Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2002

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Abstracts of forthcoming manuscripts

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 151 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reliability investigations of hard core solder bumps using mechanical palladium bumps and SnPb solder

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 210 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1547 KB)  

    The choice of solder joint metallurgy is a key issue especially for the reliability of flip-chip assemblies. Besides the metallurgical systems already widely used and well understood, new materials are emerging as solderable under bump metallization (UBM). For single chip bumping Pd stud bumps form a solid core under the solder layer. These hard core solder bumps are an adequate solution if single dies are available only and the chosen assembly technology is flip chip soldering. The scope of this paper is to summarize the results from aging of lead/tin solder bumps on palladium. The growth of intermetallic and its impact on the mechanical reliability are investigated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Microstructure, joint strength and failure mechanisms of SnPb and Pb-free solders in BGA packages

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 185 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1805 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The microstructure, joint strength and failure mechanisms of SnPbAg, SnAg and SnAgCu solders on Cu/Ni/Au BGA pad metallization were investigated after multiple reflows or high temperature aging. In the SnPbAg system, a two-layer structure, i.e., Ni3Sn4 and (Au, Ni)Sn4, was formed at the solder-substrate metallization interface after aging at 125, 150, and 175°C. However, such structure was not present in the two Pb-free solder systems. Only a layer of Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compound in the SnAg system and a layer of Cu-Sn-Ni-Au intermetallic compound in the SnAgCu system were found at respective interfaces, even after the two solder systems had been heat treated for 1000 h at the afore-mentioned temperatures. The formation of the (Au, Ni)Sn4 ternary compound in the SnPbAg system was due to re-settlement of Au at the interface which led to brittle failure in this system during ball shear testing. In contrast, SnAg and SnAgCu systems failed exclusively inside the solder ball during shear testing after aging at 150°C for up to 1000 h. The two Pb-free solder systems showed good resistance to thermal aging with the solder ball shear strength being maintained at 1.60 to 1.70 kgf. The SnPbAg system degraded in mechanical performance with aging time and had strength as low as 1.20 kgf after aging at 150°C for 1000 h. The growth rates of intermetallic compound layers at 125, 150, and 175°C aging temperatures and the activation energy for the formation of different intermetallic compound layers were also determined in this investigation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interfacial reactions between lead-free SnAgCu solder and Ni(P) surface finish on printed circuit boards

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 162 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (81)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (829 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to analyze the interfacial microstructure between Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys and Ni(P)/Au metallizations. The intermetallic compound Cu6Sn5, containing a small amount of dissolved Ni, was found to form preferentially on the Ni coating. This compound layer served as a barrier for direct reaction of Sn with the Ni(P) coating. On the Ni(P) side, a nickel phosphide was identified. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Cu-Ni-Sn system was carried out to rationalize the enrichment of Cu at the solder/finish interface. Effects of the interfacial reactions on joint reliability are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comprehensive treatment of moisture induced failure-recent advances

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 223 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a comprehensive treatment of moisture induced failure in integrated circuit (IC) packaging with emphasis on recent advances. This includes advanced technique for modeling moisture diffusion under dynamic boundary conditions such as experienced by packages during solder reflow, autoclave, and temperature-humidity cycling; advanced characterization technique for moisture sorption and diffusion properties of packaging materials including effect of edge diffusion on transverse diffusivity, anisotropic diffusivity in organic laminates, impact of non-Fickian sorption; advanced techniques for modeling vapor pressure during solder reflow; advanced techniques for modeling dynamic delamination propagation during solder reflow; interfacial fracture strength as a function of temperature and moisture; as well as plastic analysis of popcorn cracking. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Wetting characteristics of Pb-free solder alloys and PWB finishes

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 168 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a successful transition to Pb-free manufacturing in electronics assembly, it is critical to understand the behavior of Pb-free solders (in bulk and paste form) and their interaction with the Pb-free printed wiring board (PWB) finishes. This paper presents the results obtained from solder paste spread tests and wetting balance experiments with several Pb-free solder alloys and Pb-free PWB finishes. The solder alloys studied were Sn3.4Ag4.8Bi, Sn4.0Ag0.5Cu, Sn3.5Ag and Sn0.7Cu. Eutectic Sn37Pb was used as a reference. The PWB surface finishes were Sn, NiAu, Ag and OSP. Wetting balance experiments were conducted in air while the spread tests were performed in air and nitrogen to understand the effect of reflow atmosphere on the spreading. Surface analysis techniques such as Nomarski phase contrast microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the as-received PWB finishes. Sequential electrochemical reduction analysis (SERA) was also performed on the as-received PWB test coupons and on the Sn test coupons after multiple reflow cycles. The effect of multiple reflow cycles on the wetting performance, spreading and the surface composition of the PWB finishes was studied. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Time series modeling of photosensitive polymer development rate for via formation applications

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 203 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Via formation is a critical process in multichip module (MCM) manufacturing, as it greatly impacts yield, density, and reliability. For via formation using photosensitive polymers such as benzocyclobutene (BCB), development is an extremely important step, and insuring adequate time for the completion of polymer dissolution is the key to defining the desired via pattern. To simultaneously optimize via yield and process throughput, the proper development time needs to be identified. However, it is difficult to determine the development endpoint because it is very sensitive to several process and material conditions. In this paper, a neural network-based time series modeling scheme is developed and applied to determine the optimal endpoint for photosensitive BCB development. The Lithacon 808 Process Analyzer, which is typical of this type of system, is used to demonstrate the approach. To characterize the development step, exposure dose energy and time series data consisting of previous film thickness measurements are used to model expected film thicknesses at future times. Model prediction results are compared with experimental results, and it is shown that the neural time series model can effectively characterize the effects of changes in exposure dose energy on development endpoint. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interfacial reaction studies on lead (Pb)-free solder alloys

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 155 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, the research and development activities for replacing Pb-containing solders with Pb-free solders have been intensified due to both competitive market pressures and environmental issues. As a result of these activities, a few promising candidate solder alloys have been identified, mainly, Sn-based alloys. A key issue affecting the integrity and reliability of solder joints is the interfacial reactions between a molten solder and surface finishes in the solder joint structures. In this paper, a fundamental study of the interfacial reactions between several Pb-free candidate solders and surface finishes commonly used in printed-circuit cards is reported. The Pb-free solders investigated include Sn-3.5 Ag, Sn-3.8 Ag-0.7 Cu, and Sn-3.5 Ag-3.0 Bi. The surface finishes investigated include Cu, Au/Ni(P), Au/Pd/Ni(P), and Au/Ni (electroplated). The reaction kinetics of the dissolution of surface finishes and intermetallic compound growth have been measured as a function of reflow temperature and time. The intermetallic compounds formed during reflow reactions have been identified by SEM with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Mechanical fatigue test method for chip/underfill delamination in flip-chip packages

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 217 - 222
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Underfill resin between Si chips and printed circuit boards is useful for improving the reliability of flip-chip packages. Generally, thermal cycle tests (TCTs) are applied to electronic packages under development in order to prove their reliability. At the early stage of development, however, a more effective test method is desirable, because TCTs are time-consuming. A new mechanical fatigue test for the underfill resin in flip-chip packages, namely the four points support test method, is proposed in this paper. The validity of the mechanical test method could be verified from the results of stress analyses and experiments. Considering the chip/underfill delamination statistically based on the assumption of Markov process, it was shown that the delamination probability during cyclic loads could be estimated with equations of the displacement range and number of cycles. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characteristics and reliability of fast-flow, snap-cure, and reworkable underfills for solder bumped flip chip on low-cost substrates

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 231 - 239
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, the fast-flow, fast-cure, and reworkable underfill materials from two different vendors are considered. Emphasis is placed on the determination of the curing conditions such as temperature and time, and the material properties such as the thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE), storage modulus, loss modulus, glass transition temperature (Tg), and moisture uptake of these underfill materials. Also, the key elements and steps of the solder-bumped flip-chips on low-cost substrates with these underfill materials such as the chip, printed circuit board (PCB), flip chip assembly, and underfill application are presented. Furthermore, the key elements and steps of the rework of the solder-bumped flip-chip assemblies with these underfill materials such as chip removal, chip reballing, substrate cleaning, and new chip placement are discussed. Finally, shear test results of the assemblies with one-time rework and no-rework are presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Pb-free Sn/3.5Ag electroplating bumping process and under bump metallization (UBM)

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 193 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1639 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pb-free solder is one of the biggest issues in today's electronic packaging industry. This paper introduces a newly developed Sn/3.5Ag alloy plating process for wafer level bumping. The effects of Under Bump Metallization (UBM) on the process, interfacial reaction, and mechanical strength have been investigated. Four different types of sputtering-based UBM layers-TiW/Cu/electroplated Cu, Cr/CrCu/Cu, NiV/Cu, and TiW/NiV-were fabricated with eutectic Pb/63Sn and Sn/3.5Ag solder. The result shows that the Sn/Ag solder gains Cu or Ni from UBM's and becomes Sn/Ag/Cu or Sn/Ag/Ni during reflow process. Sn/Ag solder has higher reactivity with Cu and Ni than Pb/63Sn. The Intermetallic Compound (IMC) spalling from the interface between UBM/solder has been observed on Cr/CrCu/Cu and TiW/NiV UBM's. However, the IMC spalling phenomena did not decrease the bump shear strength with a bump size of 110 μm, whereas a size of 60 μm brought a decrease in shear value and failure mode change. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing addresses design for manufacturability, cost and process modeling, process control and automation, factory analysis and improvement, information systems, statistical methods, environmentally friendly processing, and computer-integrated manufacturing for the production of electronic assemblies and products.

 

This Transaction ceased production in 2010. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Wayne Johnson
Auburn University