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Production Techniques, IRE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date August 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Message from the Editor

    Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial: Organizing for Automation

    Page(s): 4 - 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial: A Plea for Better Production Engineering

    Page(s): 6 - 7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial: A Plea for Better Production Engineering

    Page(s): 8 - 10
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 11
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Future Component Parts for Mechanization

    Page(s): 17 - 19
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    The author introduces Philco's TV middle-of-the-road philosophy for component parts. Basic ground rules are laid down, such as: machines must be simple and specialized; parts must be uniform and easy to handle. A considerable Philco experience with component insertion is indicated. It is pointed out that "universal" insertion machines are always more costly than specialized capital equipment. Component parts with a rectangular form factor and special leads are proposed, and the advantages of these parts are listed. The state-of-the-art is considered in order to assess the specific ease of conversion to such modular parts. Modular dimensions for multiple component parts are also suggested. It is emphasized that 60-40 solder coated--not solder plated--parts have always, in Philco's experience, surpassed all other types to some degree. Higher temperatures and shorter time cycles are recommended. The coordinate grid system is briefly discussed from the TV manufacturer's point of view. It is concluded that the industry has much to gain from a reliable mechanization program, and it is stressed that even the smallest detail is important when tooling for new parts. The rectangular component part is suggested as one solution to those conditions which have yet failed to yield reliable results to the machine de- signer. View full abstract»

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  • Automation of Single-Axis Floated-Gyro Drift Measurement

    Page(s): 51 - 55
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    This paper describes the technique and equipment developed for automating measurement of the drift rate of precision single-axis floated gyros. The basic construction principles of singleaxis floated gyros are described and illustrated. The sources and components of drift are then discussed and defined. The random component of drift is shown to be a useful measure of gyro quality and is, by reason of its definition, suited to automatic testing techniques. The equipment used to measure the random component of drift consists basically of a single-axis servo table (in which the gyro to be tested is mounted), the servo table and gyro operating circuitry, and the programming and readout devices. Although adaptable to a variety of situations, the equipment is designed specifically to apply the "cogging" or repositioning type of single-axis gyro-drift test. The servo table is slaved to the gyro output so that the table angular rate is equal to gyro input plus gyro total drift. Two microsyns (rotary differential transformers) are attached to the table shaft with their null positions spaced at an accurately known angle. The unique phase characteristic of the microsyns is used to gate a precision frequency to a time-interval meter and a digital recorder. With a component of Earth Rate as input to the gyro, the time required for the servo table (and gyro) to process through the accurately-known angle is measured a number of times. The standard deviations of the average rates through the angle is taken as random drift. The time data is printed out in digital form for transfer to punched cards and digital processing. The application of the equipment to the development and production testing of precision single-axis floated gyros provides a means of accumulating large quantities of precise data in a relatively short period of time for a reliable statistical measure of gyro-production quality. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Transistors on Military Electronics Design

    Page(s): 28
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    POLYSTRIP Cable is a thin, multiple-conductor, flexible cable. It consists of a number of parallel fiat copper wires sandwiched between polyester plastic layers. The cable occupies little volume, having a thickness of 0.009 inch and is flexible enough to fit into irregular spaces. It can reduce cable weight by as much as 80 percent in many applications. All conductors are prepositioned in the same plane permitting simultaneous stripping, termination, or dip soldering to printed wiring boards and connectors. The conductors are evenly spaced 0.100 inch center-to-center in order to conform with EIA Standards for printed wiring boards. The maximum number of conductors is 51; any smaller number can be readily fabricated. Lengths up to 1000 feet are produced. The weight of this cable is 0.64 lb per 1000 conductor feet. The design tensile strength is 4 lbs per conductor, with an elongation of 0.5 per cent. With proper design the flexing life is over 500,000 cycles. Tests at low temperatures have shown that when the cable was bent around a 3/16 inch mandrel at -78°C, no changes in tensile strength or cracking occurred. The cable is not attacked by dilute acids or alkalies. There was a slight reversible increase in weight on exposure to gasoline and carbon tetrachloride. Polystrip Cable is rated at a maximum of +85°C, hot-spot temperalure. It can withstand higher temperatures for short periods of time, and can be dip soldered. The insulation will support combustion. It is rated at 1 ampere per conductor in air at 25°C. The continuous operating rating is 600 volts. The breakdown voltage is in excess of 4 kv. Leakage resistance is 1.5 X 1013ohms per conductor-foot. Insulation can be readily stripped with commercially available wire strippers. Branches or tapped-off conductors can be fabricated at any position. Standard connectors are available. A conductor in Polystrip Cable may be electrostatically shielded by grounding the adjacent conductors. External shielding may be secured by applying pressure-sensitive aluminum or copper tape to the outside of the cable, and grounding the metal tape. Cables with a larger number of conductors, or with more complete shielding may be made by stacking Polystrip Cable. C- onductors of different dimensions or spacing can be made to special order. Polystrip Cable has been used to interconnect printed wiring boards and flexible connectors between chassis parts. It may be of interest for use with large selector switches, telemetering circuits, and with multiple sensing devices. With wires of special alloys, it has been used for thermocouple circuits. A limitation of Polystrip Cable for some applications is its inability to withstand high ambient temperatures for long periods of time. At the present, development work is underway aimed at a cable capable of operation at temperatures of 200°C or higher. View full abstract»

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  • Designing with Polystrip Flat-Wire Cables

    Page(s): 28
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    THE application of transistors to military electronicequipment designs has revolutionized the concepts of size, weight, power requirements, and structure. The performance of certain functions using transistors instead of tubes results in a tremendous saving in power, thereby reducing the cooling-air requirements, and allowing in many instances an order-of-magnitude reduction in size and weight. Transistors, in contrast to tubes, can stand vibration and shock as well as the other component parts used in electronic equipments. This has reduced the need for specific structures and shock mounting. The use of etched-wiring techniques for component-part mounting and interconnection, combined with potted modular structures is feasible when using transistors. The transistor has revolutionized the design concepts of military electronic equipment, by allowing a reduction in power requirements, weight, and space. View full abstract»

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  • Design Trends in Tomorrow's Capacitors

    Page(s): 20 - 23
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    A realistic appraisal is made of present capacitordesign improvements, and of immediately-forseeable design trends. Three trends are discussed--those toward reliability, low voltage, and automation. In the area of reliability, accelerated-life and vibration test results are presented, covering 8950 "Hyrel Q" impregnated-paper capacitors. It is pointed out that as the demand for such capacitors increases, the cost differential relative to the garden-variety of sub-miniatures will become very small. It is emphasized that highreliability tantalum-electrolytic, metallized-paper, and ceramic capacitors will be available in the near future and that the developed processes will "rub off" on other types. The low-voltage trend is discussed in its relation to solidtantalum and other electrolytic types. The new Sprague 109D liquid-electrolyte porous-anode tantalum capacitor is described, and a 2- or 3-to-1 volume-efficiency advantage is shown over previous low-voltage types. Other performance, environmental, and reliability advantages are cited. Improved metallized-paper capacitors are placed in a new niche of reliability; and complex-film types are announced for replacing mica and ceramic types. Life-test data is presented showing a 44-to-1 improvement for one dielectric-film combination. The automation trend is pictured as toward the molded-paper capacitor, because of its better handling and tolerance qualities. Presently-available more-common types are listed, and some pending improvements are mentioned. Two molded automation types are described. A new monolythic multi-layer ceramic capacitor is announced which has approximately 70-times the capacity of previous ceramics using 20-mil disks. It is emphasized that the surface has only been · scratched in the development of new materials for capacitors. In conclusion, it is pointed out that greater standardization on the part of the electronics industry toward a reduction of' types and in stopping the usage of obsolete types will result in better capacitors, and at lower prices. View full abstract»

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  • Modular Dimensioning of Electronic Component Parts for Mechanized Assembly

    Page(s): 12 - 16
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    It is pointed out that certain basic design disciplines are prerequisite to more effective mechanized use of printed wiring. The 25-rail layout grid is described as one of these basic prerequisites. Specification SCL-6225, "Design Requirements for AutoSembled Army Signal Electronic Equipment," is presented as a basis for the present recommendations. The concept of "projected component volumes" is introduced: to make component-parts dimensions compatible with printed-wiring requirements; and to provide both a design guide, and a convenient assessment, for volumetric efficiency. Effects of hole, terminal pad, and conductorspacing variations are discussed. Component-part height variation is charged with the major contribution to poor volumetric efficiency, and corrective measures are suggested. Dimensions of length, height, and width are all recommended in building-block steps, compatible with printed wiring of the present, and micro-modules of the future; and certain preferences are given. Specification SCL-6254, "Modular Dimensioning of Electronic Parts," is announced. It is concluded that these recommendations will form a logical extension of the large equipment module to provide greater ease of automation and higher volumetric ef- ficiencies. View full abstract»

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  • Microminiaturization Techniques

    Page(s): 50
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    THE need of microminiaturization is discussed, and the first approach to the problem is introduced. Tiny active component assemblies, with extremely high packaging-densities are described. The method of assembly and testing is necessarily unique because the smallest available component parts which must be used are difficult to wire and trouble-shoot. Some conclusions regarding principles of construction are put forth. View full abstract»

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  • New Techniques in Potting, Encapsulating, and Small Parts Molding

    Page(s): 50
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    IN this age of missiles, computers, and airborne instruments, the stringent demands placed on electronic engineers and component manufacturers to produce smaller and smaller components have necessitated new techniques in production. Equipment manufacturers, such as our company, have recently concluded extensive development programs to offer to the electronics industry the practical means for manufacturing some of these electronic component parts. This paper will discuss first, the operation and application of a packaged high vacuum degassing and potting system for short pot life resins; second, techniques for high volume encapsulating; and third, a new approach to economical molding of small thermosetting plastic parts. View full abstract»

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  • The "Tuf-Plate Hole" for Printed Wiring

    Page(s): 27
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    EXAMINATIONS of the parameters effecting the reliability of thru connections indicate the following major factors: compatibility of the metal used in the hole with the surface metal, the condition of the laminate in the vicinity of the hole wall, and the relative stresses introduced by environmental cycling. Although advances have been made in all methods of side-to-side connection, most users are convinced that the electrolytic deposit of copper offers the most sound solution. Photocircuits Corporation, therefore, has expended considerable time to the improvement of the plated-thru-hole, and has successfully developed the "Tuf-Plate Hole." This trademark covers the process as well as the product in which the individual parameters of the hole are produced, controlled, and inspected. The manufacturing process can be divided into three maj or operations: 1) Prefabrication--New tooling which is being employed to produce a clean hole free from burrs and delamination is the beginning of the "Tuf-Plate Hole." With existing laminates, hole preparation requires additional treatment to produce the type of surface which will accept the sensitizer and prevent high current density points for hole size control and uniform plating. 2) Sensitizing--The sensitizing step has long been a matter of great concern and secrecy. This operation has improved to a point where the metal can be applied without degradation of the hole wall or interlaminate bond between the copper surface and plastic. Photocircuits has found that adherent copper reduction provides the most acceptable solution to this problem. Process changes and associated problems during the evolution of this sensitizer were discussed. 3) Plating--Plating the prepared boards employs a technique of controlled current density in a plating solution which provides the throwing and leveling characteristics essential to the "Tuf-Plate Hole." Controls must be applied to this process to insure the maximum hole-to-surface plating ratio, deposition of fine grain copper, and adhesion to the base copper. Checks on these controls are provided by ductility tests, hardness measurements, and observations through the use of cross sections of the boards. Over-all observation of the effectiveness of the process is made through tests - designed to compare the board with the conditions encountered in operation. Photocircuits tests include heat-shock, high-current burn out, and flexural cycling for intermittence. Additional environmental tests of high- and low-temperature endurance and cycling have been completed with success. In order to substantiate the qualities of the copper plating, vibration tests as well as the procedures outlined above have been made with the test boards without additional surface platings. These results indicate that the user may select the finished plating for the storage or soldering requirements without regard to the added mechanical strength. Reliability as represented by strength alone is not complete. Degradation of material thru process contamination will destroy a printed-wiring board's function electrically. Photocircuits Corporation has used this parameter in the development and use of all process solutions required for the "Tuf-Plate Hole." Final etching of the wiring has been changed to eliminate the problems previously confronted in storage life and electrolite contamination. The results of the manufacturing procedures and tests were provided by the author. Photomicrographic displays of process sections were presented to illustrate problems and their solutions. View full abstract»

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  • A Punch-Card-Controlled Component-Part Insertion Machine

    Page(s): 39 - 42
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    A new high-speed programmed insertion device for axial-lead component parts is described, which produces the "Y" coordinate motion by movement of the printed wiring board and the "X" and "Z" motion by movements of the insertion head. Although the basic idea is not new, it is claimed that its combination with novel mechanisms has resulted in a truly high-speed experimental programmed machine. Success of the machine is credited to a new small-and lightweight inserting tool, which allows high-velocity movement, using low power, and with reduced resonance. A series of pneumatic cylinders are shown, following the binary progression to provide specific strokes by IBM punched-card control, for both lead preparation and insertion. Salient features of the mechanism are described as follows: a) almost any part under a diameter of 0.250 inch and a length of 0.850 inch can be handled, b) component parts are center-taped on reels after wrap-around terminals have been added, c) torque sleeves and yokes remove component parts from the tape reels, d) cards are stacked and conveyor fed to the insertion head, e) the controller is in console form, and takes binary-coded cards directly without the need for a decoder, and f) 1,920 bits of information are available from only two cards. Factors which have been experienced in connection with the manufacture of Sage Computers at IBM Kingston are mentioned. It is claimed that for over two-million insertions, most failures have been eliminated, even though insertion is at the average rate of 60 per minute. Potential of the system is estimated at a maintained speed of at least 120 per minute, with its future hinted by the insertion speed of less than 0.1 second which has been attained. Possible utilization of the equipment for other purposes is stressed, such as for programmed drilling. View full abstract»

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  • Micro-Modules: Component Parts and Materials Requirements

    Page(s): 29 - 38
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    The growth of our microminiaturization capabilities to date is cited as having been random and uncoordinated. The Signal Corps' micro-module effort is described as a definite step toward a concept that has depth and scope. A new dimension--a ten-to-one size reduction over the best now realized, is selected as reasonably attainable in 3 to 5 years. Named as providing the background for the present program, are such designs as the Army's Korean "Handy-Talkie," the Navy's "Tinkertoy," the Bell Telephone Laboratories' transistor, and the Army's "solder-dipped printed wiring." Also credited as being a major contributor, is the recent trend toward "packaging by function" where standard modular dimensions and a throw-away maintenance philosophy buy us another two-to-one size reduction, to reach a plateau of around 50,000 parts per cubic foot. It is stressed that a positive approach is now needed toward a completely new plateau in size and packaging density, of at least 500,000 parts per cubic foot. Our present capabilities are assessed, and a ten-to-one size reduction is shown for Sprague's ceramic printed circuit, and two transistor amplifiers by Centralab. The Army's micro-module wafer element (0.3 inch X 0.3 inch X 0.01 inch thick) is announced. A model demonstrating feasibility is shown, where a complete 5-transistor superheterodyne radio receiver is built into an ordinary fountain pen. Present capabilities are displayed for fabricating component parts on the 0.09-squareinch micro element. Specific accomplishments are shown, such as: a precision metal-film resistor, a precision glass capacitor, a flatplate ceramic capacitor, a hermetically-sealed solid-tantalum electrolyte capacitor, and several other special component parts. Five categories of Army equipments (portable, vehicular, missile, projectile, and satellite), and three plateaus of temperature (+85°C, +125°C, and +200°C, above a cold level of --55°C) are selected as meeting present Army environmental requirements. The guiding philosophy, in setting up the program, is described as providing: first, a meaningful step forward based on immediately attainable tangible techniques; and second, a parallel solid-state research effort to impr- ove and mature the concept. To accomplish the "big step forward" in size reduction and "throw-away" maintenance, RCA is announced as leader-contractor to coordinate industry wide activities. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of a System for the Production of Electronics Equipment-Mechanization of All Lot Sizes

    Page(s): 42 - 49
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    It is reported that as of last year, an estimated 627,000,000 component parts have been mechanically assembled into 26,000,000 printed wiring boards. It is stated that the production equipment requirements and desires of the various assemblers of electronics equipment vary from a single bench-mounted inserting machine (for small lots), to the punched-card-controlled automatic-assembly machine, or even the automatic conveyor. It is pointed out that there is no one piece of equipment that will satisfy the needs of all assemblers; but that the DYNASERT system described can satisfy most. The paper includes a discussion of: a) factors governing the choice of a system, b) development of the DYNASERT machine system, including machines for component-part preparation, insertion---4 types, and conveying--up to 48 stations, c) varying the system to meet changing production demands, d) considerations affecting design for mechanical assembly, and e) benefits of mechanized assembly. An account is given of five users, making from 20 to 7000 panels per day, where all showed a considerable saving through mechanization. It is concluded that nearly all assemblers can utilize mechanized assembly to advantage, with the choice and size depending upon many factors. It is stressed that Military designs should be made compatible with mechanized assembly to provide for expansion in a National emergency. Finally, it is emphasized that mechanical assembly offers a means of increasing production in the face of a reduced labor force as related to the increasing popu- lation. View full abstract»

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  • Research and Development for Man-Machine Systems

    Page(s): 23 - 26
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    The fallacies of present methods of Research and Development are discussed, and it is explained why these methods are being used today. It is posed that research itself needs researching. Inhibited thinking is charged with the predominant responsibility for limited research productiveness. Lack of imagination, fear of ridicule, desire to invent at the exclusion of facts, schedules and resistance to tool changes, and too much reliance of experience-these are given as the most important causes of inhibited thinking. The author warns: not to justify compromises, not to rely on luck, and to stop modifying modifications. Stating the problem in its fundamental terms is illustrated by an interesting story. An analogy to the story is provided by the present complex design of aircraft instrument panels. A methodology is suggested for conducting research and development by establishing a program of uninhibited thinking-- a long-range effort seeking ultimate solutions. Seven basic aims and accomplishments of the program are outlined. Examples are shown where breakthroughs have occurred by using this approach. (Slides were used in the verbal presentation for emphasizing certain points and to show examples of equipment developed from an exemplary program.) It is also pointed out that an interim program can make use of the "rake-offs" from the long-range program. (The talk was supported by a film which showed how this methodology was used in the development of aircraft instrumentation.) Five accomplishments of this specific program are listed. The author concludes that when something doesn't fit, don't just get a bigger hammer--instead, state the problem in its fundamental terms before trying to solve it. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1959. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope