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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 5 • Date August 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial: Cooperative Publications in Optical Communications

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 649 - 650
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial: Engineering and Field Experience with Fiber Optic Systems

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 651 - 653
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optical Fiber Facilities for Subscriber Loops

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 714 - 718
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    This paper gives an overview of the introduction and subsequent development of optical fiber cable and its application to subscriber networks enabling economical broad-band services, such as video and high-speed digital data transmissions. This paper also outlines NTT's developments on subscriber optical fiber cable technology-in particular, the five-fiber ribbon cable structure, mass-fusion splicing machine, and multifiber connector-in its ongoing endeavors to establish economical and flexible subscriber optical fiber networks which provide optical fibers to each subscriber. View full abstract»

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  • The Blown Fiber Cable

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 679 - 685
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (7)
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    A radically new approach to optical fiber cable design and installation is described. Packages containing a number of optical fibers were drawn into preinstalled empty bores (tubes) using the viscous drag of air. The drag force acting on the fiber package is distributed along its length, which makes it possible to introduce fibers into complicated routes, with low strain. In this paper, we will concentrate mainly on the design of the fiber package, first from the point of view of the hydrodynamic forces acting on it during installation. This leads to a theoretical model for the installation process. Second, we shall consider the package as a subminiature optical fiber cable, and examine its optical performance during manufacture and temperature cycling, which leads to a theoretical model of the temperature performance of the package. Finally, we will describe a trial field installation using this cabling technique. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic Placing, Splicing, Testing, and Cable Design Experience at Bell Canada

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 654 - 660
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    Bell Canada has passed the stage of field trials and is now into the day-to-day operations, maintenance, and installation of FD-135 (135 Mbit/s) fiber optic transmission systems. The outside plant cables are manufactured by Northern Telecom and consist of a central stranded steel strength member with an extruded plastic slotted profile. Fibers, as well as two copper pairs which are used for servicing purposes and pressure monitoring, are loosely placed in the slots. Manually cleaved fibers are spliced with a V-groove alignment fusion set and are protected by a plastic splice package. Splice packages are inserted in an orderly fashion into an organizer tray which is then placed into a plastic closure allowing for pressurization and easy access of the cable. This paper provides an overview of the outside plant hardware and describes the various installation, splicing, and cable testing techniques that have been successfully used by Bell Canada. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Fiber Cable Installation Techniques

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 661 - 668
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
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    When installing junction optical fiber cable, which essentially must be longer than conventional metallic-conductor cable to effectively reduce splice loss, the applied tensile load must be within tolerable limits to prevent an increase in loss and a decrease in lifetime. It has recently become possible to meet this requirement through the development of a new cable installation system which makes use of a modified cable pulling truck and a new intermediate cable pulling machine. Furthermore, this new installation system, capable of achieving a 1.0-1.5 km installation length for all types of cable accommodations, has already been put into practice. In addition, this paper presents three new cable installation techniques for facilitating subscriber optical fiber cable installations under various environmental conditions: a tension-controlled pulling technique, a cable pulling eye attachment technique, and a cost-effective damage-free cable installation technique in older buildings. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Fiber Supertrunking--A Performance Report on a Real-World System

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 758 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This is a review of a Specific application for video interconnection on single-mode optical fiber Over a 13.9 mi path, covering system design, aerial and underground plant construction, terminal equipment selection, and operating results. Both digital and analog circuits are used in the system, and the economics and performance of the two approaches are compared. The digital equipment in installed transports four video Channels on a single-mode fiber using both 1300 nm and 1550 nm lasers, and the analog system is tested transperting both 8 and 12 channels per fiber. To explore the potential of the system, tests are run on a fiber path 27.8 mi (44.7 km) in length. Using actual costs, an updated economic comparison between fiber optic systems and FM video coaxial systems is made. The conclusion is drawn that analog fiber video transmission systems have been developed to the point where they offer economics and performance generally superior to, and reliability substantially better than, FM video coaxial systems. Both analog and digital fiber systems are shown to be capable of excellent quality video transmission through a path loss of over 25 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Loop Optic Design Optimization Study

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 741 - 749
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    This paper reports the results of a study aimed at understanding the design process for fiber optic systems in subscriber lines, also known as loop network. Since loop spans are typically shorter and traffic volumes lower than interoffice trunks, the required performance level of a fiber optic system is often less than the maximum Obtainable from the technology. This affords us an opportunity to save money by designing a fiber optic system truly tailored to the application. The design problem is approached from an optimization point of view. A nonlinear programming model was formulated and solved for determining the optimal values of fiber attenuation, splicing loss, system gain and operating wavelength. The sensitivity of key parameters has been studied. We show that considerable savings can be realized if the components are selected based on the optimum values given by the model. The cost penalty is also calculated for nonoptimum designs. This study lays the groundwork for developing design techniques to be used by engineers in designing fiber optic systems and also for establishing the technical requirements of various fiber optic system components. View full abstract»

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  • Present Status of Mechanical Connectors for Optical Fiber

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 719 - 725
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    Trunk transmission network systems connecting exchange offices were the first transmission systems using optical fiber cables. Subscriber network systems connecting the exchange office with each subscriber including local area networks or CATV network systems are under development at present. Two main techniques are newly required to be developed for making optical fiber mechanical connectors for optical fiber subscriber network system realization. The first is to realize a new connector with a high return loss and a low connecting loss. The second is to cut the joining cost of optical fibers. The newly developed "optical contact connector" realized a high return loss of more than 25 dB and a low connecting loss of 0.15 dB average value. A newly developed "multifiber connector" which can connect many optical fibers at the same time can save time and space for joining fiber cables, and also a "plastic molding technique" can save the cost of the connector. The performance of all these connectors is the same as that of the "optical contact connector." This paper describes the present status of the technique to obtain a high return loss connector, a multifiber connector, and a plastic molded connector for the subscriber network system. View full abstract»

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  • Splicing of Fibers by the Fusion Method

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 706 - 713
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    Single-mode fiber splicing requires quite a precise core alignment for the adjustment of core eccentricity and outer diameter discrepancies. Several core alignment methods have been developed. The typical four methods are as follows: 1) remote injection and remote detection systems (RIRDS), 2) remote injection and local detection systems (LDS), 3) local injection and detection systems (LIDS), 4) core direct monitoring systems. The so-called prefusion method has been developed to prevent bubble growth during the fusion process. This method is widely used for both single and multimode fiber arc fusion splicing machines. The average splicing losses of 0.11 dB and 0.10 dB are reported for single-mode fiber splicings with RIRDS by NTT in Japan, and by Bell-Northern Research in Canada, respectively. With the LIDS method, the average splicing loss of 0.13 dB in the field was reported by PTT in The Netherlands. With the core direct monitoring method, average splicing loss of 0.08 dB in the field was reported by NTT in Japan. This method is one of the simplest on the most useful core alignment for single-mode splicing machine. Splicing of multimode fiber does not require a precise core alignment; that is, the alignment by the cladding is sufficient for the low-loss splicing. Therefore, the mechanism for the alignment of the fibers is much simpler than that of single-mode fibers. The average splicing loss of 0.07 dB was reported by NTT in Japan in 1982. As mentioned above, this paper reviews the field experience with these different splicing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Lubrication Techniques to Allow Placement of Long Lengths of Innerduct and Fiber Optic Cable in a Conduit

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 691 - 692
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Because of the present emphasis on placement of long unspliced lengths of fiber optic cable, conventional lubricants are being pushed to their limits. This paper discusses an installation where a newgeneration lubricant, consisting of silicone oil and tiny plastic ball bearings, was used to lower the effective coefficient of friction to 0.09. This allowed the contractor to place fiber optic cable in a single unassisted unidirectional pull on a run that would have otherwise required additional expenditures and time. A description of the run and discussion of pulling lubricants is included. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Fiber Cable Measurements in the Field

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 732 - 736
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The optical fiber cable measurement instruments developed by NTF for field use in the 1.3 μm wavelength are discussed. The properties of a stabilized optical light source for single-mode fiber attenuation measurement, optical time-domain reflectometer using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as a light source, and chromatic dispersion measurement instrument are described. From the measurement results, these instruments are revealed to be suitable in constructing and maintaining singlemode fiber optical transmission lines. View full abstract»

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  • Fault-Locating Accuracy with an OTDR: Reflective Versus Nonreflective Faults

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 737 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    When using an OTDR, fault-locating accuracy can be improved if the nature of the fiber discontinuity can be taken into account in estimating the true distance to the fault. Basically, two types of faults can be encountered: reflective and nonreflective faults. Recognizing that the slope of the rising part of the back-reflected pulse is a function of the optical reflectivity at the fault, a scheme has been devised for correcting the measured distance on the OTDR to derive the exact location of the fault to within ±1 m. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic Regional Area Networks in New York and Dallas

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 750 - 757
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A summary of the installation, design, and performance of regional area networks in New York City and Dallas, TX, is presented. The New York regional network provides carriage of multichannel video information to be used for programming of Warner Cable's CATV franchise in Queens, NY. The Dallas regional network provides a DS-3 for facsimile transmission of news photographs by the Dallas Morning News Corporation. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Splice Closures for Optical Fiber Systems

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 726 - 731
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    The problems of splice closure are discussed briefly and the options available for optical fiber cable systems are reviewed. It is concluded that for long-haul point-to-point cables, absolute security is paramount, and that for these, welded splice closures should be used. For optical fiber cables in local distribution networks, however, closures which can easily be reentered are needed. This requirement can only be met with some kind of mechanical closure. The security of these is considered inadequate for nonpressurized optical fiber networks. It is concluded that the use of mechanical closures must be supported by a satisfactory test method to confirm that they are sealed after each reentry. Conventional pressure testing of complete closures is considered to be too unreliable and slow for the purpose. A new double-seal closure system is described which allows the integrity of closures to be tested in seconds using a purpose-designed test device. The double-seal system is being used for the optical fiber distribution system being installed in the city of London by Mercury Communications Ltd. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction and Minimization of Fiber Optic Cable Pulling Tensions

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 686 - 690
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    This paper presents methods for the prediction and minimization of fiber optic cable pulling tension. Specialty products and installation procedures have been developed following field and laboratory research on cable tension as the fiber optic cable is pulled into conduit. Use of these products and procedures can significantly reduce the installed cost of fiber optic cable. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of Optical Fibers for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 699 - 705
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    Optical fibers are increasingly in use for overhead transmission lines. Optical fiber cables for overhead transmission lines can be classified into three types; composite type, winding type, and self-supporting type. For the composite type, an FRP-covered optical fiber unit is suitable because of its good thermal and mechanical characteristics. Winding-type fiber cable is least expensive to install on existing overhead transmission lines. A dc arc test showed that the winding type can be applied to a ground wire because of its resistance to lightning. The winding type was applied to the ground wire of a 275-kV line, using a remote-controlled winding machine. View full abstract»

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  • Meeting the Fiber Optic Challenge with Vibratory Cable Plows

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 693 - 698
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    To date, much of the installed direct buried fiber optic cable has been placed by large crawler-mounted plows. However, in many areas, such as along highway rights-of-way and other routes with numerous road crossings, smaller-sized rubber-tired machines would be advantageous. Four-wheel drive vibratory cable plows have been utilized extensively by the telecommunications industry when installing copper cable, but there has been a general concern about vibration potentially damaging fiber optic cable. In order to overcome these fears, a test program was conducted in cooperation with a major cable manufacturer. Tests showed that tension required to feed fiber optic cable through a vibrated fixed-feed tube blade was much less than for isolated and static feed tubes. Operations stretching the limits of good installation practices, such as cable bend ratios as small as 4.5:1 and vibrating in place for 30 seconds, did not damage loose tube fiber optic cable under low tension. For better industry acceptance, special plow blade feed tubes and cable guides were designed, patterned after published recommendations. These were evaluated in a field trial and have since seen application in numerous successful installations of fiber optic cable. View full abstract»

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  • Placing Fiber Optic Cables in Multioccupied Ducts

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 669 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Placing fiber optic cable (FOC) in duct containing copper cable can save millions of construction dollars. This paper describes techniques used successfully in rodding duct over copper cables in actual field installations-a necessary and most critical step preparatory to the actual placement of the FOC. In addition, a mathematical model useful in planning and predicting expected FOC pulling tensions for arbitrary duct routes containing copper cables is also presented. The analysis indicates that, in general, the expected FOC pulling tensions vary inversely with the diameters of the FOC and winch line. The results of a typical cable pulling tension calculation are also given. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT