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Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Who's Who in G-PHP

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Effect of Surface Segregation of Mg on the Contact Resistance of Al-0.5-Percent Mg

    Page(s): 31 - 35
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    Silver and Ag-W (10 weight percent W) were operated in a 5.I-A (peak) 308-V (peak) full-wave rectified dc circuit. The experimental switching system was operated 1.5 times per minute; the opening and closing velocities were 4 x 10-2 and 3 x 10-4 cm/s, respectively; the fully open contact spacing was 200 µm; and the contacts were closed for 3 s. The opening and closing of the contacts were controlled by a heater-bimetal combination attached to the moving contact. The following contact pairs were used: Ag versus Ag, Ag-W versus Ag-W and Ag versus Ag-W. All combinations of contact material and contact polarity were used. The experimental results showed that there was always a net transfer of contact material from the cathode to the anode. The volume of material transferred was strongly dependent upon whether the anode was the moving (hotter) or the fixed (cooler) contact: the greater erosion occurring when the anode was the hotter contact. For Ag versus Ag contacts thc erosion pattern resulted inone pip on the anode and one crater on the cathode. For Ag-W versus AgW contacts the presence of the small percentage of W resulted in multiple pip and crater formations. The experiments with the Ag versus Ag-W showed that the cathode electrode material determined the erosion pattern observed, i.e., when the Ag-W was the cathode, multiple pip and crater'formations occurred, but when Ag was the cathode, only a single pip and crater structure was observed. The presence of the W either in the cathode or in the anode decreased the observed erosion. These experimental results are discussed in terms of how the presence of W affects the emission characteristics of the cathode region and also affects the movement of the arc roots. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of Clad Metal Inlays for Electrical Connectors

    Page(s): 61 - 67
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    Following the prior publication [ 1 ], we tested more connector hardware of clad metal inlays the quality of which is quite close to the production level. In other words, the spring base material was all made of beryllium copper fully heat-treated after forming. The springs were punched and formed with a production the spring gaps were more uniform and all within the specified range, though in the high end. The inlay materials used in this extended test were: a) 18K Au (75Au25Ag), b) pure palladium (100 Pd), c) Alloy 69Au25Ag6Pt, d) 60Pd40Ag alloy, and e) alloy-55(55Au39Ag3Cd31n). These materials were reported to have relatively better performance among the many candidates we initially studied. The sample size used in these tests was much larger than the previous one; as a result, the experimental data are more reliable and meaningful. Two groups of connector hardware representing today's highdensity miniature electronic packaging were used. One group was the cylinder-cylinder contact, the other was the cylinder-flat contact. Also some discussion was devoted to the dimple-flat contact system. The contact-resistance data were collected over a period of 6 months to 1 year from three kinds of environmental tests. Both porosity and formability were acceptable for all the inlay springs. No wear-through contacts were found after 50 insertions with lubricant applied on the Au or Pd plated pins. All five inlay materials tested behaved almost equally well in their contact-resistance measurements. Previously the 69Au25Ag6Pt was chosen as the best, and the palladium stood as the second best at that time. However, in this paper we have shown that the Pd is clearly the winner in many aspects of the tests. The 69Au25Ag6Pt is equivalent to the 75Au25Ag alloy as the second best choice. View full abstract»

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  • A Test of Noble Metal Slip-Ring Alloys for Use in Inertial Guidance Platforms

    Page(s): 79 - 84
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    Lubricated slip-ring contact materials were life-tested in a nitrogen atmosphere and in a multichemical atmosphere that simulated the gases in an inertial guidance platform. The test mode was one that maximized the effects of debris accumulations and the generation of resistive films on infrequently wiped surfaces. The contacts that were lubricated with a four-ring polyphenyl ether had lower noise than ones lubricated with a blend of diester and chlorofiuorocarbon oils. The alloys grouped in decreasing order of performance as sliding contacts for inertial guidance platforms are as follows: Group I-ASTM B477; 4 Ni, Au; 1 Ni, Au electrodeposit; Group II-ASTM B541; 10 Cd, Au; Group III-54.5 Au, 37.5 Ag, 4 Cd, 4 In. View full abstract»

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  • Standards in the Field of Electrical Contacts

    Page(s): 14 - 17
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    This paper will cover the various organizations, particularly in the United States, that are doing work on standardization of electrical contacts. Also listed will be the various standards which have been prepared, together with their identification and source. View full abstract»

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  • Lubricants for Separable Connectors

    Page(s): 72 - 78
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    About two dozen lubricating fluids were tested for use on electrical contacts on card edge or pin-and-socket connectors. The lubricants selected for screening represented a cross section of thewide variety of natural and synthetic materials available on the market. Among them were polyphenyl ethers, natural and synthetic hydrocarbons, several types of esters, polygiycols, some fluorinated materials, a few silicones, and some proprietary formulations. Lubricants were evaluated on the basis of volatility and their ability to prevent fretting corrosion on tin-to-solder contacts. Limited tests were also done on their spreading characteristics, their thermal degradation properties, and their effect on contact resistance. The objective of the work was to develop guidelines in the selection of contact lubricants for field testing. The lubricants were ranked on the basis of weight loss from thin deposits of the samples on solder foil coupons at 65°C. Fretting experiments were done by forcibly moving a printed circuit card finger between a pair of spring contacts cut from actual cards and connectors. The time required for contact resistance to increase from a few milliohms to 2Omegwas determined as a function of the amount of lubricant present. View full abstract»

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  • IOAP-A Novel Process for the Manufacture of Long-Life Silver-Cadmium Oxide AC Contact Material

    Page(s): 42 - 51
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    This paper describes a new more versatile internal oxidation technique for the manufacture of silver-cadmium oxide contact tips. The process allows precise control in producing a fine homogeneous microstrueture, it avoids the occurrence of a central denuded core in contacts and uses oxidation times which are several orders of magnitude less than in the conventional method. This novel technique essentially combines internal oxidation and powder metallurgical methods of compaction and densification. By correct control of the processing of the powder into high-density contact parts, a wide range of microstructures may be obtained from a single powder. The first stage of the process is the formation of a silvercadmium alloy powder of fine particle size by the low-temperature reduction and alloying of a silver and cadmium oxide powders mixture. This powder is produced in spherical aggregates in preparation for the second internal oxidation step. Internal oxidation of the fine alloy powder is then carried out at relatively low temperatures in times typically 103 times shorter than are required in conventional internal oxidation. This results in powder which contains extremely fine cadmium oxide particles in a simple orientation relationship with the matrix within and on the surface of each powder particle. This internally oxidized alloy powder (IOAP) is then compacted to provide green compacts for sintering and coining to provide high-density contact tips. During the sintering stage of the IOAP process, the ultrafine cadmium oxide particles within each powder particle grow by an Ostwald ripening process. The extent of this coarsening is governed by the time and temperature of the sintering operation and the oxygen potential of the furnace atmosphere: these parameters can be controlled to provide a specific final material selectable from a very wide range of possible microstructures. The coining operation increases the density to a value approaching the theoretical. The IOAP process also allows the addition of selected elements or compounds to the basic material at several stages in the process and retains the ability to control the microstructure independently from the chemical composition. This feature of the IOAP process is in sharp contrast to more common intern- al oxidation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • The Erosion Characteristics of Ag Contacts and the Effect of Adding a Small Percentage of W

    Page(s): 23 - 30
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    Silver and Ag-W (10 weight percent W) were operated in a 5.I-A (peak) 308-V (peak) full-wave rectified dc circuit. The experimental switching system was operated 1.5 times per minute; the opening and closing velocities were 4 x 10-2 and 3 x 10-4 cm/s, respectively; the fully open contact spacing was 200 µm; and the contacts were closed for 3 s. The opening and closing of the contacts were controlled by a heater-bimetal combination attached to the moving contact. The following contact pairs were used: Ag versus Ag, Ag-W versus Ag-W and Ag versus Ag-W. All combinations of contact material and contact polarity were used. The experimental results showed that there was always a net transfer of contact material from the cathode to the anode. The volume of material transferred was strongly dependent upon whether the anode was the moving (hotter) or the fixed (cooler) contact: the greater erosion occurring when the anode was the hotter contact. For Ag versus Ag contacts thc erosion pattern resulted inone pip on the anode and one crater on the cathode. For Ag-W versus AgW contacts the presence of the small percentage of W resulted in multiple pip and crater formations. The experiments with the Ag versus Ag-W showed that the cathode electrode material determined the erosion pattern observed, i.e., when the Ag-W was the cathode, multiple pip and crater'formations occurred, but when Ag was the cathode, only a single pip and crater structure was observed. The presence of the W either in the cathode or in the anode decreased the observed erosion. These experimental results are discussed in terms of how the presence of W affects the emission characteristics of the cathode region and also affects the movement of the arc roots. View full abstract»

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  • Anomalous Behavior of Reed Relays Under Accelerated Life-Test Conditions

    Page(s): 51 - 60
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    Experiments on reed relays are described which show that their performance during accelerated life tests (frequency of operation 5 Hz or greater) is a function of the rate at which the relays are operated and deteriorates at higher rates. The time for which the relays are left open between operations is critical in determining the bounce, vibration, and wear. At least 90 ms are required to avoid effects introduced by accelerating the tests. The results of tests using the longer off times show a marked improvement in performance under low-level conditions (0.1 V, l-mA resistive load) and a smaller improvement under high-level conditions (50 V, 50 mA with a resistor and 10-m cable load). An explanation is proposed in terms of the effects caused by closing reeds while the blades are still vibrating from the previous operation. View full abstract»

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  • Contact Behavior of Telephone Relays and Connectors in Various Aggressive Environments

    Page(s): 68 - 72
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    Air pollution contributes to the degradation of the reliability of telephone switching relays. To study pollution effects on the French crossbar telephone exchange system we conducted three studies: first, atmospheric analysis in some telephone central offices; second, surface analysis of contacts from telephone exchanges; and, third, laboratory simulation tests in order to accelerate the harmful effects of natural exposure. This paper reports the methods used, and gives some results on the 'behavior of connectors and relays in some aggressive atmospheres. View full abstract»

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  • Silver-Metal Oxide Contact Materials Fabricated by Spray Coprecipitation

    Page(s): 35 - 41
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    This paper describes the development of a highly versatile technique for fabricating improved silver-metal oxide contact materials. The spray coprecipitation method, invented at The Allen Clark Research Centre and patented [1] for Plessey Inc., offers both economic and technical advantages over existing processes for making silvercadmium oxide such as conventional internal oxidation of fabricated alloy, conventional powder metallurgy, and internal oxidation of alloy powder/shot. The main technical advantages are the following: a) controlled microstructural perfection in the uniform fineness and long-range homogeneity of the oxide dispersion; b) unlimited composition with respect to both quantity and type of oxide (not limited to oxides of metals with solid solubility in silver); c) ease of doping with beneficial ternary additons without influencing the microstructure, which is simply controlled by the sintering time and temperature. The method relies on converting, to some extent, the intimate dispersion provided on a molecular scale in mixed aqueous solutions to the solid state by instantaneous coprecipitation from small sprayed droplets of mixed nitrates solutions. This paper concentrates in the main on the application of the process to the fabrication of traditional silver-cadmium oxide, but examples are also given of the production of silver-zinc oxide, silver-tin oxide, and silver-lanthanum oxide materials which demonstrate the versatility and simplicity of the method. IEC AC-4 erosion test results are presented for spray coprecipitated Ag-15 weight percent CdO. View full abstract»

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  • Transformer Winding Design Presented in Programmable Form

    Page(s): 98 - 104
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    A programmable technique is shown implemented for cup-core ferrites with the primary/secondary copper losses constrained. The starting point is with a selected core and the electrical circuit in which it is imbedded. The technique assures no magnetic saturation and fills the winding space with any desired combination of taped or untaped layer windings. The result is then characterized for the designer. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of the Contact on Electrical Systems

    Page(s): 3 - 13
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    Many electrical systems, for example, telephone systems or computer systems, use great numbers of contacts. This paper will indicate how such extensive contact usage must in turn influence the architecture of the system as a whole, to a degree that is not commonly realized. One illustration relates especially to the case of electromechanical switching, using relays and connectors; and a second example refers to applications using electronic technology, where connector use continues to expand. This paper reviews those variables that control the physical design of contacting units, with emphasis on relays and connectors. Consideration is given to the influence of contact material and contact force; to the related effects of these on spring materials and shapes; and the consequences of these on magnet design if relay action is needed. The interplay of these relationships determines the structural design of the contacting unit-and this in its turn must influence the system as a whole. View full abstract»

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  • Electric and Spectroscopic Characterization of Arcing in Electrical Contacts: A Study of Erosion

    Page(s): 18 - 23
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    Arcing in electrical contacts of telephone switching relays and the subsequent erosion have been the subject of a great deal of work. Nevertheless the problem depends on many parameters (the electrical circuit, environment, relay type, etc.) and knowledge is incomplete. The AgCu 90/10 contact used in the French CP 400 telephone switching system and, more particularly, the consequence of arcing in the current range 1-500 mA are the subject of this paper. Two methods are used to study arcing: measurement of the arc duration and analysis of the emission spectrum from the arc. The first results show that these two arc characterizations are related to erosion and that the variations with current are similar. View full abstract»

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  • Oscillator Devices Using Thick-Film Technology

    Page(s): 91 - 97
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    The Electrical Engineering Department of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University has developed a microelectronics laboratory as a result of research involving microelectronics and metallic oxide studies over the past five years. Work on characterization and applications of metallic oxide devices is currently being conducted. This paper reports on the fabrication of eight oscillator devices on a l-in square alumina substrate using metallic oxide materials developed at NC A&T State University as a result of the research program. Significant technological capabilities of the laboratory relative to the microelectronics industry in the area of microelectronic component evaluation is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Contact-Resistance Data Processing Using an On-Line Digital Microprocessor

    Page(s): 84 - 90
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    Instrumentation which automatically measures and records dry-circuit contact resistance as lying within one of five adjustable resistance ranges has been previously devised and reported by Jedynak [ 1 ]. In this paper, we report on a major modification and improvement of the equipment involving the use of a cation and improvement of the equipment involving the use of an on-line digital microprocessor, to greatly improve the resistance measurement resolution and to convert the voluminous stream of data into more useful forms. The new system uses a special-function digital-to-analog converter controlled by the microprocessor to measure and record, for each operation of the contact, the dry-circuit contact resistance as lying within any one of 4096 contiguous 0.1-m12 resistance bins ranging from 0 to 0.41Omeg. The microprocessor also computes a running mean and standard deviation of the contact resistance based on the previous several hundred measurements. After every several thousand contact operations and concurrent measurements, the mean and standard deviation are printed out on a standard Teletype. During this normal printout time, the contact-resistance distribution of the last several hundred measurements is graphically displayed on the Teletype also. Numerical guard bands are placed on the mean and deviation computations so that if the contact resistance characteristic changes significantly between normal display points then the on-going results are automatically printed out on the Teletype on what amounts to an expanded time base: Thus the experimenter is assured that his data always accurately reflect the dry-circuit contact behavior even over millions of contact operations. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1977. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope