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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 9 • Date December 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 1377 - 1379
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Performance of Double-Tier Access-Control Schemes Using a Polling Backbone for Metropolitan and Interconnected Communication Networks

    Page(s): 1403 - 1417
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    We consider a double-tier communication network architecture for metropolitan area and packet radio networks for controlling the access of network terminals into a single shared broadcast channel. Terminals are organized into local groups in accordance with their geographical proximity or other criteria. Each local group can be associated with a primary station. The latter can serve as an unbuffered repeater for terminal transmissions unto the multiple-access channel. A polling policy is used by the primary stations to gain access into the shared communications backbone. Once a primary station is provided access into the channel, it initiates a local access control procedure. Message delay performance results and bounds are obtained for general reservation local-access procedures. In particular, we analyze and present performance results for a polling/tree-random-access procedure which can be effectively used for many packet radio and cellular digital radio networks, as well as for a polling/positionalpriority scheme for CATV and fiber-optic based networks. View full abstract»

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  • Annotated Bibliography of Local Communication System Interconnection

    Page(s): 1492 - 1499
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    An annotated bibliography of interconnection of local communication systems is presented. The interconnection of local area networks and interconnection by means of metropolitan area networks are emphasized. View full abstract»

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  • Interworking Solutions for a Two-Level Integrated Services Local Area Network

    Page(s): 1444 - 1453
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    A new generation of integrated services local networks (ISLN's) is needed to yield to local area users the provision of voice, data, and images in a cost-effective manner. Besides high-speed and service integration features, these advanced multiservice communication systems have to also provide powerful interconnection with both public networks and traditional LAN's. So conception and design of the interconnection units, i.e., gateways and bridges, have to be carried out contextually with the network architecture definition. The paper addresses the interworking solutions adopted for a local integrated optical network (LION) currently under development. The architecture of bridges and gateways allowing users belonging to different LION subnetworks to communicate with public networks and commercial systems is also described. In particular, the interconnection with the integrated services digital network (ISDN) is highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of a Path-Finding Algorithm for Interconnected Local Area Networks

    Page(s): 1463 - 1470
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    The issue of routing in interconnected local area networks (LAN's) is considered. Of particular interest is Source routing where the source station specifies, in an inter-LAN frame, the complete path traversed by that frame. In source routing, a mechanism is needed for the source station to determine a path to any given destination. A pathfinding algorithm has been proposed by Sy, Pitt, and Donnan. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of that algorithm using a simulation model of interconnected token rings. Our evaluation is based on a connection-oriented environment and the assumption that the pathfinding algorithm is used each time a new connection is established. Our results indicate that the algorithm selects paths with good delay and throughput performance for the new connection. As to the existing connections, the algorithm yields good throughput behavior, but may not perform well as far as delay is concerned. View full abstract»

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  • Throughput-Delay Performance of Interconnected CSMA Local Area Networks

    Page(s): 1380 - 1390
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    The interconnection of two local area networks, each of which connects a large population of users via a carrier-sense multipleaccess (CSMA) channel is considered. In each network, a bridge node receives internetwork packets from the local users and forwards them to the bridge node of the other network via a point-to-point link; the bridge node of the destination network queues these internetwork packets for subsequent broadcasting to the local users. For the multiplexing of the user transmissions and the bridge node transmissions on the available broadcast channel in each network, frequency division, and contention are considered. The throughput-delay characteristics of the interconnected system operating under the above multiplexing techniques are found and comparisons are made. It is shown that contention multiplexing can yield system performance comparable to that of frequency division multiplexing, while requiring no hardware or software modification of either network in the interconnected system. View full abstract»

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  • ExpressMAN: Exploiting Traffic Locality in Expressnet

    Page(s): 1436 - 1443
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    ExpressMAN is a metropolitan area network architecture which connects users grouped in different clusters. It retains all the positive features of LAN's, but in addition, allows for parallel transmission of local traffic. The overall network structure is halfway between a linear bus and a two-level hierarchical structure in which several subnetworks are connected by a backbone network. However, it does not need complex routing facilities like bridges. Based on the Expressnet access mechanism, it can be dynamically configured either as a unique bus or as several different local buses which allow the circulation of long distance and local trains, respectively. Routing is performed by the transmitting stations choosing the correct train. Local communications can take the bandwidth not used by long distance trains, and thus increase bandwidth efficiency by means of parallel transmissions. In this paper, the performance of ExpressMAN is evaluated and compared to that achieved by the aforementioned two-level structure based on Express networks. Although the Expressnet mechanism has been chosen as the simplest and most efficient mechanism available for LAN's the principle underlying ExpressMAN could be applied to other token schemes such as the token ring. View full abstract»

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  • A Unified Approach to Local Area Network Interconnection

    Page(s): 1418 - 1425
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    An approach to local area network interconnection is presented Which combines the advances in static interconnection topologies, demand assignment multiple access protocols, and the availability of high-bandwidth fiber optic channels to create a cost-effective structure capable of interconnecting a large number of LAN's with heavy traffic. This approach is independent of the protocol implemented at each LAN. The structure is based on a hypercube topology where each vertex of the graph represents a LAN. Multiple access channels spanning all dimensional axes are used in this scheme. This approach is compared to a topology with direct point-to-point connections between all nodes sharing a common axis. Through the development of the degree, diameter, average distance, cost, and average packet delay, we show that using fewer high-capacity channels, a LAN interconnection network with excellent performance characteristics can be constructed, able to support a large number of LAN's with heavy traffic at a significant reduction in cost over the point-to-point case. The resulting structure has many of the desirable characteristics for static interconnection networks such as high fault tolerance, totally distributed packet routing in the interconnection network, low average distance for good performance, and low degree, resulting in low cost. For the total number of required LAN nodes and the expected amount of internode traffic, the structure is optimized for minimum cost. View full abstract»

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  • A Knockout Switch for Variable-Length Packets

    Page(s): 1426 - 1435
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    The Knockout Switch is a new packet switch architecture recently proposed for high-speed local and metropolitan area networks, multiprocessor interconnects, and local or toll switches for integrated traffic loads. We describe an approach to extend the original Knockout Switch to work with variable-length packets. This new architecture employs an input broadcast bus arrangement to achieve complete interconnection of the inputs and outputs. Consequently, there is no congestion in the switch fabric other than the unavoidable conflict of multiple simultaneous packets destined for the same output. It is with this output contention that the Knockout principle is fully utilized to efficiently concentrate and store contending packets while maintaining the first-in first-out discipline of the packet sequence; and yet the fabric speed required is no more than the input/output line speeds, Under these design goals, no switch can yield better delay/ throughout performance. These are the most important attributes that have been preserved in the current proposal from the original Knockout Switch. For anN times Nswitch configuration, the variable-length packet Knockout Switch consists ofNinput broadcast buses, and anN:Lconcentrator (L ll N) and a shared buffer for each output. The design of each subsystem is discussed with emphasis on possible VLSI realization. Using today's technology, we should be able to implement the proposed switch with both input/output lines and internal hardware operating at 50 Mbits/s. The dimension of the switch (N times N) can grow modularly from say 32 × 32 to 1024 × 1024, rendering a total throughput in the range of tens of gigabits per second. Future upgrading of the line interfaces to much higher speed without modification to the internal switch hardware is also possible with a modest restriction on the minimum length of new packets. View full abstract»

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  • Table-Free Bridging

    Page(s): 1454 - 1462
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    Simple interconnection of high-speed local area networks (LAN's) can be accomplished without special technology through the use of table-free bridges. Self-guided frame routing allows frames to trace specific routes through bridged LAN's without requiring bridges to maintain address tables or perform table lookups. As a result, the technique applies to networks regardless of their operating speed or topological configuration and requires no interbridge protocols. The paper discusses a method known as source routing that provides tablefree bridging and self-guided frame routing for LAN's. Participation by the bridges that interconnect pairs of LAN's and by the stations whose frames they forward is described. Possible frame formats are shown as enhancements to the standard frame formats of the IEEE 802 and ISO 8802 local area networks. View full abstract»

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  • Adding Transparent Internetworking to a LAN Application Interface

    Page(s): 1471 - 1479
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    The internetworking capability of a network is typically provided transparently by protocols below the network application interface. However, network designs have been implemented in which the internetwork function is limited or absent. This paper describes one way to add transparent internetworking to such systems without affecting the existing network hardware and software. The solution consists of using application-level software and gateways that project a domain structure onto application names in such a way that neither the applications nor the underlying protocols need be aware of internetworking. A research prototype of this internetworking scheme has been implemented in the context of the NETBIOS application interface; the paper discusses its key features and the lessons learned. View full abstract»

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  • A Traffic Scheduling Technique for Metropolitan Area Gateways

    Page(s): 1391 - 1402
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    In the future, metropolitan area networks (MAN's) will provide high bandwidth interconnection between local access networks in high density office, industrial, and residential settings. In these systems, the metropolitan area gateway (MAG) is responsible for coordinating the flow of traffic in and out of the metropolitan subnetwork. In certain environments, it is expected that the traffic will possess distinct characteristics. In this paper, a technique called SWIFT is proposed which efficiently schedules these traffic flows when the local access network is based upon broadband CATV-type cable technology. SWIFT satisfies the important constraint that it is compatible with existing CSMA/CD packet data network adapters which means that it may be implemented in previously installed systems. In this paper, a throughput model is given for the proposed technique. Also, an analytic model is given which approximates the mean remote delay when the traffic is moderately to heavily remote-bound. The performance results presented indicate that a system operating the SWIFT algorithm can achieve much reduced delays at higher throughput than would otherwise be possible. View full abstract»

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  • Interconnection Protocols for Interorganization Networks

    Page(s): 1480 - 1491
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    This paper analyzes the technical implications of interconnecting networks across organization boundaries. Such Interorganizational Networks (ION's) are used increasingly to support exchange of CAD/CAM data between manufacturers and subcontractors, software distribution from vendors to users, customer input to suppliers' orderentry systems, and the shared use of expensive computational resources by research laboratories, as examples. We begin by demonstrating that interorganization connections are not satisfied by traditional network design criteria of connectivity and transparency. A primary high-level requirement is access control, and therefore, participating organizations must be able to limit connectivity and make network boundaries visible. We summarize an approach to access control in ION's, based on nondiscretionary control, that allows interconnecting organizations to combine gateway, network, and system-level mechanisms to enforce cross-boundary control over invocation and information flow while minimizing interference with internal operations [6], [4]. The focus of this paper is on the underlying interconnection protocols that are needed to support these access control mechanisms. We describe in detail a particular protocol, called a visa scheme [7]. The visa scheme uses access control servers to authorize a session request and visas to authenticate that successive packets belong to the authorized connection. Control is distributed among the ION participants and each may make its own design tradeoffs between performance and trust. In order to support interorganization communication two (or more) organizations must be able to communicate with one another's access control servers and their respective packet-level gateways and nodes (source/destination) must implement the visa scheme. The security of the proposed mechanism varies according to the security of an organization's components (access control server, gateway, and select hosts) and the encryption function used. The visa scheme's purpose is to allow an organization to modify and trust only those internal systems that require ION access; all other internal systems are inaccessible from and to the ION gateway. We conclude by comparing and contrasting the visa approach to the use- of higher level gateways. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT