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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 5 • Date November 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword: Introduction and Issue Overview

    Page(s): 697 - 701
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Architecture and Design of a Reliable Token-Ring Network

    Page(s): 756 - 765
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    Architecture, performance, transmission system, and wiring strategy of a token-ring local area network implemented at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory are described. In the design of the system, particular emphasis was placed on high reliability, availability, and serviceability. To ensure robustness of the token-access protocol, we employ the concept of a monitor function which is responsible for fast recovery from access-related errors. Our protocol supports asynchronous transmission of data frames concurrently with full-duplex synchronous channels, e.g., for voice services or other applications requiring guaranteed delay. The delay-throughput performance of the token ring is shown to depend very little on data rate and distance. The transmission system of the ring is fully bit synchronous and allows insertion/removal of stations in/from the ring at any time. A mixed ring/star wiring strategy is used which provides the means for both fault detection and isolation, and system reconfiguration, and allows wiring of a building systematically. View full abstract»

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  • A New CSMA-CD Protocol for Local Area Networks with Dynamic Priorities and Low Collision Probability

    Page(s): 869 - 876
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    This paper reports on the implementation of a local area network (LAN) operating under a new CSMA-CD protocol with dynamic priorities (CSMA-CD-DP). User terminals, host computers, and other servers are connected to a common broad-band channel through N network access stations in a clustered manner. This concept reduces the number of network access stations and enhances the utilization of hardware and software resources greatly. A new protocol has been developed which organizes the decentralized operation of the distributed network access stations and which allows for a number of specific features. In the idle state the channel is operated in the contention mode. After the beginning of a transmission, the channel is operated in a reservation mode. Channel arbitration after a completed transmission is resolved by staggered delays; at any time, each station owns a distinct transmission delay which is changed after every successful transmission by broadcasted acknowledgments. This protocol strictly limits the possibility of collisions and approaches the effectiveness of token and polling protocols with increasing load. Through specific allocations of transmission delays, static priorities or dynamic overload control can be realized easily. The performance of the CSMA-CD-DP protocol has been modeled and analyzed analytically as well as by simulation. Results for normal load and overload reveal high throughput and low transfer times which are basic for a wide range of applications in LAN's. View full abstract»

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  • A Distributed Local Area Network Packet Protocol for Combined Voice and Data Transmission

    Page(s): 926 - 934
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    Local area networks designed to carry a variety of traffic such as data, voice, facsimile, and video should be able to implement low latency virtual circuits to meet the demands of periodic traffic. We have designed a partially distributed algorithm to efficiently schedule voice traffic on a unidirectional bus system called Fasnet. Virtual channels are allocated for the duration of a talk spurt and relinquished during the intervening silent intervals. Conversations already in progress, but without an assigned circuit, take precedence over newly arriving calls. Unused voice capacity may be utilized by data stations when required. Simulations of the system indicate that performance is close to that obtained by an ideal TASI multiplexer. While the algorithm is unfair, this is not a significant factor unless the network is loaded very heavily. Further, except for a "sojourn" time unused voice capacity is utilized by the data stations. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Use of an Integrated Cambridge Ring

    Page(s): 775 - 784
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    The Cambridge ring is a local area network used both in universities and industry. It is based on the empty slot principle and data are transmitted using minipackets containing two bytes of data. This paper describes the design process, decisions, and tradeoffs in implementing an integrated system which incorporates both analog and digital components. The technology chosen is a bipolar gate array. A number of options are provided for the implementor who can optimize network parameters such as minipacket size and transmission speed to his needs. He can also choose the style of interface between the communicating device and the network. An important option provided by the integrated Cambridge ring is the ability to simultaneously transmit short control minipackets and long data packets. A system exploiting this feature has been built and is described. Its proposed uses are to interconnect telephones and other real-time systems as well as computers where the partitioning of bandwidth and precise performance specification are important. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Design Criteria for a Synchronous Token Ring

    Page(s): 721 - 733
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    This paper discusses the transmission design criteria and limiting factors of an experimental synchronous token ring implemented at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory. The following key aspects are addressed: 1) ring topology and wiring, 2) transmission, and 3) ring synchronization with phase-locked loops. Wiring of a ring is based on a two-level hierarchy with passive wiring concentrators placed at convenient locations in a building. Data are transmitted with differential Manchester code. Special emphasis is placed on the synchronization methods and on the parameters and tolerances which limit distance and number of stations that can be attached to a ring. An analysis of the behavior of a chain of repeaters under growing jitter is given. Also the various procedures for guaranteeing high reliability are outlined. An experimental token ring has been running since 1981, and has been tested extensively under extreme jitter and noise conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a High-Speed Word-Switched Transport Station

    Page(s): 740 - 750
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    A MININET "station" acts as a user concentrator into the MININET word-switched network where each word (of up to 16 bits) entering a network "port" is mapped into a single packet for immediate transmission through the network. The stations maintain highly transparent "virtual connections" between user devices. Among the important requirements for MININET are that, under saturation conditions, the communication resources of the network be shared fairly between the user devices and that the network possesses very short end-to-end propagation delays. The design of a station meeting these requirements, capable of processing over one million packets per second, is described. Its architecture is based on special-purpose processors which are functionally distributed. The biggest design challenge was to minimize the processing delay in the node while avoiding potential blockages and remaining fair. The final solution has been to use a master arbiter, which looks at the readiness of the ports and channels in conjunction with connection, routing, and flow control information. The station management entities reside in a general-purpose microcomputer. These monitor and modify the operation of the high-speed processors, establish virtual connections, and support the routing algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Experiences with a Layered Approach to Local Area Network Design

    Page(s): 857 - 868
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    The Nestar Plan 4000 network was designed using the ISO Open Systems Interconnection model. The Xerox Network Systems Internet Transport Protocols (XNS) were chosen for the network and transport layers, a token-passing protocol (Arcnet) for the physical and datalink layers, and existing Nestar server software for the highest layers. The physical and datalink layers are supported by a VLSI chip and their implementation was straightforward. In spite of their detailed specification, implementing the network and transport layers presented some unanticipated challenges. This paper discusses details of our experience in implementing the network with emphasis on the problems encountered and how they were solved. View full abstract»

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  • Message Delay Analysis for Polling and Token Multiple-Access Schemes for Local Communication Networks

    Page(s): 935 - 947
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    Two efficient polling (token) schemes, which provide multiaccess coordination for local area networks, are described, analyzed, and compared. The two multiple-access polling protocols described here utilize gated and exhaustive disciplines in ordering the transmission of the messages buffered at each terminal. The delay-throughput performance behavior of polling schemes operating under the above mentioned disciplines is derived. Network terminals are modeled as independent sources, which generate messages in accordance with a renewal process. A queueing theoretic approach is employed in deriving the actual message delay. behavior of both schemes. Several comparisons are presented. Interesting results are obtained when we compare the average message waiting times in the case when the network traffic is completely balanced with the ease when this same traffic is mostly due to a single node. The latter case would arise, for example, m networks employing gateways. View full abstract»

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  • SILK: An Implementation of a Buffer Insertion Ring

    Page(s): 766 - 774
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    Ring topology local area networks (LAN's) using the "buffer insertion" access method have as yet received relatively little attention. In this paper we present details of a LAN of this,type, called SILK-system for integrated local communication (in German, "Kommunikation"). Sections of the paper describe the synchronous transmission technique of the ring channel, the time-multiplexed access of eight ports at each node, the "braided" interconnection for bypassing defective nodes, and the role of interface transformation units and user interfaces, as well as some traffic characteristics and reliability aspects. SILK's modularity and open system concept are demonstrated by the already implemented applications such as distributed text editing, local telephone or teletex exchange, and process control in a TV studio. View full abstract»

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  • The Principles and Performance of Hubnet: A 50 Mbit/s Glass Fiber Local Area Network

    Page(s): 711 - 720
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    The principles, some of the implementation details, and some performance results for Hubnet are given, Hubnet is a 50 Mbit/s local area network using glass fiber as a transmission medium. The performance of the network for different topologies and loads is analyzed. This analysis is supported by experience with prototype hardware. The network is shown to have excellent performance up to loads which are a large fraction of capacity. Hubnet uses a dual rooted tree structure with twin-fiber communications paths. This structure has not been reported previously in just this form. The network uses all seven layers of an early version of the proposed ISO Reference Model for Open Circuit Interconnection to implement its protocols. The protocols execute in 16 bit microprocessors embedded in the network access controllers within the network. View full abstract»

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  • The Architecture of an Integrated Local Network

    Page(s): 842 - 857
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    The DOMAIN system is an architecture for networks of personal workstations and servers which creates an integrated distributed computing environment. Its distinctive features include: a network-wide file system of objects addressed by unique identifiers (UID's); the abstraction of a single level store for transparently accessing all objects, regardless of their location in the network; and a network-wide hierarchical name space. The implementations of these facilities exhibit several interesting approaches to layering the system software. In addition to network transparent data access, interprocess communication is provided as a basis for constructing distributed applications; as a result, we have some experience to guide the choice between these two alternative implementation techniques. Networks utilizing this architecture have been Operational for almost three years; some experience with it and lessons derived from that experience are presented, as are some performance data. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Performance Analysis of Sliding Window Flow Control

    Page(s): 947 - 959
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    A transmitter breaks a message up into packets and transmits the packets to a receiver over a single virtual circuit within a local area network. The receiver has a finite amount of storage capacity for buffering messages. A sliding window protocol turns the transmitter on and off to ensure there is always storage room in the receiver for packets. Mean throughput rate and delay statistics are studied as a function of model parameters. View full abstract»

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  • LAN Protocol Validation and Evaluation

    Page(s): 790 - 802
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    We are using simulation to validate and evaluate the performance of the proposed IEEE 802.4 Token-Passing Bus Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol for local area networks. We will use our discussion of this modeling study to present our technique for protocol validation. We will also present some of our validation and performance results. Our modeling technique is unusual in two important respects. First, it transforms the formal specification of the protocol by a direct and simple technique into a simulation program. Second, testable assertions about the protocors expected behavior, under both normal and abnormal conditions, are easily transformed into simulation test cases. Our protocol validation technique runs test cases on the simulation model. These test cases are based upon "behavioral assertions" which were derived from the design objectives and expected use of the protocol. Our validation results are discussed in terms of the behavioral assertions tested and the success or failure of meeting these assertions. We also report on simulation performance predictions for some special test cases. View full abstract»

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  • CSMA/CD with Deterministic Contention Resolution

    Page(s): 877 - 884
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    This paper presents a novel media access protocol CSMA/CD with deterministic contention resolution (DCR) for a local area network. It usually operates as CSMA/CD, but once a collision occurs it resolves the collision using a kind of implicit token passing. An analysis was conducted on DCR performance characteristics based on simulation studies and in comparison to conventional CSMA/CD and implicit token passing. It was found that they were very satisfactory in terms of throughput, message delay, and delay standard deviation, these performance characteristics make DCR attractive as a media access protocol for combined voice and data traffic. It has also been shown that this protocol assures robustness against various kinds of transmission errors and station failures. A prototype of a local area network using this protocol has been developed. It consists of a pair of optical fiber buses to which each station is attached via a pair of directional couplers. View full abstract»

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  • S/NET: A High-Speed Interconnect for Multiple Computers

    Page(s): 751 - 756
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    This paper describes S/NET (symmetric network), a high-speed small area interconnect that supports effective multiprocessing using message-based communication. This interconnect provides low latency, bounded contention time, and high throughput. It further provides hardware support for low level flow control and signaling. The interconnect is a star network with an active switch. The computers connect to the switch through full duplex fiber links. The S/NET provides a simple memory addressable interface to the processors and appears as a logical bus interconnect. The switch provides fast, fair, and deterministic contention resolution. It further supports high priority signals to be sent unimpeded in presence of data traffic (this can viewed as equivalent to interrupts on a conventional memory bus). The initial implementation supports a mix of VAX computers and Motorola 68000 based single board computers up to a maximum of 12. The switch throughput is 80 Mbits/s and the fiber links operate at a data rate of 10 Mbits/s. The kernel-to-kernel latency is only 100 \mu s . We present a description of the architecture and discuss the performance of current systems. View full abstract»

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  • Fibernet II: A Fiber Optic Ethernet

    Page(s): 702 - 711
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    This paper describes a fiber optic local area network which has been designed for use as an Ethernet and is currently operating at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. The fiber optic network, named Fibernet II, is an active-star configured network which is plug compatible with Ethernet at the transceiver cable interface. Collision detection is performed in the active star and collision presence is transmitted to the Fibernet transceivers. The performance and capabilities of Fibernet II are presented along with the motivation for the particular fiber optic implementation that was realized. View full abstract»

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  • Error Handling in the IEEE 802 Token-Passing Bus LAN

    Page(s): 784 - 789
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    We review the IEEE 1983 802.4 Token-Passing Bus LAN protocol design objectives and operation, and discuss the general error handling philosophy which guided the protocol design decisions. We discuss the types of errors which may occur on a bus LAN and their causal mechanisms. We then discuss the specific error handling mechanisms incorporated in the IEEE Token Bus LAN protocol design. Note that we are reporting only some of the results of several years of work by the members of the Token Bus Working Group of the IEEE Project 802, with necessary omissions and apologies for this lack of completeness. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI Node Processor Architecture for Ethernet

    Page(s): 733 - 739
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    The VLSI Ethernet controller chips are discussed from a designer's viewpoint. Their method of operation is explained and design tradeoffs are presented with concentration placed on memory response requirements, memory location options relative to the VLSI devices, and the effects of FIFO depth on performance. A "common sense" architecture for an Ethernet node processor with application to many classes of Ethernet nodes is suggested to conclude the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Overview of a Broad-Band Local Area Network Protocol Architecture

    Page(s): 832 - 841
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    The protocol architecture of a broad-band local area network (LAN) must consider a realm of issues ranging from user device requirements to the characteristics of the underlying broad-band cable medium. The primary environment for which these protocols are intended consists of a collection of multichannel broad-band local networks, connected by point-to-point links. This paper describes one example of a broad-band LAN protocol architecture, LocalNet (TMSytek Inc.). Particular attention is paid to those design decisions and practical considerations which were prompted by the intended environment. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a Universal Data Transport System

    Page(s): 803 - 816
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    It is anticipated that a ubiquitous data transport system will require integration of local area and wide area networks. The combined network will need to present a uniform appearance to the user, be effective as a transport mechanism for a great variety of traffic patterns, and be economically appropriate for a wide range of consumer products. Learning from telephony and from experiments with a local area network, we conclude that the transport system must seek a clean separation of function and protocol between the network and its users. This separation is achieved by a byte-stream architecture that carries control and data bytes over switched virtual circuits. A DATAKIT packet switch demonstrates how the byte-stream concept can integrate local area and wide area network objectives. This switch is an assembly of interface modules connected by a pair of short passive buses. Each type of interface module serves one type of remote equipment and, if need be, terminates the protocol of that equipment. There are interface modules for trunks that lead to other packet switches, for terminals, and for host computers. Other modules provide system timing, switching, network control, and maintenance support. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of Unidirectional Broadcast Local Area Networks: Expressnet and Fasnet

    Page(s): 913 - 926
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    Local area communication networks based on packet broadcasting techniques provide simple architectures and flexible and efficient operation. Unidirectional broadcast systems use a unidirectional transmission medium which, due to their physical ordering on the medium, users can access according to some efficient distributed conflict-free round-robin algorithm. Two systems of this type have been presented in the literature: Expressnet and Fasnet. In this paper we briefly describe these two. We identify three different service disciplines achievable by these systems and discuss and compare the performance of each. These systems overcome some of the performance limitations of existing random-access schemes, making them particularly well suited to the high bandwidth requirements Of an integrated services digital local network. View full abstract»

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  • Cable-Based Metro Area Networks

    Page(s): 816 - 831
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    This paper examines the system design considerations of metropolitan area networks utilizing cable television networks for the delivery of a variety of services to residential customers. Specifically, this paper focuses on the technology, marketplace, and regulatory aspects of this new and expanding market. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT