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IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering

Issue 2 • April 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): 0
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  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):145 - 146
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  • Panel discussion summary [HF radar technology for ocean-surface remote sensing and surveillance]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):147 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)

    Following the presentation of papers at the IEEE/URSI Special Session on HF Radar at Vancouver, B.C., Canada, an afternoon was devoted to discussion of the status of HF radar technology for ocean-surface remote sensing and surveillance. Participants included previous speakers and authors, as well as members of the audience. The status summary can be grouped into two categories: the capabilities of... View full abstract»

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  • Offshore structural engineering

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):340 - 341
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  • Applied oceanography

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): 341
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): c4
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  • An evaluation of least-squares and closed-form dual-angle methods for CODAR surface-current applications

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):322 - 326
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    Extraction of surface currents from first-order CODAR sea echo requires use of a model that allows signals from two bearings to contribute to the Doppler spectrum at a given frequency. This is called the dual-angle situation, and it applies over much of the coverage area. Two dual-angle techniques have appeared in the literature: a least-squares algorithm used with a crossed-loop antenna system, a... View full abstract»

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  • The role of the gravity-wave dispersion relation in HF radar measurements of the sea surface

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):286 - 292
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)

    Recent experimental and theoretical findings raise interesting questions about the applicability of the normal gravity-wave dispersion relation at wave frequencies that exceed the spectral peak frequency. The use of the dispersion relation in analysis of HF radar Doppler sea echo is examined in this paper. Drawing on the results of perturbation theory for wave-wave nonlinear interactions, we show ... View full abstract»

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  • Correcting for distorted antenna patterns in CODAR ocean surface measurements

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):304 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)

    CODAR systems employ compact antenna elements such as electrically small loops and monopoles to extract bearing information in ocean surface observations. Past analysis methods have assumed that these element patterns are perfect, i.e., cosine and omnidirectional. Operations from metallic offshore platforms usually distort these patterns because of unavoidable objects in their near field. When suc... View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of HF ground-wave radar on the east coast of Canada

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):246 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)

    HF ground-wave radar runs of roughly ten days duration were carded out in two tidally dominated regions off the Canadian East Coast in conjunction with oceanographic experiments. The surface current deduced from the HF radar observations are here compared with Eulerian velocities from various moored current meters and Lagrangian velocities derived from surface drifters. The agreement with the curr... View full abstract»

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  • Microwave scattering by surface waves on water

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):316 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)

    The electromagnetic backscattering from small-amplitude water waves has been studied using a microwave model (2.5 GHz). The first- and second-order backscatter Doppler spectra have been measured and compared with the theoretical models, and good agreement has been found. In this paper, the specific case of two water waves propagating at right angles to each other will be presented, and the level o... View full abstract»

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  • Remote sensing of icebergs by ground-wave Doppler radar

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):276 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    A software detection model has been developed to predict the returned Doppler spectrum for an iceberg target for ground-wave Doppler radars. This software model is based on proposed new estimates for the backscattered Doppler-dependent iceberg cross section for assumed iceberg models, as well as the backscattered Doppler spectrum from the ocean surface. The model includes estimates for forward and... View full abstract»

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  • Two tests of real-time ocean wave-height mapping with HF skywave radar

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):180 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)

    An estimate of the coverage efficiency of a high-frequency (HF) skywave (ionospheric) radar for mapping ocean wave height and surface wind direction at ranges between 1000 and 3000 km was made for two different but common operational ocean-monitoring applications. In the first test, three days in duration, wind direction and wave height were mapped over the entire coverage area. In the second test... View full abstract»

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  • A review of methods of remote sensing of sea-surface conditions by HF radar and design considerations for narrow-beam systems

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):150 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    Present achievements in HF ground-wave radar remote mapping of surface currents and wave characteristics are reviewed, and the features of the different systems that are in use are described. Particular emphasis is given to the problems remaining to ensure effective mapping of nondirectional wave parameters and wave directional spectra over a sector of sea extending up to a range of 150-200 km fro... View full abstract»

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  • Detection of meteorological fronts over the North Sea with Valensole skywave radar

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):174 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)

    The skywave radar located at Valeusole is described. The front localization method is reviewed and discussed. Wind direction was mapped over the North Sea during a three-day experiment. Thirty maps were collected and two cold fronts were successfully detected and tracked. Data corresponding to one front are presented, discussed, and compared to French Meteorological Office (FMO) surface charts. Th... View full abstract»

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  • HF radar observations of Arctic pack-ice breakup

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):270 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    This paper describes the first reported high-resolution remote measurements of sea-ice velocities during the summer Arctic pack-ice breakup, made with a high-frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR, for Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar) located on Cross Island, Alaska. Each 36-min observation also gives the positions of the ice edge, the moving ice, and the open water, with an azimuthal and di... View full abstract»

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  • An analytical model for the HF backscattered Doppler spectrum for the ocean surface

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):293 - 295
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)

    An analysis previously developed for rough surface scattering with narrow-beam reception is extended to wide-beam or omnidirectional reception. The source is considered to be a pulsed electric dipole. The analysis includes multipathing effects on the received signal. The results are used to develop a model for the backscattered radar cross section of the ocean surface, up to a second-order approxi... View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution electromagnetic altimetry over the ocean

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):327 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    A pair of coils acting as transmitter and receiver of a harmonic electromagnetic (EM) wave is found to be an excellent high-resolution altimeter at low altitudes over ocean regions. Due to high seawater conductivity, the altimetric determination from a received signal is computationally simple. Experimental results obtained from the Cape Cod Bay area indicate that an EM altimeter may be superior i... View full abstract»

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  • CODAR in Germany--A status report valid November 1985

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):251 - 257
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    The use of CODAR by the University of Hamburg has extended to a wide variety of experimental and oceanographic activities over the last three years. These have ranged from Arctic studies from land and ships to observations of the Dead Sea, all yielding surface current data. Hardware improvements have been investigated, including IF amplifier changes and loop-antenna arrays for shipboard operation. View full abstract»

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  • A synthetic aperture sonar system capable of operating at high speed and in turbulent media

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):333 - 339
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    Despite their potential ability to produce highly resolved images of the seabed, synthetic aperture sonars are not widely used. The primary reason for this restricted use is that most synthetic aperture systems are based on the radiation and detection of short-duration modulated pulses. Due to the low speed of sound in water, the pulse repetition frequency is low and so it has been difficult to ma... View full abstract»

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  • An experimental investigation of skywave sea-state radar techniques at a latitude near the Auroral Zone

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):187 - 195
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)

    In 1980 the Communications Research Centre (CRC) undertook a limited experimental program to investigate the feasibility of measuring sea-state characteristics off the east coast of Canada by means of high-frequency skywave radar. The propagation path, from the radar receiver at Ottawa, Ontario, to the observation area east of Newfoundland and Labrador, was tangent to the auroral zone, at times wi... View full abstract»

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  • Multifrequency HF radar observations of currents and current shears

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):258 - 269
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1656 KB)

    Techniques have been developed for using high-frequency (HF) surface-wave radar to measure ocean currents and vertical current shears in the upper 1 or 2 m of the ocean surface. An HF radar can precisely measure the phase velocity and direction of propagation of ocean waves whose wavelength is one.half the radar wavelength. In the absence of a current, the speed of the waves is given by the still-... View full abstract»

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  • Tidal and storm-surge measurements with single-site CODAR

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):241 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)

    In this paper we describe the results of a detailed analysis of CODAR measurements made from a single site during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). The passage of a storm front generated a surge followed by wind and current reversal, superimposed on the normal semi-diurnal tides. These data have been used previously to illustrate methods for the extraction of surface-curr... View full abstract»

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  • HF radar measurements of ocean wave parameters during NURWEC

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):219 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)

    The Netherlands/U.K. Radar, Wavebuoy Experimental Comparison (NURWEC) was a collaborative experiment between the University of Birmingham, the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat (RWS), and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS), and was designed to assess the availability and accuracy of ocean wave data using the University of Birmingham (BU) ground-wave radar. The experiment lasted for two months durin... View full abstract»

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  • On the application of HF ocean radar to the observation of temporal and spatial changes in wind direction

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):210 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    The application of a 30-MHz narrow-beam ground-wave ocean radar to the observation of wind directions is described. It is found that the \cos^{s} (\theta/2) model for wind-wave directions does not apply in a specific case of shallow water where swell waves are behaving nonlinearly. To experimentally extract unambiguous wind directions from this model requires... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is the online-only quarterly publication of the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca