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High Performance Devices, 2002. Proceedings. IEEE Lester Eastman Conference on

Date 8-8 Aug. 2002

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  • Proceedings IEEE Lester Eastman Conference on High Performance Devices (Cat. No.02CH37365)

    Publication Year: 2002
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  • Professor Lester F. Eastman

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A brief biography of Professor Lester F. Eastman is given highlighting his professional achievements. Professor Eastman is one of the world leaders in the physics and technology of compound semiconductor materials and devices. He has invented, fabricated, and investigated many novel semiconductor materials and devices, and his work on so many occasions has resulted in breakthroughs enabling important practical applications. The best solid-state device groups have followed his ideas with great success, and his former students and associates work in leadership positions in hundreds of leading companies, research laboratories and Universities in the United States and around the globe. View full abstract»

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  • Inversion channel MOSFETs in 3C-SiC on silicon

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 83 - 89
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 505 - 508
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  • Lessons in compound semiconductor device development

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 9 - 21
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    This paper is a mixture of personal opinion and technical fact merged to serve as a general guideline for compound semiconductor device choices. It may be construed as opinionated and contain several generalizations, but it is a result of the path taken by the author and results learned. The crucial importance of materials research in device development is the most important theme in the paper. Also, the need to minimize the complexity of device fabrication is also emphasized. View full abstract»

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  • Simulations of high linearity and high efficiency of class B power amplifiers in GaN HEMT technology

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 101 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the design and simulation of highly linear and highly efficient common source class B power amplifiers. Efficient broadband class B push-pull amplifiers are not feasible at microwave frequencies as baluns with desired broadband even-mode impedance are unavailable. We find, however, that a single-ended class B amplifier with bandpass filtering has an equivalent efficiency and linearity. Simulations of class B designs predict a power added efficiency (PAE) of 48% with 40 dBc of third order intermodulation product (IMD3) performance when biased close to the pinch-off voltage. View full abstract»

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  • MMIC compatible AlSb/InAs HEMT with stable AlGaSb buffer layers

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 276 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present state-of-the-art fT and fmax results of 130 GHz, and 110 GHz for AlSb/InAs HEMTs with AlGaSb/AlSb metamorphic buffer layers that demonstrate InAs-channel HEMTs that are stable with exposure to air and are compatible with standard MMIC production processes. View full abstract»

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  • The status of fiber optics

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 22 - 23
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    This paper gives a general review of the historical development and current status of the fiber optic industry. It encompasses such technical topics as erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), semiconductor lasers, dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) systems, fiber networks, LiNbO based modulators, and dispersion compensation. In addition, it discussed the economic infrastructure of the fiber optics industry and the role played by basic materials and device development. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular beam deposition of low-resistance polycrystalline InAs

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 207 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    We report low-resistance Si-doped polycrystalline InAs (poly-InAs:Si) using molecular beam deposition. We believe this to be the first report of low resistance in poly-InAs. The poly-InAs:Si was deposited using conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) onto SiNx coated GaAs substrates at various growth temperatures and deposition rates. Poly-InAs samples with thicknesses of 2000 Å and 1000 Å were grown for Hall and TLM measurements, respectively. We have observed electron concentrations from 8.8×1018 to 1.5×1019 cm-3 and respective mobilities from 886 to 441 cm2/Vs. This range of values suggests that the poly-InAs:Si has a doping-mobility product, and hence bulk conductivity, that is only 3-4 times lower than that of similarly doped InGaAs lattice-matched to InP. The typical bulk resistivity determined by TLM measurements is approximately 1.4×10-3 Ω-cm. Contact resistance to the poly-InAs with a Ti/Pt/Au metal stack less than 1.6×10-7 Ω-cm2. The combined low contact access resistance and low junction capacitance found in poly-InAs:Si may be useful in a variety of III-V device applications. View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of power and efficiency of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on the load resistance for class B bias

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 118 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The material properties of GaN and the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure such as high breakdown field and high sheet charge density, allow AlGaN/GaN HEMTs to be operated at significantly higher drain bias voltages as compared to other III-V compound semiconductor FETs. As expected, larger RF voltage and current swings result in higher normalized output power at microwave frequencies. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are capable of generating output power density in excess of 10 W/mm in the X-band, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than what is obtainable with GaAs FETs. In this paper, we discuss the effect of the load impedance on measured output power (Pout) and efficiency (η) at various drain bias conditions in class B mode. Dynamic loadlines; extracted at the device's output are used for analysis of the trade-off between voltage and current swings at different load resistances and its effect on output power and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal and trapping effects in GaN-based MESFETs

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 108 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RF power performances of GaN-MESFETs are reported using a physics-based model that incorporates dispersion in the output resistance and transconductance due to traps and thermal effects. Calculated I-V characteristics are in excellent agreement with the measured results. Taking thermal effects into account, the maximum output power of a 0.3 μm×100 μm GaN MESFET is 22 dBm at a power gain of 4.2 dB at 4 GHz. The corresponding quantities are 27 dBm and 6.4 dB, respectively if a constant channel temperature of 300 K is assumed. At elevated temperatures, compression in output power, gain and PAE is less in MESFETs with longer gate lengths. View full abstract»

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  • InP/InGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors grown on Ge/P co-implanted InP substrates by metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 245 - 247
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    InP/InGaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) have demonstrated excellent high-frequency performance and are widely used for optical fiber transmission. However, the current mesa HBT structure utilizes a very thick, highly doped n+InGaAs layer for the subcollector contact. This added mesa height makes multi-level interconnection processes more difficult, which impedes the capability of fabricating compact integrated circuits. In addition, InP has a much higher thermal conductivity than InGaAs, so heat dissipation may be a problem for densely packed circuits with the above structure. This paper reports on InP/InGaAs HBTs grown on Ge/P co-implanted substrates by Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MOMBE). This embedded subcollector HBT structure offers several advantages for the fabrication of large-scale integrated circuits on InP substrates. View full abstract»

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  • DC and RF performance of InAs-based bipolar transistors at very low bias

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 281 - 286
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We fabricated metamorphic InAs bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with a narrow bandgap in the base to reduce operating voltages, and we report RF results that we believe to be the first published for InAs-based bipolar transistors. InAs BJTs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates using strain-relief graded InAlAs buffer layers and optimized graded emitter-base and collector-base junctions. Large area devices (75×75 μm2 emitter) exhibit DC current gain β of 85. Higher β exceeding 100 was observed from tunneling-emitter bipolar transistors with various InAlAs barrier designs, indicating lower holes injection from the base to the emitter. Small-area devices have been fabricated using the standard front-side process from our InP HBT line. Microwave properties measured from devices with emitter size of 1.5×10 μm2 were very promising, showing a cutoff frequency over 50 GHz in devices with thick base and collector layers. An extremely low base-emitter voltage of 0.3 V was measured at peak frequency. These InAs-based bipolar transistors on InP substrates with good DC and RF performance demonstrate the viability of future narrow bandgap heterojunction bipolar transistors with state-of-the-art speed performance at low operating voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 374 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5 dB and return loss better than -17 dB, from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method.. Split-block waveguide packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe and antipodal finline. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrafast optical manipulation of ferromagnetic order in InMnAs/GaSb

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 307 - 314
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    We have performed a two-color time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) study of a ferromagnetic InMnAs/GaSb heterostructure. We observed ultrafast photo-induced changes in the MOKE signal induced by a large density of spin-polarized transient carriers created only within the InMnAs layer using intense 140 fs mid-infrared pulses. Our data clearly demonstrates that magnetic properties, e.g., remanence and coercivity, can be strongly modified. The dependence of these changes on the time delay, pump polarization, pump intensity, and sample temperature is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Epitaxial ternary and quaternary III-V antimonide substrates

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 213 - 222
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    Modified liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) techniques can be adapted for the growth of relatively thick (50 to 500 micron) epitaxial layers of ternary and quaternary Ill-V antimonide alloys, including InAsSb, InGaSb, AlGaAsSb, InGaAsSb, and InAsSbP. These structures can function as 'virtual' substrates with adjustable lattice constants for epitaxy of various optoelectronic devices such as mid-infrared photodiodes. A variety of substrate structures can be realized either by effecting gradual, continuous compositional grading of thick epilayers, or by growing multilayers with abrupt but incremental compositional changes between adjacent layers. Both approaches can be combined with selective removal of the seeding substrate and wafer bonding techniques. Low-defect alloy substrates with increased functionality, and with lattice constants and bandgaps significantly different than available with binary compound wafers (e.g., InAs or GaSb), appear feasible. View full abstract»

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  • AlGaAsSb-InGaAsSb-GaSb epitaxial heterostructures for uncooled infrared detectors

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 297 - 306
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    Lattice matched n-type AlGaAsSb-InGaAsSb-GaSb heterostructures for uncooled infrared detectors, including separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAM-APD), as well as low-voltage InGaAsSb APDs, were grown using inexpensive liquid phase epitaxy. Formation of the pn-junction was performed through diffusion of Zn from the vapor phase. Responsivity at λ=2 μm as high as 3.5 A/W was achieved in InGaAsSb APD biased at 8 V with the avalanche multiplication starting at 6 V. Our calculations have shown that the above parameters can result in a NEP value as low as 1×10-12 W or D* value as high as 2×1010 cm×Hz12//W at room temperature for 400 μm diameter (200 μm diameter photoactive area) APDs. View full abstract»

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  • InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 343 - 351
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    InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) are some of the fastest bipolar transistors ever fabricated, with current gain cutoff and maximum oscillation frequencies simultaneously exceeding 300 GHz while maintaining breakdown voltages BVCEO >6 V. InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs are particularly appealing because excellent device figures of merit are achievable with relatively simple structures involving abrupt junctions and uniform doping levels and compositions. This is a tremendous manufacturability advantage and the reason why some organizations have moved aggressively toward GaAsSb DHBT production despite a relative scarcity of information on the physical properties of the GaAsSb alloy in comparison to GaInAs. The present paper reviews some of the key concepts associated with the use of GaAsSb base layers, and discusses the physical operation of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs. In particular, we describe the implications of the staggered band lineup at the E/B and B/C heterojunctions for charge storage in the devices, and show that InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBTs offer inherent advantages from that point of view. We also show that GaAsSb-based DHBTs can be expected to display better scalability than GaInAs-based devices because of their inherently superior base ohmic contacts. View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond time-resolved cyclotron resonance study of InSb quantum wells in a quantizing magnetic field

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 228 - 232
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    Using two-color pump-probe spectroscopy in a magnetic field, we have measured the time-resolved cyclotron resonance of photogenerated transient carriers in undoped and doped InSb quantum wells. We used an intense femtosecond pulse of near-infrared (NIR) radiation from a Ti:sapphire-based regenerative amplifier to create a large density of nonequilibrium carriers, which modifies the transmission of a delayed pulse of far-infrared (FIR) radiation from a free-electron laser. We monitored the dynamics of FIR transmission while varying the magnetic field and the time delay between the NIR and FIR pulses. Our data clearly show that the average electron cyclotron mass decreases as the electrons relax towards the band edge, as expected from the strong nonparabolicity of the InSb conduction band. Detailed lineshape analysis combined with Landau level calculations allowed us to determine the time evolution of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function of nonequilibrium. two-dimensional carriers in a quantizing magnetic field. View full abstract»

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  • CCD measurements of guided optical mode attenuation in GaN layers

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 248 - 253
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wide band gap and strong piezoelectric effects make GaN-based materials attractive for visible and ultraviolet optoelectronic applications, especially for optical integration devices. The optical waveguide is a fundamental component of integrated optical devices. The measurement of the propagation loss is essential for waveguide characterization, where the loss is due to absorption and scattering. The conventional methods require the measurement of the absolute optical power, polishing of sample edges, and, sometimes, the sliding of a coupling prism. Therefore, the conventional techniques are not very convenient or controllable. In this paper, a straightforward method has been proposed to characterize the attenuation of guided modes in GaN layer by employing a CCD system. As an optical mode propagates in the waveguide, the light is scattered and a characteristic light track appears on the waveguide surface. It is assumed that the scattered light is proportional to the guided mode intensity. By taking a digital picture of the track for each guided mode, the light intensity variation along the track is obtained. We used this technique to measure the attenuation of guided optical modes in multi-mode GaN layers grown by MOCVD on (0001) sapphire substrates. The results demonstrate that the CCD technique is a fast, convenient and reliable method to characterize attenuation in optical waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • SiGe diffusion barriers for P-doped Si/SiGe resonant interband tunnel diodes

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 265 - 269
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Si/SiGe resonant interband tunnel diodes (RITD) employing δ-doping spikes of P and B that demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature are presented. Thin SiGe layers sandwiching the B δ-doping spike used to suppress B out-diffusion are discussed. Three structures were investigated in this study. Structure A, which employed a symmetrical 1 nm Si /4 nm Si0.6Ge0.4/1 nm Si (1/4/1) spacer, showed a peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 2.7 after 1 minute annealing at 725°C. Structure B with an asymmetrical 0 nm Si/4 nm Si0.6Ge0.4/2 nm Si (0/4/2) spacer configuration showed a PVCR of 3.2 after 1 minute annealing at 800°C. Structure C, which is the same as Structure B, except that a 1 nm Si0.6Ge0.4 cladding layer was grown below the B δ-layer, further improved PVCR to 3.6 after 1 minute annealing at 825°C. Results clearly show that, by introducing SiGe layers to clad the B delta-doping layer, the B diffusion is suppressed during the post growth annealing, which raises the thermal budget. A higher RTA temperature appears to be more effective in eliminating defects and results in a lower valley current and higher PVCR. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon tunnel diodes formed by proximity rapid thermal diffusion

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 393 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate the first silicon tunnel diodes formed using proximity rapid thermal diffusion and spin-on diffusants. Room temperature peak-to-valley current ratio (PVR) of 2 is obtained at approximately 100 A/cm2 peak current density. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy is used to compare proximity rapid thermal diffusion with rapid thermal diffusion from spin-coated diffusants in direct contact with a device wafer. The proximity rapid thermal diffusion approach provides a cleaner wafer surface for subsequent processing and yields tunnel diodes with good local uniformity. View full abstract»

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  • Antimony-based quaternary alloys for high-speed low-power electronic devices

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 288 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Heterojunction bipolar transistors using InzGa1-zSb for the base and InxAl1-xAsySb1-y alloys for the collector and emitter have been explored. Modeling of the DC current-voltage characteristics indicate that current gain in excess of 500 may be obtained. The calculations show that the gain is a function of the base-collector conduction band offset. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) procedures for growing suitable alloys with a 6.2 Å lattice constant are under development. Double crystal X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Hall effect, and atomic force microscopy have been used to determine the quality of the materials grown. To minimize stress-induced defects, the InxAl1-xAsySb1-y alloys were grown on undoped GaSb substrates with an AlSb buffer layer. The photoluminescence data indicate that good quality InxAl1-xAsySb1-y (x=0.52 and y=0.3) with a band gap near 1 eV, is obtained using growth temperatures between 350 and 400°C. Superior surface morphology is also found for growths in this temperature range. Te has been used to dope InxAl1-xAsySb1-y n-type in the 1017 cm-3 range. Good diode characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.1 have been obtained for InxAl1-xAsySb1-y p-n junctions grown using Te for the n-type dopant and Be for the p-type. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance power BJTs in 4H-SiC

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 50 - 57
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    In this paper, we summarize recent progress in 4H-SiC BJTs at Purdue University. For 50 μm collector devices, BVCEO>3,200 V is achieved. Large devices (active area=1.05 mm2) exhibit common emitter current gain β of around 15, and. specific on-resistance RON,SP of 78 mΩ/cm2. Smaller devices (active area=0.0072 mm2) have β of 20 and RON,SP of 28 mΩ/cm2. For 20 μm collector devices, βs greater than 50 and RON,SP around 26 mΩ/cm2 are observed. The blocking voltage is low (500-700 V) for these devices because of aluminum spiking during the base contact anneal. The observed positive temperature coefficient of RON,SP and negative coefficient of β show that 4H-SiC BJTs can be safely operated in parallel connection. We also observe that β decreases as the spacing between base contact implant and emitter finger is reduced. We attribute this to recombination at defect sites in the p+ implanted base contact. View full abstract»

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  • Ge incorporation in SiC and the effects on device performance

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 201 - 206
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Silicon carbide has been given much attention as a promising material for use in high-voltage and high-power devices. The absence of closely lattice-matched materials precludes the existence of heterostructure devices with good properties. The availability of a lattice-matched heterojunction partner should allow for new SiC-based devices that can exploit the heterojunction band offsets to enhance device properties. Silicon-carbide:germanium (SiC:Ge) alloys were formed by ion implantation of Ge into 4H-SiC wafers at 1000°C. We have observed the resultant SiC:Ge material to have favorable properties, such as good crystal structure, interface quality and electrical characteristics. Diodes and bipolar transistors have been fabricated using these layers. These devices have been characterized for properties including forward current density and transistor gain. In this paper we report on the effects of Ge incorporation on devices formed using SiC:Ge layers. View full abstract»

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