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Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Connectors in Very-High-Speed Digital Circuits

    Page(s): 256 - 261
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    The properties of standard card edge, printed circuit, and flat cable connectors have been investigated from the point of view of transmitting pulses with very short rise times. A simple theory based on linear approximation of the leading and trailing edges of the actual pulse waveform is derived to predict the effect of impedance mismatch caused by the connector. Experimental confirmation of the theory, measurements of popular types of connectors, and extrapolation of experience with a 350-Mb/s logic network confirm that, under certain conditions, the currently available connectors can be used with pulse rise times longer than 250 ps and with interconnection impedances from 50 to 100 ohms. Transmission lines matched at both ends and/or balanced pairs are preferred for interconnections between different parts of a very fast (greater than 250-Mb/s) pulse system. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Temperature on Stress Relaxation in a Chill-Cast, Tin-Lead Solder

    Page(s): 243 - 246
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    Data on the compressive stress relaxation of chill-cast 60/40 tin-lead solders for two loads, 6.89 and 24.8 MN/m2 (mega newtons/ square meter) and for temperatures from 27 to 108°C are presented. For the complete temperature range tested, it is shown that the stress relaxation can be modeled as an Arrhenius reaction-rate process with an activation energy of 0.65 eV This activation energy is in close agreement with solder activation energies inferred from earlier studies of self-diffusion, creep, and creep rupture. This suggests that the stress relaxation is diffusion dominated for the temperature range studied, and that the present results may be extended to other tin-lead solders by using available correlations. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Electrically Insulative Adhesives for Use in Hybrid Microcircuit Fabrication

    Page(s): 199 - 207
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    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the fabrication of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will ensure sufficient compatibility with microcircuit components and metallization systems to meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of military and space applications. The initial results of a study directed to the task of selecting suitable evaluation tests which can form the basis for such guidelines for electrically insulative adhesives are presented. The properties of adhesives considered to be of major importance for the proposed application are enumerated and briefly commented on. Polymeric types of adhesives are briefly reviewed and the major epoxy resin-curing agent systems comprising the adhesives that are commercially available and represented as being specifically designed for microelectronic use are identified. Specific tests to determine the chemical and electrolytic corrosivity of adhesives to commonly used metallization systems, their long term outgassing after cure, and their bond strengths under a variety of conditions are defined and discussed in detail. Comparative results obtained to date from these tests are given for five representative adhesives. All are epoxies cured with a different major type of curing agent: a primary secondary amine, a tertiary amine, an anhydride, a modified heterocyclic amine, and a boron trifluoride complex. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Glass-Ceramics for Electronic Components and Circuits

    Page(s): 247 - 256
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    Ceramic materials of interest for electronic components, such as ferroelectrics, ferrites, and transition metal oxides have no natural glass-forming habit. A rapid cooling of their melt is required to obtain homogeneous glasses. This is the most important requirement for controlling crystallization and phase dispersion, as required for Various applications. Materials and methods used for making disk and multilayer capacitors are discussed and their properties are described for normal and high voltage applications, and for hybrid circuits. Other application areas to be discussed are cryogenics, thermistors, varistors, and magnetics. View full abstract»

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  • Cosputtered Aluminum-Rich AlTa Alloy Films

    Page(s): 230 - 233
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    An R F sputtering system was employed with a target consisting of a 20cm diameter aluminum disk, about 1/4 of which was covered by a segment of tantalum. This target construction makes it possible to obtain on a single substrate a broad range of film compositions in one sputtering run. The result, concluded from X-ray analysis, is that only three phases are observed on a 10 cm by 10 cm Coming glass substrate. 1 ) On the aluminum side there is the fcc AI lattice with about 7 at% Ta dissolved in it-93 at% AI 7 at% Ta. 2) On the tantalum side there is abeta-Ta lattice with about 20 at% AI dissolved in it--80 at% Ta 20 at% AI. 3)Between these two phases exists an amorphous phase--85 at% AI 15 at% Ta. The thickness profile over the substrate shows a deep well between the 80 at% Ta and the 15 at% Ta-phase. This profile indicates that there is a condensation gap for the composition from 15 to 80 at% tantalum. Resistivity and measurements of temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) yield values from 30 to 240muOmega-cm and from +500 to --125 ppm/deg K, respectively, depending on the position on the substrate, that is, depending on the phase present, The two aluminum-rich phases have, as far as we know, not previously been reported, neither in bulk nor in thin film form. We have observed most attractive features of these phases in their annealing and anodizing behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Thank You, Alex

    Page(s): 198
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Copper Alloy Spring Materials and Spring Properties

    Page(s): 237 - 242
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    Copper alloys have long served as spring materials in electromechanical devices, but the miniaturization of electronic equipment has imposed new demands on these materials. The first is that of improved elastic properties to ensure satisfactory performance at the higher operating stresses and temperatures encountered in these miniaturized devices. The second is that of improved methods for characterizing those spring properties of design interest in light of the more stringent operating margins encountered in these devices. Some of the newer alloys, processing methods, and strengthening mechanisms being employed to provide copper alloys with improved elastic properties are reviewed. Thermomechanical processing is shown to be a particularly effective means for achieving high strengths in a variety of copper alloys. New methods for characterizing the elastic properties of spring materials are discussed and compared to traditional methods based on tension tests. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Sputtered Gold-Tungsten and Gold-Molybdenum Metallizations for Microwave Power Transistors

    Page(s): 224 - 229
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    The stability and hence reliability of sputtered gold-tungsten and gold-molybdenum films has been determined as a function of anneal temperature up to 650°c. Isothermal and isochronal resistivity experiments have yielded an activation energy for particle growth in 3000 Å gold films of 0.4 eV below 200oc and 0.7 eV about 200oc. The activation energy for the refractory layer was calculated to be 1.8 eV from particle size measurements. Annealing the films up to 500oc for 24 h resulted in a decrease of internal stress in gold from 2.5 x 109 dyn/cm2 to 0.2 x 109 dyn/cm2. Similar decreases in internal stress were observed for tungsten and molybdenum. The observed results are discussed in terms of microstructural changes. View full abstract»

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  • Epitaxial Growth of III-V Compounds for Electroluminescent Light Sources

    Page(s): 208 - 215
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    During the past decade, semiconductor junction electroluminescence has evolved from a laboratory phenomenon to a manufacturing technology. This success can be attributed to the extensive research in the preparation and characterization of III-V compounds. Materials emitting radiation in various regions of the visible spectrum are now available. The epitaxial growth techniques used in the fabrication of III-V compound electroluminescent devices are reviewed. Both vapor and liquid phase epitaxial techniques are discussed, including the applications of these techniques to well established materials as well as newer materials. The state of the art of light-emitting devices fabricated from members of the III-V compounds and their solid solutions is also reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Thick Film Pastes for Multilayer Use

    Page(s): 216 - 223
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    Suecessful multilayer processing requires careful selection of conductor and dielectric pastes. As pastes they must satisfy geometrical and processing needs; as conductors and dielectrics they must meet electrical and other requirements. Some dominating considerations for paste selection are reviewed. A method is described for evaluating paste performance with test patterns which simulate multileyer applications. Various popular conductor and dielectric pasteswere evaluated and the results are reported. Some frequently encountered processing problems and their causes are discussed. Although all pastes evaluated were found less than ideal, a satisfactory combination of conductor and dielectric pastes was selected. View full abstract»

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  • Ambient Effect On Ionic Charges in Dielectric Films

    Page(s): 234 - 236
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    The effect of various annealing ambients on the ionic charges contained in the dielectric structures of silicon dioxide-silicon and silicon nitride-silicon dioxide-silicon was investigated. It has been observed that most effective ambients in making ionic species immobile are nitrogen and a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen chloride gases. Further, silicon nitride used as passivating dielectric films over semiconductor devices has been observed to be an effective barrier for ionic impurities. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1977. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope