkers were analyzed. An initial partial transcription in terms of phonetic features was performed. The transcription contained many errors and omissions: 10 percent of the segmen... View full abstract»

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  • An audio response unit for telephone needs

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):291 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)

    An audio response unit has been built that synthetizes messages composed of a fixed sentence and any number from 0-999 999. The method used is synthesis by concatenation of words, and automatic corrections on pitch and rhythm are used to improve naturalness and intelligibility. The synthesizer is a part of a channel vocoder. This audio response unit is to be used in a telephone exchange to answer ... View full abstract»

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  • Discrete-word recognition utilizing a word dictionary and phonological rules

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):239 - 249
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1192 KB)

    A discrete-word recognition system utilizing a word dictionary and phonological rules is described. In this system, nine distinctive features are extracted from a discrete-word input. Segmentation is performed using these features. Segmentation errors are corrected by applying a phoneme connecting rule. The input word is transformed into an input feature matrix. The comparison of this matrix with ... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective evaluation of differential pulse-code modulation using the speech "Goodness" rating scale

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):179 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)

    The objectives of this investigation were twofold: 1) to demonstrate the utility of the nine-point speech "goodness" rating scale as a method for scaling user opinion of speech quality, and 2) to use this method to determine optimum parameters for differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) systems with bit rates from 25.6 to 51.2 kb/s. Fifteen DPCM and pulse-code modulation (PCM) systems were simul... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic synthesis from ordinary english test

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):293 - 298
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)

    We summarize work between 1969 and 1972 in a continuing project With two objectives: to produce acceptable synthetic speech directly from English text; and to demonstrate with speech synthesis a detailed model of human articulatory movements. Work in the four-year period has yielded moderately accurate rules for predicting the occurrence of pauses and lesser breaks in the sentence; rules for vowel... View full abstract»

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  • Design and simulation of a speech analysis-synthesis system based on short-time Fourier analysis

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):165 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    This paper discusses the theoretical basis for representation of a speech signal by its short-time Fourier transform. The results of the theoretical studies were used to design a speech analysis-synthesis system which was simulated on a general-purpose laboratory digital computer system. The simulation uses the fast Fourier transform in the analysis stage and specially designed finite duration imp... View full abstract»

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  • Delta modulation of pitch, formant, and amplitude signals for the synthesis of voiced speech

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):135 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)

    A computer simulation was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of delta modulation (DM) as a simple alternative to pulse-code modulation (PCM) for encoding the control signals of a voiced-speech synthesizer. Quantized signals representing the time variations of pitch period, amplitude, and the first three formant frequencies, all band limited to 16 Hz, were available in a 1500-b/s PCM format. ... View full abstract»

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  • Recovering parentheses from spoken algebraic expressions

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):217 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    A study of the relationship between the syntactic and prosodic organization of spoken algebraic expressions is reported. It was found that subjects were very consistent in their placement of junctures when reading algebraic expressions slowly. Furthermore, there was an almost perfect correlation between measured silence and perceived juncture. Rules were developed for inserting parentheses based o... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1973. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Full Aims & Scope