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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date December 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 305
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Solder Fatigue Problems in Power Packages

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 405 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (2)
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    The fatigue of solder connections in power packaging has been investigated. Power devices use large bond areas which lead to fatigue life problems. Three different types of structures consisting of silicon diodes attached to copper heatsinks have been thermally cycled and the integrity of the bonds compared. The thermal resistance from the silicon diode to its heatsink has been used to measure bond quality. Use of n BeO strain buffer between the silicon chip and the copper heatsink (Type II) improved the solder cycle life. Further addition of a layer of structured copper between the BeO and the copper sink (Type III resulted in marked additional improvement in cycle life. Fatigue failure was indicated by a rapid rise in the thermal resistance that suggested a crack or tear in one of the bonds between the silicon and the heat sink. This model has been confirmed by an ultrasonic microscope scan. Solder fatigue life was also extended by the use of hard solders, compressive forces, and hermeticity. View full abstract»

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  • Copper/polyimide Materials System for High Performance Packaging

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 384 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (60)  |  Patents (13)
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    Advancements in the speed and input/output (I/O) density of integrated circuits (IC's) used in computers and other high performance systems are creating a need for new designs, materials, and processes capable of providing high density multilayer interconnections with controlled electrical characteristics. To meet these needs, we selected an interconnect materials system consisting of multiple layers of thin film copper conductor patterns separated by polyimide (PI) dielectric layers, fabricated on a ceramic substrate. We developed processes for depositing films and patterning high resolution features in both conductor and dielectric films, and established a process sequence for filling vias and building up multilayer structures. We investigated the stability of the Cu/ PI materials system by determining the effects of cure conditions and humidity aging on the dielectric properties, internal stress, mechanical properties, and adhesion of PI. We then fabricated multilayer test structures, including a functional multichip ring oscillator circuit, to demonstrate process feasibility and the electrical performance of Cu/PI interconnections. View full abstract»

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  • Gaseous Cleaning Beneath Surface Mounted Components: Evaluation Using a Beam Lead Test Chip

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 328 - 335
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    Temperature, humidity, bias (THB) accelerated aging at 85°C, 85 percent relative humidity (RH), and + 10 Vdc bias has been used to evaluate the gaseous, oxidative cleaning beneath surface mounted components. In this instance the component was a Si test chip that had been beam lead bonded to a thin Film header. This work has been performed to investigate the possibility of removing organic contamination from beneath various devices (e.g., chips, chip carriers, etc.) by the use of gaseous, oxidative methods. Current methods involve various combinations of organic solvents, detergents, and/or aqueous solutions of oxidants, and are expensive, difficult to control, and sometimes incompatible with various circuit materials. An integral part of this investigation has been to determine the species responsible for the oxidative removal and then to maximize its production and delivery to the circuits to be cleaned. A most useful tool for accomplishing this is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which detects the sorts of species involved (atoms and free radicals) both qualitatively and quantitatively. It has been unambiguously determined that3P oxygen atoms are the most reactive species with little or no contribution from1 \Delta O2. Knowing this, it was possible to develop gas mixtures that increase the atom concentration several-fold, and to find the operating conditions and reactor materials that deliver the most atoms to the reaction site. When these test circuits were cleaned in a system analogous to that used in the EPR studies, their performance under accelerated aging conditions was at least as good as those cleaned using the standard, wet, cleaning procedure. Likewise, circuits cleaned in a conventional plasma processor and using a gas mixture developed the same way, performed as well. Gaseous methods are shown to be viable alternatives to conventional wet cleaning methods currently used for cleaning beneath surface mounted components. Moreover the use of EPR has been shown to yield useful /information about such processes. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Stress-Free Package for Flip-Chip Devices

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 411 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The purpose is to investigate the origin of technical progress as a result of the entropy law, to find its limitations, and to discover its best use. View full abstract»

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  • The Measurement of Flux Residues from Chip Carrier Attachment and Their Effect On Other Thick Film Hybrid Components

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 336 - 348
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    There is some concern that flux residues resultant from the solder attachment of thick film hybrid substrates can have a deleterious effect on other components on the substrate. Three aspects of this have been considered. First the measurement of flux residues has been evaluated by two different techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy and dynamic conductivity monitor (DCM). Quite low levels of flux residue were measured following two separate cleaning techniques on a variety of substrates containing chip carriers. The two measurement techniques gave comparable results but the DCM was considered more applicable to routine use in a hybrid production area. Second, the effect of long term environmental testing on thick film resistors located under chip carriers was assessed. It was concluded that what flux residues remained had no significant effect on the resistors. Third, a similar long term environmental test program was carried out on other thick film hybrid components deliberately contaminated with I percent of a rosin mildly activated (RMA) flux. The flux was found to have no significant effect on thick film conductors, chip resistors, or chip capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Novel Resistor System for Nitrogen Firing Applications

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 417 - 422
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    A novel resistor system compatible with both a copper conductor and a low K dielectric formulation has been under development as a result of an increased interest in such a system. In this paper, which is essentially a current progress report, the capabilities of this system as they have progressed to date are defined. A processing study addressing the effect of peak firing temperature on resultant resistor properties yielded superior performance at 850°C. The properties monitored include sheet resistivity, hot and cold TCR, \Delta TCR, VCR, and aspect ratio tracking. Laser trim drift data and long term drift data as a function of elevated temperature and humidity are presented for unencapsulated and encapsulated trimmed resistors. Topographic and cross-sectional microstructural features of this system were studied using backscattered electron imaging (BEI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRM). View full abstract»

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  • Die Attach in Hi-Rel P-Dips: Polyimides or low chloride Epoxies?

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 394 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (5)
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    Advancements in the speed and input/output (I/O) density of integrated circuits (IC's) used in computers and other high performance systems are creating a need for new designs, materials, and processes capable of providing high density multilayer interconnections with controlled electrical characteristics. To meet these needs, we selected an interconnect materials system consisting of multiple layers of thin film copper conductor patterns separated by polyimide (PI) dielectric layers, fabricated on a ceramic substrate. We developed processes for depositing films and patterning high resolution features in both conductor and dielectric films, and established a process sequence for filling vias and building up multilayer structures. We investigated the stability of the Cu/ PI materials system by determining the effects of cure conditions and humidity aging on the dielectric properties, internal stress, mechanical properties, and adhesion of PI. We then fabricated multilayer test structures, including a functional multichip ring oscillator circuit, to demonstrate process feasibility and the electrical performance of Cu/PI interconnections. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Fretting on the Contact Resistance of Palladium Electroplate Having a Gold Flash, Cobalt-Gold Electroplate, and DG R156

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 363 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Contact resistance stability is a function of the contact materials, design, and conditions of connector use. The purpose of the present work was to identify certain potentially unstable materials systems when fretting occurs at the contact interface. In previous studies of fretting, it was found that variable resistance can be caused by wearout of the finish to base substrate or underplate, or to the formation of frictional polymers when platinum group contact metals are used. An evaluation of the fretting of cobalt-gold electroplate, palladium electroplate having a pure gold flash, and DG R156 was made with these materials mated to themselves or to each other. A bench test apparatus was employed with wire contacts joined in crossed rod configuration. It was found that mated to themselves and for the conditions of this test, unlubricated cobalt-gold plate performed well, although DG R156 was nearly as good and gold flashed palladium was poor. Unlubricated cobalt-gold plate mated to DG R156 was good, followed by cobalt-gold plate joined to gold flashed palladium, which was marginal. Again, for the conditions of this test, gold flashed palladium versus DG R156 was poor. Lubrication with a thin film of a polyphenylether attenuated the contact resistance changes in all cases by lowering the rate of wear of the material or, with palladium-containing systems, by causing the frictional polymers that formed to be nonadherent. The tendency of a connector to degrade by fretting depends on its design. If material systems are to be conducted which perform poorly in the bench test, it is recommended that connector tests be conducted which tend to cause micromotion at the contact interface. Procedures involving shock, vibration, and cycling temperature may be employed for this purpose. View full abstract»

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  • High Speed and High Resolution Contact-Type Image Sensor Using an Amorphous Silicon Photodetector Array

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 423 - 428
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (5)
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    A contact-type image sensor has been developed with 16 elements/mm resolution and 0.8 ms/line scanning speed. This surpasses all previously reported devices of this type. These features are achieved by a newly developed highly integrated low noise hybrid circuit technology and a novel photodetector structure. This sensor is very compact with 3456 picture elements in a 216 mm active length. The reason why previous sensors had low speed, how this high performance sensor has been developed, and what remains to be improved is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Leakage Currents in Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 443 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Leakage currents in new and degraded (typically at twice rated voltage, 125°C) ZSU and X7R types Of multilayer ceramic (MLC) capacitors show both ohmic and space charge limited current behavior. The near 3/2 power voltage characteristic (la V3/2) of new devices can be attributed to electron emission from electrode points. The quadratic behavior (I \alpha V2) seen for moderately degraded devices represents space charge limited emission from near planar electrodes. This emission may evolve from the point emission due to resistivity decreases that occur in the emission region as a result of ion movement. For these currents, electrons are believed to be the dominant charge carriers. Neither Schottky or Poole-Frenkel currents were identified. Thermal activation energies decrease from ~1.3 eV for new X7R devices, to zero for degraded ones, corresponding to resistivity decreases from ~ 1013 \Omega -cm to 105 \Omega -cm or less (at 125°C). Carrier concentrations and mobilities have been estimated from thermoelectric measurements on new and reduced nonelectroded X7R chips, which exhibit n-type conduction. These parameters both increase substantially with reduction, with mobility dominating the thermal activation energy. These measurements are consistent with a small polaron hopping mode for electron transport in the ceramic. View full abstract»

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  • A Field Study of Connector Reliability

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 370 - 377
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    The objectives of this investigation were 1) to survey field support personnel on the reliability and use of connectors in electronic test and computer equipment; 2) to characterize the types of defects found on gold-plated edge card connector fingers from a large sample of printed wire assemblies (PWA's), obtained randomly from customer sites; and 3) to characterize the chemistry of the most prevalent defects found on the edge card connector fingers. The field support survey provided information on proper selection, use, and care of connectors used in electronic equipment. The microscopic examination of PWA edge card connector fingers indicated that the presence of a film covering the gold surface was the predominant defect found. Other defects observed included wear scratches, dust, pore corrosion, and a build up of debris at the metal-to-metal contact area. Defects such as edge corrosion and creep were observed, but on only very few PWA's. Chemical analysis of the film on the connector fingers found it to be primarily organic. View full abstract»

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  • Aluminum Nitride-An Alternative Ceramic Substrate for High Power Applications in Microcircuits

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 399 - 404
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (15)
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    The development of more complex integrated circuits (IC's) with larger chip sizes and greater power generation IC's, emitter-coupled logic (ECL) circuits, very large-scale integration (VLSI), and laser diodes requires new packaging schemes with improved thermal management. From the limited number of some ten nonmetallic inorganic solids known from the literature to have thermal conductivities greater than 100 W/m°K, aluminum nitride (AIN) is the most attractive substrate material. By means of a suitable power technological process, an AIN ceramic has been produced with a thermal conductivity five times higher than that of alumina, which is about one half of the theoretical value estimated for defect-free single crystal AIN. Another advantage of this newly developed material is its low coefficient of thermal expansion which, in the temperature range of interest (20-200°C) closely matches that of silicon. It also has a high electrical resistivity and a moderate dielectric loss. These and some other physical, mechanical, and chemical properties are shown and partly discussed in relation to other ceramics in use or of potential interest as substrate materials. View full abstract»

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  • A zero-Insertion-Force Hybrid Circuit Connector for Severe Environments

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 378 - 383
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    A new packaging technology has been developed for complex electronic circuits used in the high-temperature high-vibration environment of oil-well logging instrumentation. Specifically, the design and testing of a 72-pin connector that operates with large area ceramic substrates carrying leadless chip-carrier (LCC) devices and other thick film components is considered. The emphasis is on achieving high mechanical and electrical integrity during exposure to severe stress, while allowing easy field replacement of defective hybrid circuits without the need for any special tools to operate the release mechanism. A combination of mechanical shock (100 g levels) and vibration (10 g) with an extreme operating temperature range (- 55 to + 200°C) requires care in the choice of materials and the solution of some special design problems. View full abstract»

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  • Gold-Aluminum Intermetallics: Ball Bond Shear Testing and Thin Film Reaction Couples

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 349 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
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    The gold-aluminum intermetallic phases are known to contribute to the long term degradation of gold wire ball bonds to aluminum metallization on semiconductor devices. The properties of these intermetallics were investigated through two techniques: 1) ball bond shear testing and 2) preparation of known intermetallic compositions by using thin film Au-Al diffusion couples. The influence of thermal aging on gold ball bonds attached to aluminum metallization (on both Si and SiO2) was determined through ball shear measurements. The strength of gold wire bonds made to films of Au-Al intermetallics was similarly measured. Failure mode analyses of the sheared bonds for the various systems examined are presented. The effect of a nondestructive ball shear test on the ultimate ball shear strength is given. Ultraviolet (UV)-ozone cleaning of the aluminum prior to gold wire bonding is discussed in light of Auger spectroscopy of the aluminum oxide formed on the surface. The effect of shearing direction relative to the direction of the ultrasonic scrubbing was also examined. View full abstract»

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  • Laser Polysilicon Link Making

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 438 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Several laser polysilicon link-making structures have been fabricated and tested. Initial resistance of the laser targets were in the range 108 \Omega to 5 x 109 \Omega depending on the structure. The structures were serpentine raster scanned with Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG (0.53µm) green laser radiation at various power levels. The size of the scan was 12.5 x 12.5 µm2. Link resistance after scanning at an appropriate power level was in the range 50 \Omega to 500 \Omega depending on link structure. All of the structures were tested for stability under subsequent high temperature thermal anneals. The results show that a) laser linkmaking targets can be compatible with conventional integrated circuit (IC) processing, b) that the link sizes can be scaled at least to 2 µm; and c) that the links can be closed with a single pulse of green laser radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Mapping of Electrostatic Charge Using a Robot Controlled by a Computer

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 454 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper is intended to fulfill two purposes. The first objective is to describe a particular laboratory system which maps the distribution and decay of residual electric fields around flat or curved insulating surfaces. Such a system may have applications in the noudestructive testing of insulation in the form of boards, cylinders, cones, and other shapes. The second objective is to point out the general usefulness of a system consisting of one or more sensors positioned by a robot controlled by a computer for reliably mapping in detail many kinds of fields in three dimensions. The particular implementation described uses a modified Microbot Teachmover robot to move the measuring head of a Monroe Type 230A field meter through a two-dimensional rectangular scanning grid over a flat sheet specimen. A DEC 11/23 MINC laboratory computer is used to both control the robot's movements, and to digitize and store in memory the readings of the field meter. The computer also plots a field map on the video screen during the scan, and stores field data on disk for later retrieval and processing. Results of scans of residual field are given for a typical plastic (polypropylene). Plots of the rate of change of residual field (obtained by taking the difference between scans) are also given. The significance of these results for nondestructive testing is discussed. The combination of one or more sensors, robot, and a computer, forms a flexible and convenient bench top system for the measurement, processing, real-time display, and storage of large amounts of data on two- and three-dimensional specimens. View full abstract»

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  • Cast Leads for Surface Attachment

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 306 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The attachment of leadless integrated circuit packages to printed circuit (PC) substrates is receiving growing attention as surface mounting technology advances to meet the demands of present and future product designs. The reliability issues associated with surface attachment of these packages continue to be addressed and characterized with respect to package configuration, material properties, and interconnection methods. A novel technique is introduced for reliable and economical attachment of leadless integrated circuit (IC) packages to circuit substrates. Known as the cast lead process, it is based on a concept for controlling solder joint geometry in order to improve the stress and strain distributions within the joints. The basic sequence of operations established for cast lead fabrication and for surface mounting of processed packages will be presented and results for several reliability studies will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Voltage Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Fiber Optic Data Transmission

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 434 - 437
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    A low-voltage silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) design packaged for fiber optic receiver applications is described. A unique epitaxial construction, compatible with conventional planar bipolar proeessing, is employed to achieve avalanche gain with high speed response, low bulk leakage current, and minimum slowtail response. The microlens optical design allows a pluggable, fiber optic interface with generous mechanical alignment tolerances. View full abstract»

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  • Forces, Moments, and Displacements During Thermal Chamber Cycling of Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers Soldered to Printed Boards

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 314 - 327
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (1)
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    Solder joints between ceramic chip carriers (CCC's) and printed wiring boards (PWB's) are likely to experience large thermal strains during operation in the field. Strains applied during accelerated temperature cycling have been shown to cause cracks in the solder and electrical failures (opens). The forces and moments exerted on the solder (and the resulting displacements) arc inferred from strain gage measurements of the in-plane deformation and bending of the PWB and the CCC. It is found that below room temperature, most of the expansion mismatch is accommodated by "bi-metallic strip" type bending of the PWB and the CCC. The change in bending during a temperature change from - 25°C to +35°C is consistent with the classical bi-metallic strip equation, given material properties from the literature. Above room temperature most of the mismatch is accommodated by shear in the solder. Upon repeated temperature cycling, there is a repeatable stress-strain hysteresis, which is attributed to plastic deformation in the solder. This deformation is lower for staggered tin pillar joints than for in-line 60/40 solder post joints. It is lower still when the PWB in-plane expansivity is constrained by copperclad invar (CCI) layers included in the stack-up. Using mechanical equilibrium conditions, we can calculate the force per joint and solder shear displacement. The force represents up to 35 percent of the ultimate force calculated from the ultimate shear strength. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Ambient Atmosphere on Aluminum - Copper wirebond Reliability

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 357 - 362
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    The effect of ambient atmosphere on the stability of Al-Cu bonds aged at 150 to 300°C was studied. Data show that atmosphere plays a major role in determining the failure mode of wires bonded and aged under otherwise identical conditions. Bonds aged in air, nitrogen, and vacuum all experienced an initial decrease in pull strength due to annealing of the wire. The mechanical strength of vacuum and nitrogen aged samples continued to degrade with time. A shift in the primary failure mode from wire breaks to bond lifts was noted. The pull strengths of air-aged samples remained stable through 1600 h. The dominant failure mode was wire breaks. Al-Cu intermetallic phases were formed under all conditions. Surface diffusion was suggested by the presence of a groove at the bond perimeter. With time, the groove propagated along the metallic Cu/Cu intermetallic interface, undercutting the bond. The formation of copper oxides in air-aged samples retarded this process. An effective activation energy of 0.45 eV was calculated for the Al-Cu failure mechanism in vacuum. View full abstract»

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  • High Speed and High Resolution ISO A4 Size Amorphous Si:H Contact Linear Image Sensor

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 429 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
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    A contact linear image sensor has been developed as a new device to satisfy the requirement for facsimile equipment size reduction. An amorphous Si (a-Si:H) metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) photodiode, which has the excellent small dark current characteristics, is used as the photosensing element. In this sensor element the thermal stability of the electrode material was examined and optimum material was selected. For detecting signals stored in the photosensing elements, 64 bit/ chip integrated circuits (IC's) with a new driving method, which achieves the low noise and high speed operation, were designed and developed. These IC's are mounted on the sensor device substrate. International Standards Organization (ISO) A4 size 8 elements/mm and 12 elements/ mm sensor units in light-emitting diode (LED) light source have been developed. The sensor units characteristics in practical use give signal/ noise ratio (SNR) of 30 dB at 1.5-2.5 ms/line. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope