IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics

Issue 3 • June 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 133
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  • Introduction at award lunch

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): 134
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): c4
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  • Advantages of experienced listeners in intelligibility testing

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):161 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    The use of a highly experienced, permanent panel of listeners has eliminated some of the variables of intelligibility testing and minimized many of the other objections to such testing. Variables such as training time, learning, and personnel changes are no longer significant. In addition, the problems of individual listener variation and less tangible questions of motivation and fatigue have been... View full abstract»

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  • Application of a digital inverse filter for automatic formant and Foanalysis

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):154 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB)

    In this paper, a new algorithm based upon a digital inverse filter formulation is presented for automatically determining VU, a voiced-unvoiced decision (VU = 0 during unvoiced speech and VU = 1 during voiced speech), F0, the fundamental frequency, and Fi, i = 1, 2, 3, the first three formant frequencies, as a function of time. Formant trajectory estimates are obtained for al... View full abstract»

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  • A plan for the field evaluation of an automated reading system for the blind

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):265 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)

    After more than two decades of research it is now possible to construct a high-performance reading system for the blind that will produce synthetic speech from printed text. The entire process can be carried out automatically by computer and associated special-purpose devices. As a first step toward the eventual deployment of a reading system, we have begun an evaluation study in collaboration wit... View full abstract»

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  • Real-time pitch extraction by adaptive prediction of the speech waveform

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):149 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)

    With the exception of relatively sophisticated methods such as cepstrum analysis, the problem of reliable pitch-period extraction has remained largely unsolved. This paper examines the feasibility of pitch-period extraction by means of the nonstationary error process resulting from adaptive-predictive quantization of speech. A real-time hard-ware system that may be realized at low cost is describe... View full abstract»

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  • Reading machines for the blind:The technical problems and the methods adopted for their solution

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):259 - 264
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    In order to assess current efforts devoted to reading machine design, it is first necessary to develop a set of requirements for an ideal device. Direct translation aids are then seen to lack several of these desirable features, and more general, linguistically based techniques are then examined. Structural properties of English are found to be obtainable from the orthographic representation, and ... View full abstract»

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  • Speech processing with Walsh-Hadamard transforms

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):174 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)

    High-speed algorithms to compute the discrete Hadamard and Walsh transforms of speech waveforms have been developed. Intelligible speech has been reconstructed from dominant Hadamard or Walsh coefficients on a medium sized computer in a non-real-time mode. Degradation of some phonemes was noted at low bit rates of reconstruction, but the reconstruction could be improved by varying the position of ... View full abstract»

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  • Speech processing aids for the deaf:An overview

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):269 - 273
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)

    Two major obstacles have hindered progress in the development of speech processing aids for the deaf. The first is a lack of basic knowledge as to how speech is acquired, produced, and perceived. The second is a paucity of objective, evaluative data on potentially useful aids. This paper reviews progress in the development of speech processing aids, both for speech perception and for speech traini... View full abstract»

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  • The influence of glottal waveform on the naturalness of speech from a parallel formant synthesizer

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):298 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    A computer-simulated parallel formant synthesizer has been used to copy short samples of human speech. It is possible to make the synthetic speech almost indistinguishable from the natural in spectrum, waveform, and by earphone listening, provided that the synthetic glottal pulse is derived by inverse filtering a typical natural vowel from the same talker. Various other pulse shapes have been trie... View full abstract»

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  • A vocal data management system

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):185 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)

    This paper describes an implementation strategy for a vocal data management system (VDMS) being developed by the voice input/output project at the System Development Corporation. VDMS will accept connected speech of a language describable by 25-50 phrase equations and having a vocabulary of approximately 1000 words formed from about 100 data records. The strategy is based on the concept of predict... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of articulation functions using adaptive test procedures

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):196 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    The conventional methods for measuring speech intelligibility/discrimination present entire lists of words at constant levels whereas an adaptive procedure shifts levels within a single list according to a preselected strategy. The results reported in this paper indicate that adaptive testing of monosyllabic speech communication : 1) provides reasonably stable and accurate results with a CNC (word... View full abstract»

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  • An audio response unit for telephone needs

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):291 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)

    An audio response unit has been built that synthetizes messages composed of a fixed sentence and any number from 0-999 999. The method used is synthesis by concatenation of words, and automatic corrections on pitch and rhythm are used to improve naturalness and intelligibility. The synthesizer is a part of a channel vocoder. This audio response unit is to be used in a telephone exchange to answer ... View full abstract»

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  • Spectral analysis of speech by linear prediction

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):140 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    The autocorrelation method of linear prediction is formulated in the time, autocorrelation, and spectral domains. The analysis is shown to be that of approximating the short-time signal power spectrum by an all-pole spectrum. The method is compared with other methods of spectral analysis such as analysis-by-synthesis and cepstral smoothing. It is shown that this method can be regarded as another m... View full abstract»

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  • On the automatic recognition of continuous speech:Implications from a spectrogram-reading experiment

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)

    An experiment was performed in which the authors attempted to recognize a set of unknown sentences by visual examination of spectrograms and machine-aided lexical searching. Ninteen sentences representing data from five talkers were analyzed. An initial partial transcription in terms of phonetic features was performed. The transcription contained many errors and omissions: 10 percent of the segmen... View full abstract»

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  • An Approach to syntactic recognition without phonemics

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):249 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB)

    Linguistic and perceptual arguments suggest that, in speech recognition systems, syntactic hypotheses should be formed before phonemic segments are identified. Prosodic features can provide some cues to constituent structure. In a variety of texts and excerpts from conversations, spoken by several talkers, a decrease in voice fundamental frequency (F0) usually occurred at the end of eac... View full abstract»

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  • Design and simulation of a speech analysis-synthesis system based on short-time Fourier analysis

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):165 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    This paper discusses the theoretical basis for representation of a speech signal by its short-time Fourier transform. The results of the theoretical studies were used to design a speech analysis-synthesis system which was simulated on a general-purpose laboratory digital computer system. The simulation uses the fast Fourier transform in the analysis stage and specially designed finite duration imp... View full abstract»

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  • Recovering parentheses from spoken algebraic expressions

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):217 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    A study of the relationship between the syntactic and prosodic organization of spoken algebraic expressions is reported. It was found that subjects were very consistent in their placement of junctures when reading algebraic expressions slowly. Furthermore, there was an almost perfect correlation between measured silence and perceived juncture. Rules were developed for inserting parentheses based o... View full abstract»

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  • Some experiments on the control of voice in the profoundly deaf using a pitch extractor and storage oscilloscope display

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):274 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    A visual pitch display is described. This extracts fundamental frequency by low-pass filtering and displays frequency as a function of time on a storage oscilloscope. Three studies with deaf children are described. In the first it is found that the subjects have poor voluntary pitch control, despite generally good oral skills. In the second it is shown that simple pitch control can be learned quic... View full abstract»

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  • Subjective evaluation of differential pulse-code modulation using the speech "Goodness" rating scale

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):179 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)

    The objectives of this investigation were twofold: 1) to demonstrate the utility of the nine-point speech "goodness" rating scale as a method for scaling user opinion of speech quality, and 2) to use this method to determine optimum parameters for differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) systems with bit rates from 25.6 to 51.2 kb/s. Fifteen DPCM and pulse-code modulation (PCM) systems were simul... View full abstract»

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  • An electrotactile sound detector for the deaf

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):285 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)

    The electrotactile sound detector described here is designed to enable deaf persons to detect and localize sounds. Two microphones are worn bilaterally on the head, the sounds received are converted to electrical pulses, and the pulses are fed to two electrodes applied to the forehead. Differences in intensity of the pulses permit the wearer to localize the source of a sound. Additional informatio... View full abstract»

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  • Dichotic signs of the recognition of speech elements in normals, temporal lobectomees, and hemispherectomees

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):189 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    When patients with hemispherectomies or temporal lobectomies listen to dichotic pairs of equal-intensity C-V syllables, they do poorly identifying the stimuli presented to the ear contralateral to the lesion. This effect is similar to that seen for normals, who in the same circumstances, perform poorly on the left-ear stimulus. (The ear contralateral to a lesion for patients and the left ear for n... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of various parameter sets in spoken digits recognition

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):202 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)

    Various parameter sets-including a spectrum envelope, cepstrum, autocorrelation function, linear predictive coefficients, and partial autocorrelation coefficients (PAC's)- are evaluated experimentally to determine which constitutes the best parameter in spoken digit recognition. The principle of recognition is simple pattern matching in the parameter space with nonlinear adjustment of the time axi... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1973. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Full Aims & Scope