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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 1 • Date January 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 0
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  • Introduction to the Special Issue on the Practical Salinity Scale 1978

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): c4
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  • The electrical conductivity of weight diluted and concentrated standard seawater as a function of salinity and temperature

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 28 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The ratios R_{s,t,o} of electrical conductivity of seawater samples of precisely known salinity to standard seawater at the same temperature have been measured over a wide range of salinities from 0 to 42^{0}/_{00} S and over the full range of oceanic temperatures from -2 to 35\deg C. The samples with S< 35^{0}/_{00} were prepared by accurate weight dilution of standard seawater with distilled water. High salinity samples were prepared by fast evaporation of standard seawater and subsequent weight dilution into the already determined < 35^{0}/_{00} range. An equation was derived which expresses the S versus R_{s,t,o} relationship very precisely from 1-42^{0}/_{00} and at all temperatures, i.e., S = f_{1}(R_{s,t,o}) + f_{2}(R_{s, t,o},t) =\Sigma _{n=0}^{5} a_{n}R^{n/2}+ frac{\Delta t}{1+k\Delta t} \Sigma _{n=0}^{5} b_{n}R^{n/2} where \Delta t = t-15\deg C, R = R_{s, t.o} ; only the first term f_{1} is required at 15\deg C. The effeet of temperature on the electrical conductivity of standard seawater was also measured. The ratio r_{t} of the conductivity at temperature t to the conductivity at 15\deg C ( C_{35,t, o}/C_{35,15,o} ) is very aeenrately expressed by a fourth degree equation in t . i.e, r_{t}=\Sigma _{n=0}^{4} c_{n}t^{n} These two equations are sufficient for all salinity determinations at normal atmospheric pressure. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical conductivity of seawater

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 50 - 62
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    Measurements of some temperature and pressure dependent relationships of the electrical conductivity of seawater at various salinities were made using four-electrode conductivity cells. At atmospheric pressure the measurements were of the effect of temperature over the range from the freezing point to about 35\deg C on 1) r_{T} (the ratio of the electrical conductivity of 35^{0}/_{00} seawater at temperature T to that at 15\deg C) and 2) R_{T} (the ratio of the electrical conductivity of a given seawater at temperature T to that of 35^{0}/_{00} seawater at the same temperature) at various salinities. The results under 1) have been combined with those of Dauphinee [1] and expressed as a fourth degree equation in temperature by Perkin and Lewis [2]. The results under 2) confirm the temperature dependence of the findings of Dauphinee [1] and of Poisson [4] for R_{T} as a function of salinity (weight dilution) at various temperatures. Measurements of the effect of pressure on the electrical conductivity of seawater were made for salinities of 2, 14, 22, and 35^{0}/_{00} over pressure and temperature ranges of 0 to 1000 bars above atmospheric pressure and the freezing point to 30\deg C, respectively. These results complement those of our earlier work [5] using a two-electrode conductivity cell on 31, 35, and 39\hbox{ }^{0}/_{00} salinity seawaters over approximately the same pressure and temperature ranges. "Best" least squares polynomial fits in pressure and temperature to the new and to the old observed values of percentage increase in conductivity at 35^{0}/_{00} agree within the equivalent of 0.006^{0}/_{00} salinity at 1000 bars. The accuracy of the new results, which at 35^{0}/_{00} is probably not worse than the equivalent of 0.003^{0}/_{00} salinity at 1000 bars, is superior to that of the earlier ones. Perkin and Lewis [2] have fitted rational functions in P, T, R, and \sqrt {R} where R is the ratio of the electrical conductivity at P, T, and salinity S to that at 0 bars, 15\deg C and 35^{0}/_{00} , to the combined old and new edited data. They obtained a standard deviation of 1.3-ppm salinity fo- r their oceanographic fit and a standard deviation of 1.3-ppm salinity for their general fit. View full abstract»

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  • The concentration of the KCl solution whose conductivity is that of standard seawater (35 ‰) at 15°C

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 24 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The concentration of the potassium chloride solution (KCI) which has the same conductivity as 15\deg C at P79 standard seawater corrected to 35.0000^{0}/_{00} has been evaluated. The variation of the conductivity ratio of KCI solutions to standard seawater ( 35^{0}/_{00} ) has been measured between 14.8 and 15.2\deg C for KCI solutions whose concentration varies from 32 to 33 g.kg-1. View full abstract»

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  • The Practical Salinity Scale 1978: Fitting the data

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Three equations have been fitted to new data relating the electrical conductivity of seawater to the Practical Salinity Scale 1978. These equations have been designed for the reduction of in-situ measurements of temperature, pressure, and conductivity from anywhere in the world oceans. The standard deviation of the fit is roughly equivalent to \pm 0.0015^{0}/_{00} in salinity depending on the pressure at which the data is taken and, as such is commensurate with the best accuracy attainable with modern instruments. View full abstract»

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  • The practical salinity scale 1978 and its antecedents

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 3 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    The history of the definition of salinity and the methods of computing It are traced from the beginning of the twentieth century until the present. Difficulties that have arisen in existing practices are discussed, in particular, the situation regarding reduction of in-situ CTD observations. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is an attempt to remove the shortcomings; it has been recommended for international acceptance. The basis for this new scale is an equation relating the ratio of the electrical conductivity of the seawater sample to that of a standard potassium chloride solution (KCI) at 15\deg C atmospheric pressure. The samples used were prepared from standard seawater diluted with distilled water or evaporated by weight. Finally, the set of new equations for CTD data reduction is given, based upon the work of authors whose papers are appearing elsewhere in this volume. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of concentration and temperature on the conductivity ratio of potassium chloride solutions to standard seawater of salinity 35 ‰(Cl 19.3740 ‰)

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 17 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The ratios Z_{K,t} of electrical conductivities of potassium chloride (KCI) solutions of known concentration ( K ) to standard seawater at the same temperature have been measured at 15\deg C and 24\deg C for solutions with Z_{k,15} between 0.96 and 1.04. The "normal" concentration ( N or K_{N} ) giving Z_{N,15}= 1 was found to be K_{N} = 32.4356 gKCI/kg solution. The effect of temperature on Z_{N,t} was measured over the range 15\deg C to 30\deg C. Equations are given for KCI concentration as a function of Z_{15} and the inverse function, for Z_{15}/Z_{24} as a function of Z_{24} (to allow use of a laboratory salinometer for the KCI-seawater comparisons), and Z_{N,t} as a function of temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the concentration of potassium chloride solution having the same electrical conductivity, at 15°C and infinite frequency, as standard seawater of salinity 35.0000 ‰ (Chlorinity 19.37394 ‰)

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 22 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The absolute electrical conductivity at 15\deg C of several lots of standard seawater has been measured with great precision as a function of chlorinity. Potassium chloride (KCI) solutions of known concentration and having almost the same conductivity were also measured and the concentration giving the same conductivity at 15\deg C as 35.0000^{0}/_{00} standard seawater (Chl = 19.37394^{0}/_{00} ) was found to be 32.4352 g/kg. View full abstract»

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  • Conductivity/salinity/temperature relationship of diluted and concentrated standard seawater

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 41 - 50
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    The conductivity ratio of diluted and concentrated standard seawater has been measured very accurately in a salinity range from 0 to 42^{0}/_{00} and at temperature from -1 to 30\deg C. All the data have been fitted into polynomials which are compared with previous data. The specific conductance of seawater is deduced and a polynomial for the full range of salinity and temperature is proposed. Data presented in this paper have been used, with those of Dauphinee presented in this issue, to elaborate the new "Practical Salinity Scale 1978." View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca