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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date April 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 6 of 6
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The wind-speed measurement capability of spaceborne radar altimeters

    Page(s): 59 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    This study represents an attempt to quantitatively assess the capability of a spaceborne radar altimeter to infer ocean surface wind speeds from a measurement of the backscattered power at vertical incidence. The study uses data acquired during 184 near overflights of NOAA data buoys with the GEOS-3 satellite radar altimeter and encompasses a wind-speed range from less than 1 to 18 m/s. An algorithm is derived from the data comparison for converting measurements of the normalized scattering cross section of the ocean surface at 13.9 GHz into estimates of the surface wind speed at the standard anemometer height of 10 m. The algorithm is straightforward and potentially useful for on-board processing of raw altimeter data for the purpose of providing real-time estimates of surface wind speed. For winds in the range of 1 to 18 m/s, the mean difference between the altimeter-inferred winds and the buoy measurements is negligible while the standard deviation of the difference is 1.74 m/s. View full abstract»

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  • Static and dynamic modeling of a SAR imaged ocean scene

    Page(s): 41 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    A number of models exist that attempt to explain wave imagery obtained with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). These models are of two types; static models that depend on instantaneous surface features and dynamic models that employ surface velocities. Radar backscatter values ( \sigma _{0} ) were calculated from 1.3- and 9.4-GHz SAR data collected off Marineland, FL. The \sigma _{0} data (averaged over many wave trains) collected at Marineland can best be modeled by the Bragg-Rice-Phillips model which is based on roughness variation and the complex dielectric constant of oceans. This result suggests that capillaries on the surface of oceanic waves are the primary cause for the surface return observed by a SAR. Salinity and temperature of the sea at small and medium incidence angles produce little effect upon sea-surface reflection coefficients at X -band, for either of the linear polarizations. The authors' observation of moving ocean, imaged by the SAR and studied in the SAR optical correlator, support a theory that the ocean surface appears relatively stationary in the absence of currents. The reflecting surface is most likely moving slowly (i.e., capillaries) relative to the phase velocity of the large gravity waves. View full abstract»

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  • Gravity-wave-induced pressure fluctuations in the deep ocean

    Page(s): 50 - 58
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    We establish a mathematically consistent theory of the pseudo-sound pressure fluctuation in the deep ocean induced by nonlinearly interacting random plane waves on the surface. In the process, a new set of the second-order perturbation equations is derived and power-correlation coefficients between random plane waves are introduced. A phenomenological model is adopted for wind pressure which excites the surface waves consisting of wind-driven sea and swell. By solving the first-order- and the second-order-perturbation equations with this wind pressure as the excitation, we obtain an expression for the pressure fluctuation and its power spectral density in the gravity-wave regime. It is concluded that only the swell part of the surface waves generates the pressure fluctuation and the spectral density is modified by the power correlation coefficient. View full abstract»

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  • Remote and synoptic water-wave measurements by aerial photography: A model, experimental results, and an application

    Page(s): 63 - 69
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    Aerial photography can be an important source of information regarding surface waves and oceanic features that affect the propagation of these waves. This correspondence briefly reviews the parameters involved in aerial photography of coherent trains of surface waves, including the effects of water reflectance, waves, and sun and cloud conditions, on wave imaging in aerial photos. It also describes an analytical model of the specular reflection of sunlight by surface waves, together with experimental results from an outdoor wave facility. Analytical expressions are derived for the accuracy of wavelength measurements using aerial photos of waves in the glitter pattern. Further, it treats wave slope determination from aerial photos of idealized waves and presents experimental results from an outdoor wave facility. The application of remote synoptic surface flow determination by imaging of surface waves is briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca